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The use of ESR spectroscopy to assess the photostabilising effects of wood preservatives
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20186
The degradation of wood surfaces exposed to UV light which leads to poor performance of clear coatings is understood to be due to delignification via a mechanism involving free radicals. Certain wood preservatives most notably CCA are able to photostabilise wood and therefore they may reduce the concentration of free radicals formed when treated wood is exposed to ultraviolet light. As a first ste...
S Schmid, R D Webster, P D Evans

The examination of preservative-treated radiata pine using electron spin resonance spectroscopy
1987 - IRG/WP 3423
Electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR) may be used to characterise the molecular environment of chemical species containing unpaired electrons. These species include free radicals, bi-radicals, point defects in solids, localised crystal imperfections and many transition metal ions. ESR has previously been applied to the examination of wood weathering or wood pyrolysis and now FRI and Massey Un...
D V Plackett, E W Ainscough, A M Brodie

Direct estimation of the durability of high-pressure steam modified wood by ESR-spectroscopy
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40508
Heat generated persistent free radicals have been detected by electron spin resonance measurement of thermally modified wood, prepared by high pressure superheated steam treatment. The specific density of these radicals have been correlated with the durability against basidiomycetes, as measured by the European standard EN113 test. In the lower range of specific radical densities, the found correl...
W Willems, A Tausch, H Militz

Effect of acetylation on decay resistance of wood against brown-rot, white-rot and soft-rot fungi
1989 - IRG/WP 3540
Effect of acetylation on decay resistance of wood was investigated using wood blocks of Cryptomeria japonica, Pinus densiflora, Albizia falcata and Fagus crenata. Blocks were treated with uncatalyzed acetic anhydride for different lengths of time and exposed to Tyromyces palustris, Serpula lacrymans, Coriolus versicolor and unsterilized soil. The action of OH-radical on acetylated wood was also ex...
M Takahashi, Y Imamura, M Tanahashi

Fungal degradation of wood treated with metal-based preservatives. Part 2: Redox states of chromium
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10164
Concerns have arisen about the leaching of heavy metals from wood treated with metal-based preservatives, such as chromated copper arsenate (CCA). Of particular concern is the toxic redox state of chromium and arsenic in aging and decayed CCA-treated wood. Generally, hexavalent chromium is more toxic than trivalent chromium and trivalent arsenic is more toxic than pentavalent arsenic. The desired ...
B Illman, S Bajt, T L Highley

EPR investigations of interactions between ammoniacal Cu(II) octanoate and wood
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30110
Ammoniacal solutions of copper(II) octanoate [ C u . h l f . 2 . r h l f.(O2CC7H15)4], interactions of these solutions with wood and wood components, and leaching of copper(II) octanoate from impregnated wood samples, have been studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) method. It is still not clear if in the Cu(II) octanoate - water - ammonia system, Cu(II) remains in a (copper(II) octanoat...
F Dagarin, M Petric, F Pohleven, M Sentjurc

An insight into brown rot decay of timber as revealed by 13C CP/MAS NMR
1985 - IRG/WP 1259
L E Leightley

The effect of low molecular weight chelators on iron chelation and free radical generation as studied by ESR measurement
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10367
The focus of this work was to improve our current knowledge of the non-enzymatic mechanisms involved in brown-rot decay. Electron Spin Resonance (ESR), also known as Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR), is an attractive technique for the identification and study of chemical species containing unpaired electrons (such as radicals and certain transition metal species). ESR spin-trapping techniques...
Yuhui Qian, B Goodell

EELS (Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy) - a technique for quantification of nitrogen and other light elements in the cell wall
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20163
A literature survey was performed to find progress in techniques for monitoring penetration of synthetic resins in wood cell walls. Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) in combination with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was successfully applied for the high resolution examination of the distribution of a partly methylated hydroxymethyl melamine resin in Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst...
A O Rapp, H Bestgen, W Adam, R-D Peek

An investigation of organotin compounds in treated wood using Mössbauer spectroscopy
1983 - IRG/WP 3249
The influence of sample preparation on the 119mSn Mössbauer spectrum of tributyltin chloride in ponderosa pine was investigated. Initial studies with sawdust and compressed discs concluded that the latter were clearly superior. Further studies showed that compressed discs prepared from 0.4 g of treated wood and 0.1 g of cellulose were robust and gave excellent Mössbauer spectra. The possibility ...
J N R Ruddick, J K Ingram

UV-microspectrophotometry of lignin and accessory compounds in wood cell walls of conifers
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20171
The distribution of lignin in the cell wall of conifer tracheids was determined by UV-VIS microspectro-photometer. Wood sections of one micron thickness were measured between the wavelength 240 and 700 nm. Spectral analyses revealed that the conifer lignin associated with the tracheid secondary wall and middle lamella is composed of guiacylpropane units which exhibit a characteristic UV absorption...
G Kleist, G Koch, J Bauch

An electron spin resonance study of manganese changes in wood decayed by the brown-rot fungus, Postia placenta
1988 - IRG/WP 1359
Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry was used to examine wood decay by the brown-rot fungus, Postia placenta. Wood slivers of Douglas-fir, white fir, redwood, sweetgum and yellow poplar were incubated for 4 weeks in custom-made quartz ESR tubes with or without Postia placenta. In all wood species without fungus, a weak partially resolved signal (about g=2, presumably due to manganese) was de...
B Illman, D C Meinholtz, T L Highley

Prediction of Weight Percent Gain (WPG) of furfurylated wood by FT-NIR spectroscopy
2004 - IRG/WP 04-20295
Wood modification based on furfuryl alcohol improves several important wood properties, such as the resistance to fungal decay and insect attack, hardness, dimensional stability, bending strength and stiffness. The improvements of wood properties depend on the weight percent gain (WPG) due to furfurylation. Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy was used to calibrate PLS-regression ...
M Eikenes, P O Flæte, E Ystrøm Haartveit, S Lande

A comparison of inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy and neutron activity analysis for the determination of concentrations in wood
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10048
As wood decays the ionic composition changes, with increases often being seen in the concentrations of Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn and sometimes K. The concentration of eight cations in red spruce sapwood and heartwood samples was determined independently by inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP) and by neutron activation analysis (NAA) as part of an effort to standardize our analytical procedures and c...
J Jellison, J Connolly, K C Smith, W T Shortle

The compatability of tributyltin fungicides and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides as wood preservatives
1987 - IRG/WP 3414
The stability of three synthetic pyrethroids, cypermethrin, deltamethrin and permethrin, to selected tributyltin compounds, Bu3SnX {where X = OSnBu3, Cl, 02CC6H5, O2C (Naphthenyl), OSO2Et}, (Bu3SnO)3PO and {NBu4} {Bu3SnCl2}, in toluene solution was investigated by infra-red spectroscopy over a six month period. It was found that only (Bu3Sn)2O reacted with the pyrethroids and that their order of r...
S J Blunden, R Hill

Generation of hydroxyl radical by the brown-rot fungus, Postia placenta
1988 - IRG/WP 1360
In an electron spin resonance (ESR) survey of various liquid cultures and wood slivers innoculated with the brown-rot fungus, Postia placenta, the spin trap dimethyl-l-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) was used to detect the presence of the hydroxyl radical. The ESR spectra for the paramagnetic DMPO- hydroxyl radical adduct was observed in (1) nitrogen-limited, liquid cultures having 1.0% glucose or 0.1% c...
B Illman, D C Meinholtz, T L Highley

Incomplete fixation of chromium in the pre-treated wood with a solution of copper and arsenic compounds
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50052
Ponderosa pine wood thin sections were treated with a combination of chromium, copper, and arsenic chemicals. The wood sections was analyzed by electron spin resonance spectrometry (ESR) and X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS) to elucidate the mechanism of fixation of the chromated-copper preservatives. The wood subjected to the two-step treatment with copper and arsenic followed by chromium ex...
J N R Ruddick, K Yamamoto, F G Herring, P C Wong, K A R Mitchell

NIR spectroscopy for rapid estimation of decay resistance
2004 - IRG/WP 04-20294
In Scandinavia Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is an important commercial tree species. Its heartwood has traditionally been used in constructions exposed to risk of decay. In a laboratory experiment Scots pine wood specimens sampled from inner heartwood, outer heartwood and sapwood were exposed to the brown rot fungus Poria placenta. In general outer heartwood was more resistant than inner heart...
P O Flæte, E Ystrøm Haartveit

Properties of cellulose degraded by the brown rot fungus, Postia placenta
1988 - IRG/WP 1350
To gain further understanding of the nature of the cellulose depolymerizing agent or agents of brown-rot fungi, brown-rotted cellulose was chemically and physically characterized. Various culture conditions, such as low nitrogen and elevated oxygen levels, did not induce degradation of cellulose by Postia placenta in liquid cultures. Therefore, brown-rotted cellulose for analysis was prepared by a...
T L Highley, R E Ibach, T K Kirk

Mechanistic aspects of the reactions of copper complexes with lignin in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and lipid hydroperoxide model compounds as proposed for white rot fungi
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10399
The structural principles and the oxidative reactions of the catalytic system consisting of copper, hydroperoxides, and copper coordination compounds that contain aromatic nitrogen atoms are similar to those of catalytic centers of oxidative enzymes involved in delignification reactions of white rot fungi. The system is capable of selectively degrading lignin and its low molecular weight would all...
K Fackler, P Lamaipis, E Srebotnik, M Humar, C Tavzes, F Pohleven, M Sentjurc, T Watanabe, K Messner

Differentiation of Scots pine heartwood and sapwood by near infrared spectroscopy
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10459
In Scandinavia Scots pine heartwood has, in recent years, gained popularity as material for external structures exposed to moderate risk of decay. As non-durable sapwood surrounds the heartwood in pine trunks it is of crucial importance to separate this wood from the heartwood during log processing into heartwood products. Heartwood and sapwood can be differentiated by visual evaluation of colour ...
P O Flæte, E Ystrøm Haartveit

Studies of the mechanism of chromated-copper preservative. Fixation using electron spin resonance
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3701
Two softwoods and one hardwood species were treated with chromium trioxide, copper sulphate, chromated-copper wood preservative (CCA). The treated wood samples were analyzed during fixation by electron spin resonance (ESR). ESR spectra indicated that more than one Cr(V) species was generated from Cr(VI) soon after CCA treatment. The Cr(V) signal became strong within increased several hours followe...
K Yamamoto, J N R Ruddick

A laboratory evaluation of tributyltin ethanesulphonate as an aqueous fungicide in wood preservation
1983 - IRG/WP 3229
Toxic limit data, using both leached and unleached wood test blocks, are reported for aqueous solutions of tributyltin ethanesulphonate against four Basidiomycete fungi, Poria placenta, Gloeophyllum trabeum, Coriolus versicolor and Coniophora puteana. An in situ study of the tributyltin compound in Scots pine and ponderosa pine sapwood has been carried out, using the technique of 119mSn Mössbauer...
R Hill, P J Smith, J N R Ruddick, K W Sweatman

EPR observation of Mn(II) in decayed wood
2002 - IRG/WP 02-10443
Preliminary Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) studies of copper/chromium (CC) treated spruce wood, subjected to laboratory soil decay test showed increased intensities of Mn(II) EPR signal in partially decayed specimens. Several reasons might be responsible for this phenomenon: Mn(II) could originate from the wood after being released from the typical ligand binding, from reduction of other Mn...
M Petric, M Humar, P Kalan, F Pohleven, U Schoknecht, M Šentjurc

Preliminary observations on tributyltin treated Scots pine sapwood using 119Sn (Mössbauer and NMR) spectroscopic techniques
1984 - IRG/WP 3312
119mSn Mössbauer data are presented for bis(tributyltin) oxide, tributyltin ethanesulphonate, bis(tributyltin) carbonate and tris(tributyltin) phosphate, both in the pure form and in Scots pine sapwood. The structures proposed for these compounds, in the solid state, are supported by 119Sn nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.
R Hill

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