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Improved equipment and technique for high pressure sap displacement impregnation of natural round wood
1972 - IRG/WP 309
Hitherto the main problem in the practical application of high pressure sap displacement impregnation (HPSD) has been in devising a satisfactory cap. Such a cap must be easily fitted to different size log ends to give a leak proof seal. The present contribution describes a new type of cap and sealing system designed to meet these requirements.
C G W Mason, F B Shorland


Detection of defects in standing poles by X-ray techniques
1980 - IRG/WP 2132
The application of X-ray techniques to wood pole inspection procedures has been evaluated. Internal defects were accurately identified using X-ray inspection methods. These methods and their possible influence on the safety and economic aspects of wood pale utilization are discussed.
W D Gardner, R S Johnstone, W Pitt


Wood preservation in Yugoslavia
1984 - IRG/WP 3319
This report, which is one in a series written by some of the most eminent experts in wood preservation in the world, is meant to serve as a practical guide to all those, both in Yugoslavia and in other countries, who wish to collaborate in the field of wood preservation production, wood preservation treatments and in the development and research work necessary in this subject. The report offers the essential data concerning the timber resources in Yugoslavia, the country's most dangerous wood-destroying organisms, the wood preservatives available and their manufacturers, as well as giving information about the facilities that exist in the country for wood preservation, and the universities, research institutes and other institutions that are concerned with protecting wood. The publication also gives information on the current regulations, standards and other specifications relevant to the subject in Yugoslavia. The report concludes with a bibliography which should be of help to those who are interested in the wood preservation projects and publications of Yugoslavia.
N Vidovic, D Murko, R Cockcroft


Detection and estimation of Hylotrupes bajulus L. wood damages by ultrasonics
1990 - IRG/WP 2350
To evaluate the validity of the ultrasonic application in the detection and evaluation of wood damages produced by Hylotrupes bajulus L. larvae, some laboratory tests were made with small wood samples. The pulse through transmission method was used. The transit time of ultrasonic pulses in transversal sections, radial and tangential, of the samples was measured. The increment of the transit time of ultrasonic pulses with respect to clear wood gave to this method the way to estimate the damage grade.
G Prieto


Leaching of arsenic, copper and chrome from preservative-treated timber in playground equipment
1984 - IRG/WP 3149
Samples were taken from CCA-treated timber in sand play boxes and other play ground equipment. Sand was also sampled. Sand and wood samples were analysed for copper, chrome and arsenic by AAS. About 20-25% of the arsenic had leached from the timber after 2-4 year's exposure in the playgrounds. Very little of the copper and chrome had been leached. Sand collected in the close vicinity of the treated timber contained at maximum 12.9 mg and on average 4-6 mg As/kg. Natural soils may contain from 1 to 40 mg As/kg. There is little risk for children to be poisoned by eating the As-contaminated playground send, since this would require consumption of at least 10-30 kg sand on a single occasion.
B Henningsson, B Carlsson


Adsorption boundary curve influenced by step interval of relative humidity investigated by Dynamic Vapour Sorption equipment
2011 - IRG/WP 11-40547
The adsorption of water vapour from dry conditions by Norway spruce sapwood has been investigated using Dynamic Vapour Sorption (DVS) instrumentation. This equipment allows a fast and easy data acquisition as well as enables detailed studies of sorption properties using very small sample masses. In this study, particular focus was paid to the effect of step size on the sorption isotherms. Furthermore, the influence of relaxation of swelling stresses was investigated. This was done by having relative humidity (RH) histories with different RH step sizes and by introducing prolonged periods of conditioning at constant climate. The adsorption isotherms constructed on the basis of acquired sorption data was not significantly influenced by the differences in relative humidity (RH) histories. Thus, for practical purposes a stability criterion of 0.002 %/min was found to be adequate for acquiring wood adsorption isotherms using sample masses around 20-45 mg. The different RH histories did, however, affect the sorption kinetics. The sorption proceeds slower if the sample was conditioned at constant climate for a prolonged period before being exposed to another RH level. This indicates that relaxation of swelling stresses affects the sorption kinetics. During the initial phase of adsorption after changing RH, the moisture uptake was found to be linear with the square-root of time. From sorption and swelling kinetic theory the diffusion coefficient of the wood cell wall could be estimated based on data from the initial phase of the adsorption processes. The diffusion coefficient was found to decrease with increasing RH and to be independent of step size, as expected.
E Tang Engelund, M Klamer, T Mark Venås


Transfer of research results on the performance of wood and wood-based composites in outdoor applications into praxis
2018 - IRG/WP 18-20634
Forest-based industries have the potential to become an engine for a sustainable and competitive bioeconomy in Danube region. To reach this goal FORESDA projects was proposed. Main aim of respective project is transforming the traditional forest-based areas into innovative, modern and sustainable manufacturing areas; develop innovation-friendly ecosystems aiming to significantly improving and reconfiguring existing value chains; strengthen collaboration in the quadruple helix and implement new ways of collaboration in the Danube area. Within the project different Pilot Innovation Environments was developed. Main idea of the Slovenian Pilot Design entitled ‘Transfer of research results on the performance of wood and wood-based composites in outdoor applications into praxis’ is to design and test innovative bio-based products and materials for outdoor use. First results of pilot are presented in this paper.
B Lesar, J Gričar, D Kržišnik, M Humar


CCA wood preservative: Trust with destiny
2019 - IRG/WP 19-30731
This paper traces the history of Copper-Chrome-Arsenic (CCA) and its current status in India and worldwide. CCA was invented as ASCU at the Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun in 1933 by Dr. Sonti Kamesam. Although its efficacy was doubted by the British colonial rulers resulting in several hiccups at home, the patent rights were purchased by US Bell Telephone Co. and it was adopted by the US wood industry. Indian wood industry never took up preservation of wood seriously. Original CCA composition was changed to yield various oxide based formulations more due to commercial aspects rather than any technical advantages. Many countries around the world adopted it and CCA became the most used wood preservative among the water-borne preservatives. Commercial aspects started playing roles to push out CCA, as pesticide industry was striving hard to recover money spent on new molecules and formulations and wood preservation industry held a huge potential. This culminated in hate ‘arsenic campaign’ and media played a major role in the same. Despite the fact that several studies could not reveal any positive report for ill effect of CCA treated wood on humans (even children) and animals, Environmental Protection Agency of USA succumbed to media pressures advising wood-treatment industry to move away from CCA. Some wood scientists in USA do feel that there is no virtual replacement for CCA in performance as well as cost-effectiveness. Technology has become available to process CCA treated wood to reuse residual wood/chemicals effectively. This can make more wood available negating processing costs. The substitutes currently available are not only less effective and more costly; these may subsequently be found to pose different types of problems as has been observed in TCMTB and Chloripyrifos. If the current attitude towards effective formulations continues to make room for less effective new molecules/formulations, the requirement of wood as well as preservatives will increase over time resulting in diversion of farm land to tree plantations, which may have serious implications/repercussions.
S Kumar