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Effects of the specimen position on fungal colonisation and wood decay by en 113 test fungi
1998 - IRG/WP 98-20136
For testing wood preservatives according to EN 113 it is common practice to plant the test blocks on neutral supports in order to prevent (1) a diffusion of chemicals into the agar medium and (2) an excessive moistening of the specimens. The procedure was employed in EN 350-1 for testing the natural durability of solid wood. It turned out to be of problematic nature because of the individual requirements of the test fungi. A certain degree of moisture can stop the virulence of one species, but - on the other hand - favour the virulence of another, so that different ratings of durability can be expected. In order to clarify this relation, blocks of durable and non-durable wood species were planted on different support materials and directly on the mycelial mat. Coniophora puteana, Coriolus versicolor, Gloeophyllum trabeum, and Poria placenta were used as test fungi. The results reveal a wide range with respect to the rate of colonisation and decay of the respective wood species if supports or no supports are used.
G Kleist, M-T Lenz, R-D Peek


Resistance of Consolidated Deteriorated Wood to Wood Decay Fungi
2013 - IRG 13-10812
The main purpose of the experiment was to establish which consolidating products in impregnated wood are the most effective against wood decay fungi. Five different consolidators were tested: Paraloid B-72, Consolidating restaurateur, SG 715 BLANC (epoxy resin), R.712 polyester and the wood consolidant agent containing nano particles, which is still in development. From the already damaged wood objects, specimens of the dimensions of 50 mm x 25 mm x 15 mm were prepared and impregnated with the selected consolidating agents. The masses of the dried samples were about 50 % higher after impregnation with the agents. For the standard laboratory fungicidal test (EN 113), the Poria vaillantii and Gloeophyllum trabeum wood rotting fungi were used. Generally, the results revealed that all consolidated specimens were more resistant to Gloeophyllum trabeum than against Poria vaillantii. Among the used consolidators the best anti-fungal efficacy was provided by the Consolidating restaurateur, followed by the SG 715 BLANC, wood consolidant with nano particles and finally, by the R.712 polyester (mass los were lower than 3%). Paraloid B-72 exhibited the weakest resistance against both tested fungi from all five substances.
F Pohleven, A Valantič, M Petrič


Report on COST E37 Round Robin Tests – Comparison of results from laboratory and field tests
2013 - IRG/WP 13-20535
A round robin involving 15 European participants was set up in 2006. The round robin consists of both a field test according to the double layer test method and a laboratory test with two different preconditioning methods. When comparing EN 84 preconditioning (two weeks water leaching) with natural preconditioning (1 year in field, above ground) according to CEN/TS 15397, no significant difference could be noted for untreated controls, thermally modified wood or CCA impregnated wood. However, for wood treated with a metal-free organic preservative, a clear difference could be seen where much of the efficacy seen after EN 84 preconditioning is lost when natural preconditioning is used instead. In the field tests, the control pine performs similar in all fields whereas both thermally modified and preservative treated wood performs much better in the Nordic fields than in the Mid- and Southern European fields. The thermally modified wood performs almost as poor as the controls in the Southern European fields, whereas the organic preservative treated wood performs well in these fields. In the six Mid-European fields, the organic preservative treated and thermally modified wood performs equally poor but much better than the controls. The best compliance between field performance and laboratory test results is obtained when comparing the average results from the field tests with results from EN 113 tests with Postia placenta after natural preconditioning according to CEN/TS 15397.
M Westin, E Conti, J Creemers, P-O Flæte, A Gellerich, I Irbe, M Klamer, B Mazela, E Melcher, R Möller, L Nunes, S Palanti, L Reinprecht, E Suttie, H Viitanen


10 year Report on COST E37 Round Robin Tests – Comparison of results from laboratory and field tests
2017 - IRG/WP 17-30718
A round robin involving 15 European participants was set up in 2006. The round robin consisted of both a field test according to the double layer test method and a laboratory test with two different preconditioning methods. The laboratory test results were reported in an earlier IRG paper (IRG/WP13-20535) but are included also in this paper in order to facilitate the comparison with the field test results. As expected, the decay generally developed more rapidly at the southern European compared to the northern European field sites. However, the rank order of the different test groups concerning average decay ratings were the same for most field sites – Untreated pine sapwood controls had the highest decay ratings followed by TMT-UC2 (Thermally Modified Timber treated for use class 2 application), TMT-UC3, metal-free organic preservative in low retention, metal-free organic preservative in high retention, CCA in medium retention, and finally CCA in high retention that had very low decay ratings. The best compliance between field performance and laboratory test results is obtained when comparing the average results from the field tests with results from EN 113 tests with Postia placenta after natural preconditioning according to CEN/TS 15397. When evaluating the test methods it was clear that CEN/TS 15397 before the EN 113 test in laboratory seems to give far more relevant results than EN 113 after preconditioning according to EN 84 (water leaching for 2 weeks). The double layer field test does not function the way it was meant after failure ratings were reached for one or more stakes within a test group leading to collapse of the deck. This has occurred not only at the Southern European field sites but also in some cases for mid-European and Nordic test sites. After this type of collapse has been reached it is doubtful whether there is any point with continuing the test and therefore the test has now been terminated in some fields.
M Westin, E Conti, J Creemers, P-O Flæte, A Gellerich, I Irbe, M Klamer, E Melcher, R Moeller, L Nunes, S Palanti, L Reinprecht, E Suttie, H Viitanen


Depletion of boron and copper from CCB treated test specimens using different leaching protocols
2004 - IRG/WP 04-50208
The objective of this study was to measure the depletion of inorganic wood preservative components regarding the proposed OECD guideline "Estimation of emissions from preservative-treated wood to the environment: laboratory method for wooden commodities exposed in the use class 4 and 5" as part of the project "Investigations concerning the influence of test parameters on the release of biocidal actives from treated timber in leaching tests". Pine sapwood specimens (50x10x150) were pressure impregnated with CCB according to European Use Class 4. Before leaching all samples were stores 4 weeks for fixation. In addition leaching tests were performed according to the European Standard EN 84 by means of EN 113 blocks. Parallel investigations were carried out between two laboratories to assess the repeatability and comparability of the methods. The results of chemical analysis of leachates taken at different time intervals show that similar depletion rates were determined for copper and boron independent on the leaching protocol used. However, the loss of copper as well as chromium in short term dipping experiments was often lower than the detection limit. Furthermore it can be stated that the difference between parallels was higher for the results which were obtained for the OECD guideline that EN 84. A comparison of both laboratory results indicate that a quite good repeatability is given in case of the CCB treated material.
E Melcher, R-D Peek, U Schoknecht, R Wegner


Rapport sur l'activité du CEN/TC 38
1983 - IRG/WP 2204
M Pottevin


Report of field test results for dichloro-n-octyl-isothiazolone: A potential new wood preservative
1988 - IRG/WP 3495
In a previous report (IRG/WP/3306) we presented preliminary laboratory test results on 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolone (RH 287). Laboratory data indicated toxic threshold values for RH 287 ranging from 0.37 to 0.50 kg/m³. In this report we present field test results on an IRG L-joint test and an in-ground stake test for RH 287, pentachlorophenol and biocide free test units. (a) L-joint test: After 39 months exposure (Starkville MS.) units pressure treated with 0.05 kg/m³ RH 287 rated 9.7 out of 10. Units dip treated in a 0.5% ai solution of RH 287 rated 10 out of 10. Biocide free controls exposed in the same series rated 5.3 out of 10 after 39 months (b) Stake test: After 48 months exposure in two southern US test plots stakes treated with neat RH 287 in toluene at 4.6 kg/m³ rated between 8.6 to 8.8 out of 10 for decay and 9.1 to 9.8 out of 10 for termite attack. Biocide free control stakes rated O out of 10 for decay and 1.1 to 4.8 out of 10 for termite attack after 48 months. RH 287 continues to show promise as a potential new wood preservative. Results to date were obtained in samples treated with neat RH 287, Formulation of RH 287 into treatment systems specifically designed for above ground or ground contact applications should only improve the already excellent activity seen with RH 287.
D E Greenley, B M Hegarty


Proposals for collaborative work on laboratory soft rot testing
1986 - IRG/WP 2265
Proposals for collaborative experiments based on soil burial are presented. It is intended to study the use of defined horticultural loams with a view to obtaining more reproducability in laboratory soft rot tests.
D J Dickinson, S M Gray


A natural exposure weathering test for the evaluation of preservative performance
1992 - IRG/WP 92-2400
Natural exposure weathering tests were carried out by externally exposing treated wood samples for varying periodes of time up to 36 months. In the laboratory these samples were assayed for residual preservative effeciveness using Coniophora puteana FPRL 11E. The results indicated a loss in efficacy over and above that determined using artificial ageing procedures such as EN73 (evaporative ageing) and EN84 (water leaching). Results for two TBT based preservatives indicated a gradual loss in efficacy. Results for the organic biocide 2-thiocyanomethyl-thio benzothiazole (TCMTB) gave a more rapid loss in effeciveness indicative of the high levels of microbial actifity present in the samples. This test provides an intermediate evaluation of preservative performance and permanence between artificial laboratory ageing procedures and the necessary field evaluation using an L-joint type test.
J Brown, G R Williams


Virulence tests with fungal strains used in EN 113 CEN ring test. Results with Coniophora puteana (Schum.ex Fr.) Karst
1986 - IRG/WP 2249
D Dirol


An evaluation of CCA, CCB and CCP preservatives using a "sandwich test"
1991 - IRG/WP 2370
The last two years has seen some important changes in standards and preservative types used in Scandinavia, which have led to a wider choice for specifiers. In order to identify those treatments suitable for replacement or reinforcement of decayed constructional timbers, it was felt necessary to modify the standard EN 113 test. Impregnated blocks were sandwiched between two untreated blocks, previously infected with either Coniophora puteana, Poria placenta or Serpula lacrymans. The assemblies were exposed on a water -agar medium After which weight losses were determined. All treatment combinations resisted attack by Serpula, but CCP proved ineffective against Poria and Coniophora.
A P Koch, L B Sheard


Investigation on different variation factors in the results of mycological test and means to reduce and avoid them
1986 - IRG/WP 2264
In order to clarify the causes of the dispersion observed in the results obtained with mycological tests made in accordance with standard EN-113, different factors assumed to be sources of the variations were studied. These included the moisture content of the test samples during the test, the influence of certain technological properties of the wood, the virulence of the fungus strains, the method by which the test pieces were treated and the effect of the solvent, and behaviour of the wood fungus in contact with the wood preservative. It turns out that certain factors which were supposed to be important are actually secondary (humidity). On the other hand, the virulence of the strains is a major problem and requires a serious examination. Treatment by dipping with a ready-to-use product might avoid errors due to obligatory dilutions. In the end, wood species other than beech and Scots pine be used. However, one must not lose sight of the fact that there is a risk that the toxic values may not always be identical.
D Dirol


A comparison between different accelerated test methods for the determination of the natural durability of wood
1996 - IRG/WP 96-20099
According to the European standard EN 350-1 the natural durability of wood is defined as: "the inherent resistance of wood to attack by wood destroying organisms". This standard also describes how, for certain hazard classes, the durability is determined. The two methods described in this standard are the kolleflask method (EN 113) and the field-stake-test method (EN 252). The EN 113 test gives results within a short period of time by using isolated fungi cultures. A good prediction from the test results to the natural durability of timber in use is a problem. In contrary, the test results of EN 252 in outdoor field tests show the durability of timber species under certain soil and climate conditions, but the test takes a long period of time (years to decades) before an evaluation can be done. In different countries in Western-Europe a discussion is going on about the use of tropical hardwoods and timber from fast growing plantages. The impact of this is that there is a growing need for alternative timbers, which can substitute well known durable species. Quite often the durability of the alternative species is not well known. To give a reasonable prediction of the durability of wood species within a short period of time, a reproducible, reliable and fast test method for predicting durability is needed. Previous research on this subject (Polman et al. 1992) showed that with the aid of an accelerated stake-test, useful results can be achieved. The research described here was done to develop such a method. For this reason, results from an accelerated soil bed test were compared with EN 113 fungal tests and a modified field-test EN 252. For a further comparison, softrot tests following the standard ENV 807 were performed.
H Militz, S G L Michon, J E Polman, M Stevens


Toxic values derived from EN 113 tests - are they determined by the virulence of a test fungus? - Results from a round robin test -
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20176
The virulence of Coniophora puteana BAM Ebw. 15, the obligatory test fungus on softwood in tests according to EN 113, is known to be rather inconstant at least in some laboratories. The mass losses of untreated Scots pine sapwood blocks in an EN 113 test may range from below 20% to up to more than 50%. Possible reasons for these differences as well as the impact of a low virulence on the toxic values of a preservative under test were discussed and a round robin test with subcultures of C. puteana Ebw.15 and of Poria placenta FPRL 280 of different virulence and origin was carried out. Subcultures of both test fungi considered as either virulent or weak were distributed by there laboratories of origin. All test specimens originated from one laboratory. They were treated with a CCB salt by another laboratory and distributed to the partners. The results show that the virulence of identical subcultures may differ remarkable most probably depending on the culture conditions of the laboratories involved.In the case of P. placenta differences in virulences did not cause different toxic values in the round robin test. In the case of C.puteana, however, different toxic values were obtained. Furthermore, this fungus showed an increased sensitive behaviour to varying test conditions. A virulence <40% of C. puteana generally reduced the toxic value at least by one concentration.
H Leithoff, R-D Peek, H V Borck, R Goettsche, H Kirk, M Grinda


Physiological properties of fungal test strains according to the European Standard EN 113
1986 - IRG/WP 2258
For the discussion of the European standard EN 113 the EMPA&apos;s procedure of culturing the test fungi and the corresponding virulence of the test fungi as well as the wood moisture content at the end of the test are shown. It is mainly shown that within the standard the choice of the solvent may not be left at the test lab if reproducible results shall be obtained. The different solvents influence in different form the wood decomposition values due to fungal attack. A water leaching of the wood specimen impregnated with solvents generally Further increases the negative effect of the solvent on the fungi. It is therefore the task of the Technical Committee of the European Committee for Standardization (CEN/TC3B) to agree to a standard solvent and to evaluate this in the original state as well as after a leaching followed by uniform drying periods by means of an interlaboratory test.
E Graf, B Zgraggen, P Manser


Laboratory Leaching Tests to Study the Effects of Post-Treatment Storage Periods on CCA Leachability and Fixation in Treated Permeable and Refractory Malaysian Hardwoods
2006 - IRG/WP 06-50240
The biological resistance and environmental safety of CCA-treated wood relies on the extent of post-treatment storage fixation of CCA in wood prior to being utilized. A study on the comparative leachability (fixation) of CCA-treated refractory and permeable heartwoods of 3 Malaysian hardwoods subjected to different post-treatment storage (fixation) periods of up to 4 weeks, at 2 laboratory leaching tests of the general procedure of EN84 was conducted. End-sealed test wood blocks of Malaysian species [permeable Menggris (Koompassia malaccensis) and Perah (Elateriospermum tapos), refractory Acacia mangium] were treated with CCA to target retention of 5.6 kg/m3, immediately stored to fix at ambient conditions for 0 and 48 hours, 1, 2 and 4 weeks, followed by a 2 weeks leaching test to determine cumulative leaching losses of copper (Cu), chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As). Generally, levels of leached CCA components were: 4.0 – 47.4 µg/cm2 Cu, 9.1 – 127.0 µg/cm2 Cr, and 5.2 – 56.9 µg/cm2 As. For all leachate elements, there were less distinct variations in leaching losses (P<0.05) between 4 storage (fixation) periods, more significant variation between unfixed and stored fixed blocks and between refractory and permeable wood species. Component leaching losses were greater in refractory than permeable heartwoods of timbers, while increasing with reduced storage periods overall. No significant differences in CCA leaching losses were found between EN84 method (consisting of initial vacuum impregnation of wood in water) and the variant of the EN84 method (initial immersion of wood in water), implying that the former method could not result in higher CCA leaching losses than the latter method.
A H H Wong, H C Lai, N P T Lim


Current state of world standardization in the toxicometric methods for testing of wood preservatives
2007 - IRG/WP 07-20354
The paper presents an outline of the history of forming standardized toxicometric methods for testing of wood preservatives in the world during last 100 years. Numerous studies resulted in three main methods which are currently used for official and basis assessment of biocides: - agar-block method in Europe (EN 113); - soil-block method in the USA and Pacific countries (ASTM D 1413); - modified soil-block method in the Russian Federation and the Commonwealth of Independent States (GOST 16712). Further on the paper compares the three methods and presents lines of their global standardization.
J Wazny


Comparison of laboratory termite test methods
2007 - IRG/WP 07-20365
Seven standardized laboratory tests with termites were evaluated. The bioassays were made in accordance with EN 117, SAA32 E08, SAA32 E09, Ebw 02, the American Wood-Preservers’ Association (AWPA) Standard E1-97, the Japan Wood Preserving Association (JWPA) Standard 11 (1) and The Protocols for Assessment of Wood Preservatives. Two different wood preservatives each in three concentrations and additional untreated controls were tested. The test species was Reticulitermes spp., one of the most important economic genera of subterranean termites in Europe. Results and observations about evaluation and practicability of these investigations are used for a proposed ISO laboratory test for preservatives. After the introduction, we provide an overview of the biology, distribution and economic effect of the pests. Results indicate that the wood preservatives acid copper chromate (ACC) and didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC), which were tested at retentions of 1.50 kg/m3, 3.00 kg/m3 and 6.00 kg/m3 , have different thresholds (mass loss of lower than five percent) to prevent attack by Reticulitermes spp. ACC showed thresholds between 3.00 kg/m3 and 6.00 kg/m3 in most tests. With DDAC, the threshold level was achieved at retentions between 1.50 kg/m3 to 3.00 kg/m3. We conclude that a laboratory test duration of four weeks with a termite group of 150 to 200 workers and a medium sample dimension of approximately 25 x 25 x 6 mm is sufficient.
H-U Kruschinski, W Unger, A F Preston


Comparative Laboratory Leaching Test Methods to Study Post-Treatment Storage Period Impacts on CCA Leachability and Fixation in Treated Kempas (Koompassia malaccensis) Heartwood
2007 - IRG/WP 07-20376
Three laboratory leaching test methods were compared to determine the effects of different post-treatment storage fixation periods on leachability/fixation of CCA components from treated kempas (Koompassia malaccensis) permeable heartwood. End-sealed test wood blocks of permeable were treated with CCA to target retention of 5.6 kg/m3, immediately stored to fix at ambient conditions for 0 and 48 hours, 1, 2 and 4 weeks, followed by a 2 weeks leaching test comparing 3 leaching tests: the methods of EN84 (consisting of initial vacuum impregnation of wood in water), EN84-1 (replacing initial vacuum impregnation with initial immersion of wood in water) and a new, and least severe, test EN84-2 (daily routine of soaking wood for 5 hours in water followed by drip drying for 19 hours). Leachates harvested from these leaching tests were analysed for cumulative leaching losses of copper (Cu), chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As) that occurred over the 2 weeks leaching period. Overall, leached CCA elements ranged from 0.48 – 4.02µg/ml Cu, 0.61 – 5.76 µg/ml Cr and 0.46 – 4.02 µg/ml As. There were significant variations in leaching losses (P<0.05) between unfixed and stored fixed blocks among the 3 laboratory leaching test methods. Significant variations of Cu, Cr and As levels existed between the least severe method and the other two methods that used prolonged immersion of wood in water. However, there were no significant differences in CCA leaching losses between EN84 method and the EN84-1 method, while the merits of the least severe leaching regime as indicators of realistic CCA leaching of “fixed” treated wood aboveground outdoors are discussed.
A H H Wong, H C Lai


Relevance of natural pre-weathering for laboratory decay tests with native, modified, and preservative-treated wood
2013 - IRG/WP 13-20522
The on-going development of new wood protection systems is hampered by the long term field tests currently in use. New accelerated test methods and novel methods for faster and more accurate evaluation of wood protection methods are requested. For both field decay tests and accelerated laboratory decay tests, limitations are imposed. This study is part of the research program ‘WoodBuild’, which aims at developing a comprehensive test methodology for determination of wood durability. Field tests under various exposure conditions are regarded as well as laboratory tests. An overall objective is to find methods having the potential to reflect real life situations for all use classes. Therefore this particular study aimed at investigating the differences in mass loss with a mini-block test (Bravery 1979) following ageing with either leaching (EN 84) or natural weathering. The aim of this paper is not focussing on the durability (and definitely not on the efficacy) of any treatment but to highlight the differences in durability between naturally weathered samples and laboratory leached samples. The present study indicates that natural weathering and laboratory ageing procedures influence various wood species and various wood treatments differently with regard to durability. For preservative treated wood, none out of six treatments had a significantly higher mass loss for P. placenta when the samples were pre-weathered compared to pre-leached. For T. versicolor, 3 out of 6 treatments showed higher mass loss after natural pre-weathering. For the modified woods, 2 out of 7 treatments had a significantly higher mass loss for P. placenta when the samples were pre-weathered compared to pre-leached. When exposed to T. versicolor, 4 out of 7 treatments had a higher mass loss for P. placenta when the samples were pre-weathered. The mass loss for T. versicolor for the softwoods and hardwoods did not seem at all to be affected by the pre-treatments. Although, when exposed to P. placenta, 3 out of 9 softwoods and 1 out of 5 hardwoods had a significantly higher mass loss when the samples were pre-weathered compared to pre-leached. The present study indicates that the impact of natural weathering on mass loss seems not only to be treatment dependent but also wood species and test fungus dependent. The effects of natural weathering might be explained by the losses of active substances from treated wood but also the biological influence of microorganisms is a contributing factor. Taken this into account, it seems very important to consider the effect of any pre-treatment on both, the test materials and the untreated and per definition non-durable reference species.
A Pilgård, C Brischke, L Meyer


Biological Performance of Triadimefon in combination with Tebuconazole in laboratory and field tests
2015 - IRG/WP 30668
The usage of Triazole-combinations for wood preservatives is common practice in several countries. Especially the combination of Tebuconazole and Propiconazole is preferred for this application due to its broad spectrum of efficacy against wood destroying fungi. 1-(4-Chlorphenoxy)-3,3-dimethyl-1-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-butanon, also known as Triadimefon provides a good efficacy against the wood destroying fungi species Poria placenta and Coriolus versicolor and is therefore a possible active ingredient to be combined with Triazoles already in use, which are showing a moderate or lower efficacy against other important fungi species like Coniophora puteana and Gloeophyllum trabeum. This paper summarizes laboratory tests done with the active ingredients Triadimefon and Tebuconazole, as single actives and also in combination with each other, as well as the results of subsequent field trials in USA, Denmark and New Zealand.
P Meckler, T Jaetsch


Durability against fungal decay of sorbitol and citric acid (SorCA) modified wood
2022 - IRG/WP 22-40928
Most European-grown wood species are susceptible to biological degradation, specifically, they suffer from a poor resistance against wood-destroying fungi. Therefore, prior to outdoor exposure, wood has to be treated either by applying a protective coating on its surface or by full-volume impregnation with antifungal chemicals. However, due to environmental and health concerns, the most frequently chosen solution, the use of biocidal preservatives, has become limited and new non-biocidal methods to protect wood against wood-destroying organisms are investigated. Recently, chemical wood modification via in-situ esterification of sorbitol and citric acid (SorCA) has been reported to result in a significant increase of the biological durability, specifically an increased resistance against wood-destroying basidiomycetes. However, none of these studies have investigated the resistance of SorCA treated wood against decay fungi by performing a full EN 113-2 (2021) procedure yet, i.e. following the standard incubation time and sample size. Therefore, a series of Scots pine sapwood (Pinus sylvestris L.) specimens was treated with aqueous solutions of SorCA at different solid content levels (10, 20, 30 and 50%). All treated collectives plus untreated reference samples were then exposed to brown rot (Coniophora puteana, Rhodonia placenta) and white rot (Trametes versicolor) fungi according to EN 113-2 (2021). After 16 weeks of incubation, wood decay was assessed on the basis of the loss in dry mass (ML %) and the decay protection threshold (ML ≤ 5 %) for SorCA-modified wood was established depending on the tested fungi. Post decay testing, the structural integrity of specimens characterized by various ML values was analysed by high-energy multiple impact (HEMI) tests and correlated with the ML resulting from decay by brown and white rot fungi. Basically, the structural integrity decreased with increasing ML in specimens being incubated with brown rot fungi, which was not observed after white rot incubation. The latter might be attributed to the narrow range of ML values measured after white rot incubation, indicating higher efficacy of SorCA modifications against white rot fungi. Thus, further work is needed to understand the difference in decay resistance between tested brown rot fungi and of course between brown and white rot fungi.
K Kurkowiak, L Emmerich, H Militz


Influence of different fixation and ageing procedures on the leaching behaviour of copper from selected wood preservatives in laboratory trials
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20264
The paper focuses on the role of different parameters, such as fixation, sample size, wood species, and leaching in internationally standardized ageing procedures for wood preservatives from Europe, Japan and the United States. The leaching protocols used were EN 84, JIS K 1571 and AWPA E11 protocols. The wood species were Scots pine, Sugi and Southern Yellow Pine respectively. Three types of commercially important copper-based wood preservatives were used as model formulations, namely copper/copper-HDO, ammoniacal copper/quat and CCA. The most important factors determining the extent of copper leaching in the different lab trials were the sample size (volume/surface ratio) and the fixation conditions prior to leaching. On the other hand, the wood species and the leaching protocol itself were found to have only minor influence on the copper leaching rate in the test methods included in this study.
J Habicht, D Häntzschel, J Wittenzellner


Protocol for evaluation and approving new wood preservative
1985 - IRG/WP 2159
M E Hedley, J A Butcher


International collaborative laboratory comparison of two wood preservatives against subterranean termites: Third update and first report
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10174
At the 24th annual meeting of IRG in Orlando, USA, in May 1993 an international subterranean termite laboratory bioassay to compare the various preferred termite protocols used by IRG termitologists was initiated. The author was nominated to co-ordinate this comparative laboratory evaluation of two wood preservatives, copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA) and copper naphthenate (Cu-Na) against the subterranean termites used as test termites in Australia, France, Japan, Thailand, United Kingdom and the Unites States of America. Solutions of these two wood preservatives were prepared and impregnated into Pinus radiata wood blocks to obtain loading of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 kg/m³ respectively. All preservative treatments were carried out at the Division of Forestry and Forest Products in Melbourne. The treated specimens were dispatched to the participating researchers who subjected these specimens to attack by their test termite species, and have now returned the specimens to Melbourne. This paper reports the amount of wood consumed and the mean mass loss (%) on both treated and untreated wood blocks by the termites in the various laboratory bioassays.
J R J French


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