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Effects of some essential oils on wood destroying organisms
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10047
Three wood destroying fungi: Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat. (stain), Gloeophyllum sepiarium (brown rot), and Pycnoporus sanguineus (white rot) were exposed to six plant essential oils: the peppermint, kaffir lime or leech lime, lavender, tarragon, holy basil, and the eucalyptus. The peppermint oil showed most effective to inhibit fungal growth, while eucalypus oil was the least effective. The other oils inhibition rate varied according to the species of fungi. In the experiment of the powder post beetles Heterobostrychus aequalis Waterh., the insects were killed within three days in the oil of tarragon, eucalyptus and holy basil, while in lavender oil they could live to ten days the same as controls. But on the contrary in the oil of peppermint and kaffir lime, some of them could even lived longer than the controls.
K Atisongkroh, C Anantachoke, P Lekuthai, S Pensook, T Kittirattrakarn


Moldicidal properties of seven essential oils
2006 - IRG/WP 06-30404
When wood and wood products are exposed to moisture during storage, construction or while in-service, mold growth can occur in 24 to 48 hours. Mold growth could be suppressed or prevented if wood was treated with an effective mold inhibitor. The objective of this study was to evaluate the mold inhibiting properties of natural plant extracts such as essential oils. Seven essential oils were evaluated for their ability to inhibit growth of Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma viride, and Penicillium chrysogenum on Southern yellow pine (SYP) specimens that were either dip-treated or exposed to volatiles of the test oils. Dip treatment with thyme or geranium (Egyptian) oil inhibited growth of test fungi for 20 weeks. Vapors from dill weed oil also inhibited all test fungi for at least 20 weeks when the vapor source remained in the test apparatus. Essential oils may be useful as moldicidal surface-treatments or fumigants for wood and wood products.
V W Yang, C A Clausen


Potentiality of use extracts from Tetraclinis articulata like biocide against wood destroying organisms: Reticulitermes santonensis
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30418
Screening trials were conducted to determine the antitermitic and antifungal properties of essential oil and methanolic extractives obtained from Tetraclinis articulata heartwood. Extract-treated cellulose pads were used to evaluate antitermitic activity and complete termite mortality was obtained with the essential oil: the threshold is situated under 5% (v/v). Standardised tests according European standard EN 118 allow validate the use of essential oil like biocide.
F El hanbali, N Amusant, F Mellouki, M Akssira, C Baudasse


Antifungal Essential Oil Metabolites
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30531
New environmentally-friendly wood protection systems based on “green” technologies are needed to inhibit wood-inhabiting mold and decay fungi. Utilizing bioactive essential oils from select herbaceous plants is one promising approach, but the concentrations of bioactive compounds are somewhat variable even in the highest (therapeutic) grade essential oils. Purified primary metabolites from four bioactive plant essential oils were evaluated for antifungal activity in southern pine treated with those compounds. Purified carvone, citronellol, geraniol, thymol and borneol inhibited growth of Aspergillus niger, Penicillium chrysogenum and Trichoderma viride for 12 weeks at concentrations equal to or less than those present in therapeutic grade essential oils. Thymol and borneol effectively inhibited two brown-rot fungi, Postia placenta and Gloeophyllum trabeum and one white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor, but other metabolites tested were ineffective against the decay fungi. Select purified bioactive metabolites of essential oils effectively inhibit fungi that inhabit wood and wood products.
C A Clausen, B M Woodward, V W Yang


Natural compounds: A review of their use for wood protection
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30545
A lot of research in the field of wood protection has focused on natural compounds but very few of these have been implemented by industry. This review is an attempt to bring together information from selected area of work: - A brief review of the work done on natural products as organic biocides for wood protection. - Table containing information on natural products, their use as organic biocides, references to studies done. - Brief discussion about possibilities and limitations of using natural compounds as wood protectant.
T Singh, A P Singh


Antifungal activity of wood extractives from waste products of steam distillation of Aniba rosaeodora
2012 - IRG/WP 12-10779
Aniba rosaeodora, is a slow growing evergreens of the Lauraceae family which are indigenous over a wide range of the Greater Amazon Region (the Guianas and Venezuela, Brazilian Amazon…). The essential oil obtained from the wood has a characteristic aroma and is a long-established ingredient in the more expensive perfumes. Around the olfactive characteristic of the essential oil is due to the presence of levogyre linalol. The steam distilled wood oil is obtained in a yield ranging around 1% and up to 90% of the oil consists of optically active linalol. This work is focused on the valorization of steam distillated sawdust, waste obtained from extraction of essential oil. After steam distillation, the sawdust was extracted by ethyl acetate and methanolic solvents and the antifungal activity was evaluated against basidomycetes fungi. The both extracts were active in vitro against white and brown rot fungi and allowed to propose these extractives as wood preservative agent.
N Amusant, A Digeon, E Hoüel, J Beauchène


Bioactivity of Eucalyptus camaldulensis essential oil against Microcerotermes diversus (Isoptera: Termitidae)
2013 - IRG/WP 13-30631
Microcerotermes diversus Silvestri (Isoptera: Termitidae) is the most economically destructive wood pest in structures in Khuzestan province (Iran). Chemicals such as essential oils and plant extracts that are compatible with the environment and that have high potential to be used in integrated pest management programs are extremely important. This study evaluated the repellency, contact and digestive toxicity of Eucalyptus essential oil in no-choice and choice bioassays and feeding inhibition trials on M. diversus. Concentrations of the essential oil ranged from 0.3 to 1.6 % (g cc-1). The results of the choice tests and feeding inhibition trial showed that the essential oil could act as a repellent at the given concentrations. Concentrations used in these tests resulted in mortality of termites, and a direct relationship between concentration and mortality was observed. The essential oil also increased the mortality of termites at concentrations higher than 0.7%. Termite feeding decreased with increased in concentration. Due to the ability of termites to choose the untreated filter-paper in the choice trial, values of LT and LC, were higher than in no-choice trials. The highest effects of Eucalyptus essential oil (≈100% mortality) was induced by the concentration 1.6%. Overall, this study reveals that Eucalyptus essential oil may be suggested as an effective toxicant with suitable contact and digestive toxicity and repellent effects on M. diversus.
B Habibpour, E Shafiei Alavijeh, A Rasekh


Chemical compositions and anti-termite activities of essential oils from Gabonese Canarium schweinfurthii Engl, Dacryodes buettneri Engl and Aucoumea klaineana Pierre wood resins.
2017 - IRG/WP 17-10895
Essential oil extract from resins of Canarium schweinfurthii, Dacryodes buettneri and Aucoumea klaineana woods from Cap Esterias and Oyem areas, Gabon, were prepared by Clevenger - steam distillation. The chemical compositions of these respective essential oils were analyzed by a Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Although monoterpenes were the main constituents of the three essential oils, each wood resins had a various essential oil yield after steam distillation process [6,92% (A. klaineana), 4,20% (C. schweinfurthii) and 13,19% (D. buettneri)] and their respective chemical compositions were slightly different. It results that monoterpenes, as α –pinene, o-cymene, alpha-phellandrene and D-limonene form the major constituents of terpenoides and phenylpropanoïdes compounds which are the most active substances against termite activity. The anti-termite activities of the three essential oils were evaluated, performing no-choice tests. 70 μL of each essential oil diluted in acetone with mass ratios of 50:50 and 25:75 [essential oil: acetone] were impregnated on Whatman papers and exposed to termite (Reticulitermes flavipes). Essential oil from Canarium schweinfurthii resin showed the strongest inhibitory activity against the termite with 100% mortality after 1 day at 50:50 and 25:75 concentrations followed by Aucoumea klaineana resin with the 100% mortality after 3 days at 50:50 and 25:75 concentrations. Finally, essential oil from Dacryodes buettneri resin showed the lowest termite resistance with 48.34 % and 58.34% mortalities after 14 days at 50:50 and 25:75 concentrations, respectively. The number of chemical components from each essential oil and their respective quantity, determined by GC-MS, are related to their anti-termite activity level.
Chemical compositions and anti-termite activities of essential oils from Gabonese Canarium schweinfurthii Engl, Dacryodes buettneri Engl and Aucoumea klaineana Pierre wood resins.


Response of the symbiotic flagellate protists community of subterranean termites to sublethal amounts of biocides
2018 - IRG/WP 18-10911
Subterranean termites are quite efficient at extracting nutrients from lignocellulose. Their ability relies not only on the digestive tract physiology but also on symbiotic relationships established with flagellate protists and bacteria. This work aimed to screen the response of the flagellate protists community of the subterranean termite Reticulitermes grassei Clément to the ingestion of different biocides. The substances chosen were applied at sublethal doses and included antibiotics (amoxicillin), an antiprotozoal (metronidazole), a termite intestine pH alteration agent and respiration inhibitor (boric acid), an essential oil (cloves) and its main constituent (eugenol), together with the solvent (water) and a positive control of pine wood. Termites were captured in three different zones of the same pine forest, sufficiently distant to be considered as different colonies; three replicate samples from each colony were selected for testing. Immediately after termite capture the initial flagellate protists community was evaluated for all samples (initial controls). Groups of termite workers were then fed on diet disks impregnated with the substances and, after the trials the diversity and abundance of the flagellate protist community was evaluated. Twelve morphotypes were present in the controls. The naturally less abundant morphotypes were positively associated with the termites screened before the trials and the ones fed on water treated diet disks or original wood. Metronidazole showed to affect negatively most morphotypes, however, two morphotypes’ abundance increased; these two morphotypes abundances decreased when termites fed on amoxicillin treated diet disks. For eugenol and boric acid significant negative impact was found for one morphotype with parallel increase in abundance of two others. Overall, the results suggest a possible maintenance of hindgut equilibrium or minimum functioning relying both on: changes on abundances of two or three morphotypes; and presence and abundance of the less common morphotypes. Three morphotypes exhibit differentiated response to changes in hindgut conditions, triggered by the addition of substances to the termite diet. This dynamic nutritional symbiosis equilibrium seems to provide a wide range of defences of the termite to exposure to substances potentially harmful and general dietary changes.
S Duarte, T Nobre, P Borges, L Nunes


Chemical composition, antitermite and antifungal activity of Dacryodes edulis oleoresin
2019 - IRG/WP 19-20653
Damages to wood structures and other cellulosic materials caused by wood destroying insects and fungi are estimated to several billions of dollars each year in the world. Among these, termites are considered as one of the most economically important pests for wooden structures. In the past, several wood protection chemicals like CCA, creosote, lindane or pentachlorophenol have been used. However, even if some of these products are still in use depending of the countries and of their own regulations, most of them have been largely limited in Europe (and Northern America or even banned because of their impact on the environment and the human health. Growing environmental pressures associated to the decrease of fossil resources has contributed to significant changes in the field of wood preservation leading to the research of more environmentally acceptable wood preservation solutions. In this context, products issued from renewable biomass present several advantages: they require less energy to be produced limiting carbon dioxide emissions, biodegradability of biomass make them generally less harmful to the environment. The use of natural products derived from renewable raw materials, replacing chemicals of petrochemical origin, is therefore of growing interest. Some wood species are naturally resistant to termites and fungi attacks, due to the presence of secondary metabolites produced by trees as natural defense system. Dacryodes edulis, also known as African plum tree (En) or Safoutier (Fr), occurs naturally in Gabon, where it is widely used for its fruits. Its wood is reported to present similar properties to African mahogany, but it is still mainly used as firewood, even if it is reported by local populations to be resistant to termites. The tree is also able to exudate oleoresin in response to different stress or injuries. Indeed, exudation is a natural mechanism that plants use to heal their wounds. In addition, some authors consider it to be a protection in response to mechanical lesions or microbial invasion. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the properties of Dacryodes edulis oleoresin as potential anti-termite and fungicide agents to develop more acceptable wood protection systems based on used of bio-pesticides. For this purpose, essential oil was separated from oleoresin using steam distillation with a Clevenger apparatus, while oleoresin was purified using different solvents. Each fraction was analyzed using GC-MS and subjected to different biological tests to evaluate their anti-termite and fungicidal properties.
W F Bedounguindzi, K Candelier, P E Engonga, Se Dumarcay, M-F Thevenon, P Gerardin


Efficiency of three resin fractions from Aucoumea Klaineana Pierre, Canarium schweinfurthii Engl and Dacryodes edulis (G. Don) H. J. Lam from Gabon combined with Tebuconazole as wood preservatives
2022 - IRG/WP 22-10998
Pure resins from Aucoumea Klaineana, Canarium schweinfurthii and Dacryodes edulis were harvested and then hydro-distilled to obtain essential oils and purified resins fractions. Due to the potential leaching and volatility hazards of the compounds that constitute these fractions, resins and essential oils were combined with tebuconazole to produce both antifungal and anti-termite wood preservatives formulations. Beech and scots pine wood block samples were impregnated by these different formulations and expose to Trametes versicolor and Coniophora puteana, respectively. Treated and control scots pine samples were also expose to termite (Reticulitermes flavipes). The results indicate that the use of aqueous formulations of the three fractions of the different Gabonese wood species combined to tebuconazole improves the wood resistance against termites and Coniophora puteana. Currently, the promising protection obtained would be limited to indoor applications since the different formulations should be formulated to be resistant to leaching.
W F Bedounguindzi, K Candelier, P Edou Engonga, S Dumarcay, M-F Thevenon, P Gerardin


Field test evaluation of preservatives and treatment methods for fence posts
1985 - IRG/WP 3347
This work presents the field test results after fifteen years exposure of Eucalyptus saligna fence posts treated with six different preservatives and five treatment methods. All the combinations with oil-borne preservatives presented the best results and among the waterborne preservatives, the fence posts treated by immersion method were with the lowest performance in the field test.
G A C Lopez, E S Lepage


Fire resistance of preservative treated fence posts
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30033
Pine fence posts were pressure treated separately with CCA-C, CCA-wax, CCA-oil and creosote. Treated posts and untreated controls were planted in the ground in a randomised block design, weathered for six months and then subjected to a controlled burning test using two fuel loads. Creosote treatment increased the time that posts were alight whereas CCA treatment had no such effect. However, CCA treated posts smouldered until destruction of the majority of the posts occurred. Posts treated with CCA-oil took longer for destruction to occur than posts treated with CCA-C or CCA-wax. Creosote treated posts and untreated controls did not show prolonged smouldering and consequently were not destroyed by the burning test, although their strength was reduced. A high fuel load increased the time that posts were alight and smouldering, and for CCA treated posts decreased their time to destruction.
P D Evans, P J Beutel, C F Donnelly, R B Cunningham


Principles and procedure of the planeing test
1981 - IRG/WP 2162
Small end-sealed samples of pine-sapwood (1.5 x 2.5 x 5 cm³) are treated by brushing and afterwards different parts of the treated surface are removed. The remaining part of the sample is tested against either insects or fungi. If no attack occurs sufficient amounts of biocides have been penetrated at least beyond the zone which has been removed. In spite of some problems the test seems the only suitable method, to evaluate organic solvent preservatives, mainly those containing resins, for simple treating methods.
H Willeitner, M Gersonde


Inspection results of preservative treated stakes, maximum 33 years in field
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3690
Since in 1958, we have undertaken field experiments in Japan. For these field experiments, we used sapwoods of Japanese cedar called Sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) because of majority of plantation forest soft wood species in Japan. For some preservatives, we added sapwood of Japanese beech called Buna (Fagus crenata), a main Japanese hard wood species. Dimensions of these specimens were 30 x 30 x 600 mm³ (T x R x L). About 30 preservatives mainly water born but 20% of oil born preservatives included, were examined for this test. We checked the damage rating every year by the observation. The service life of the preservative treated stakes were estimated at the period when the average damage rating of stakes were reached beyond 2.5 . Creosote oil, creosote oil mixed heavy oil (75:25 and 50:50) and creosote oil mixed coal tar (75:25 and 50:50) are still sound conditions for 33 years. CCA (JIS K 1554 Type 1) 2% and Tancas C 2% are still sound conditions for 28 years. Because of soft rot, the treated Buna specimens were shorten as ones of treated Sugi.
K Suzuki, K Yamamoto, M Inoue, S Matsuoka


Modelling of PCP migration in the environment: Feeding the models with laboratory data
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-08
In 1989, Hydro-Québec began a study program on pentachlorophenol (PCP) to ensure safe use of the product at all stages. One of the aspects of the study is the creation of a predictive system for evaluating the behavior of PCP and oil migration from wood poles to the environment. This system comprises four mathematical models for predicting PCP and oil migration in and on the surface of the pole, in soil and in groundwater, and for predicting runoff. Laboratory experiments aimed at quantifying and supplying the input for each model have been designed. A method of analyzing both PCP and oil in water. wood and soil has been developed. The radial and longitudinal distributions of PCP and oil concentrations have been established for several combinations of wood species and treatments. Laboratory setups and preliminary results are presented.
A Besner, P Tétreault, R Gilbert


A new ground-contact wide-spectrum organic wood preservative: DNBP
1986 - IRG/WP 3358
A new organic wood preservative, which 25 years field tests have proved to be of efficiency and effectiveness comparable to CCA wood preservatives for ground-contact applications, is presented. Physical and chemical tests, supporting the long term field test results as well as indicating the characteristics of this preservative, are also presented.
W E Conradie, A Pizzi


Fungus cellar and stake tests with tall oil derivatives. Progress Report after 5 years' testing
1987 - IRG/WP 3442
Two derivatives of tall oils have been tested for five years in fungus cellar and stake tests. The samples were relatively quickly attacked on the surface by decay fungi, mainly soft rot, but the decay has progressed very slowly. The performance of the stakes in the tests has so far been equivalent or even better than some CCA preservatives and creosote.
J Jermer, Ö Bergman, T Nilsson


Comparison of decay rates of preservative-treated stakes in field and fungus cellar tests
1980 - IRG/WP 2135
With the exception of acid-copper-chromate, zinc-chrome-arsenate, and sodium pentachlorophenoxide, the relative performance of preservatives in the fungus cellar was similar to that in the field.
M E Hedley


Effects of various preservative treatments on the mechanical and physical properties of plywood
1993 - IRG/WP 93-40007
The technical properties of plywood are related to both the intrinsic characteristics of its composing wood species and the quality and performance of the glue bond which acts as an interface between veneer sheets. Consequently mechanical and physical testing and glue bond strength analysis offer an appropriate means for studying the effect of preservative treatments on the overall quality of plywood. A range of boards was treated with waterborne and oilborne preservatives. Changes in modulus of elasticity, modulus of rupture and tensile strength were noted as well as variations in physical properties. Analysis of the glue bond strength was done by shear strength testing and determination of the amount of wood failure after different ageing procedures.
J Van Acker, M Stevens


Improved resistance of Scots pine and Spruce by application of an oil-heat treatment
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40162
Spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were subject to a heat treatment which was carried out in an oil-bath. The aim was to improve the dimensional stability of the treated wood and its resistance against fungi. The bath of vegetable oil provides a uniform heat transfer at temperatures of 180°C, 200°C and 220°C and protects the submersed wood from oxygen. Heat treatment in air atmosphere was also carried out at the same temperatures for comparison. Wood treated in hot oil was more equal in its appearance than wood heated in hot air. The treatment of spruce and pine in the oil-bath resulted in a better resistance against Coniophora puteana in a lab test according to EN 113 compared to the treatment in air atmosphere. In order to achieve the wanted upgrading effect, certain changes of mechanical properties and colour must be accepted. However, the strength loss caused by the heat-treatment in oil was less severe than in air atmosphere. Since all materials and the energy used in the process originate from renewable resources, the oil-heat-treatment appears to be environmentally friendly. All in all, the heat treatment in oil might be a promising approach to upgrade wood for outdoor use.
M Sailer, A O Rapp, H Leithoff


Wood preservation in the Australian beekeeping industry
1988 - IRG/WP 3473
This paper reports the results of a survey of Australian commercial beekeepers working 200 or more hives in June/July 1985. Nine hundred and forty seven apiarists were asked to participate and to provide information on their wood preservation methods, painting procedures and maintenance of bee boxes. Three hundred and eighty-four apiarists returned completed questionnaires (41%). The main wood preservatives used are copper naphthenate solutions (45%), linseed oil (8%), copper chromated arsenate (3%), hot wax (9%), copper naphthenate solution in linseed oil (3%), linseed oil/wax mixtures (3%) and paint (23%). The majority of apiarists (96%) paint treated bee hives, but there is considerable variation in wood preservative treatment procedures and paint application. Most wood preservative treatments (95%) are of the 'do-it-yourself' variety, radiata pine being the most utilized timber. The bottom boards of bee hives are considered the most susceptible to wood decay and subterranean termite damage, as are cleats, stands or any wood in ground contact.
P J Robinson, J R J French


Determination of toxic limits of wood preservatives towards wood-destroying Basidiomycetes. Investigation on the effect of the use of two impregnated wood blocks and of one impregnated and an untreated block respectively in Kolle jars on the toxic limits of wood preservatives
1973 - IRG/WP 225
O Wälchli


Preventing fungal attack of freshly sawn lumber using cinnamon extracts
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30432
The potential for using cinnamon oil as an anti-mold and stain compound was investigated on ponderosa pine sapwood. Cinnamon oil was highly effective when used in ethanol, but its activity declined when it was mixed with only water. Attempts to enhance water solubility with surfactants improved solution stability, but had no apparent effect on biological activity. Further studies with other co-solvents are planned
Shujun Li, C Freitag, J J Morrell


Chapter 6 - Preservatives of bamboo
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10635-06
Almost all currently available oil-borne, water-borne and compound types of preservatives suitable for the preservation of bamboo or wood have been described along with their classifications, applications, formulations, merits and demerits, history of invention or discovery and development. The preservatives suitable for wood are also considered suitable for bamboo.
A K Lahiry


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