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Oral toxicity of TIM-BOR®, Bora-Careä, boric acid and ethylene glycol against the formosan subterrean termite and easter subterrean termite
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10045
Oral toxicities (LD50) of boric acid, TIM-BOR® (disodium octaborate tetrahydrate: DOT) and BORA-CAREä (40% DOT in ethylene glycol) and ethylene glycol (ca. 80% monoethylene and ca. 20% polyethylene glycol) were estimated. Oral toxicities of BORA-CAREä were significantly higher (LD50: 256.2 µg/g DOT and 304.9 mg/g BAE) than TIM-BOR® alone (LD50: 408.2 µg/g DOT and 485.7 µg/g BAE); indicating...
M Tokoro, N-Y Su


Boracol 40 - A potential remedial and preservative treatment for lyctids
1983 - IRG/WP 1192
The paper reports on a preliminary assessment of the efficacy of a diffusion formulation, Boracol 40, when applied as a brush treatment: to the surface of Eucalyptus obliqua against the powder-post borer Lyctus brunneus. After a five month bioassay, Boracol 40 has severely retarded the progress of active infestations of Lyctus brunneus and has been 100 per cent effective as a preventative treatmen...
J W Creffield, H Greaves, C D Howick


Hygroscopicity of wood after polyethylene glycol (PEG) impregnation and/or heat treatment
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40623
The hygroscopicity of wood after polyethylene glycol (PEG) impregnation and/or heat treatment was investigated by testing the water uptake, equilibrium moisture content (EMC) at various relative humidity levels, and contact angle of the poplar wood surface. The results showed that: (1) At the first moment, the heat treatment at temperatures lower than 160 ℃ did not reduce the water uptake be...
Weiyue Xu Yuan Zhu, Jinzhen Cao


Modélisation sur maquette du rejet accidentel d'un gaz toxique et inflammable dans l'atmosphere - Emission de type "bouffée d'oxyde d'éthyléne [Water model simulation of toxic and flammable gases in the environment on industrial sites - Puff of ethylen oxide]
1990 - IRG/WP 3576
M Milhe


Effect of sterilization method on germination of spores of wood decay fungi observed by contact agar block method
1978 - IRG/WP 2117
Previous studies of germination of spores of wood decay fungi on wood have generally concluded that method of wood sterilization has little significant effect on germination response. This study expands the numbers of test fungi as well as number of sterilization methods employed to determine the influence of sterilization method on spore germination response of decay fungi. Germination was assess...
E L Schmidt, D W French


Potential toxicants for controlling soft rot in preservative treated hardwoods. Part 4: Evaluation of combined diffusion and toxicity
1979 - IRG/WP 2129
A large number of inorganic and organic preservatives were evaluated as potential soft rot control chemicals, by their degree of inhibition of fungal growth after allowing them to diffuse through a 6 mm thick wood slab. The tests were inoculated with wood powder from soft-rotted CCA treated poles. Pentachlorophenol was unable to diffuse quickly through the wood slab, although formulations with hex...
E W B Da Costa, O Collett


Effects of the addition of polyethylene glycol to the CCA-C preservative treatment
1985 - IRG/WP 3337
A modification of the CCA-C wood preservative system for utility poles has been investigated to see if spur penetration into the poles is assisted during climbing. Addition of polyethylene glycol to the CCA system has been shown to accomplish this purpose. This paper addresses the effects of the addition of polyethylene glycol to other physical properties germane to utility poles....
W P Trumble, E E Messina


A chemical and mycological evaluation of fused borate rods and a borate/glycol solution for remedial treatment of window joinery
1983 - IRG/WP 3225
The possibility of using fused borate rods (Impel Borpatron) and a borate/glycol solution (Boracol-40) for depot impregnation of window joinery has been examined in a co-operative project between The Swedish Forest Products Research Laboratory, The Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences and Prolignum AB. The fused Impel rod is a glassy rod composed of disodium octaborate which readily dissolv...
M-L Edlund, B Henningsson, A Käärik, P-E Dickèr


Remedial ground-line treatment of CCA poles in service. Results of chemical and microbiological analyses 6 months after treatment
1986 - IRG/WP 3388
CCA-treated poles in service with incipient internal soft rot were remedially treated by inserting borate rods, brushing with a boron/glycol solution and injecting boric acid paste, copper/creosote paste or a commercial product (DFCK paste). The spread of active chemicals in the treated zone as well as the change in microflora have been studied with time. After six months chemicals had spread to m...
B Henningsson, H Friis-Hansen, A Käärik, M-L Edlund


The effect of glycol additives on diffusion of boron through Douglas-fir
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30235
Boron is highly effective against a variety of fungi and insects and is able to diffuse with moisture through wood. Diffusion decreases sharply at lower moisture contents, a characteristic that limits the potential use of this material as a remedial treatment for arresting internal decay. One approach to improvi ng boron diffusion is the simultaneous addition of glycol, which is presumed to enhanc...
C M Freitag, R Rhatigan, J J Morrell


Prevention of Termite Tubing Over Non-Wood Construction Materials Using Glycol Borate
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30358
Glycol borates have been demonstrated to prevent termite tubing and attack of wood materials and are extensively used as termite preventative applications in new construction in the USA. This study evaluated the ability of such systems to prevent Formosan subterranean termite tubing over non-wood materials. Concrete was selected as a common inert construction material and tests were carried out ...
W R Smith, J D Lloyd


Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Polyethylene Glycol Penetration into Wood Cell Walls
2006 - IRG/WP 06-20328
Penetration of high molecular weight polyethylene glycol (PEG) into wood cell walls was investigated in red pine. PEG of different molecular weights (1000, 8000 and 20000) was labelled by bromination and treated samples were analyzed on Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) in dynamic mode. Both negative and positive spectra of the samples were collected in high spatial (bunche...
D Jeremic, P Cooper, P Brodersen


Resistance against basidiomycetes of 1,3-dimethylol-4,5-dihydroxy ethylene urea (DMDHEU)-modified plywood of Pinus sylvestris
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40398
Plywood produced with rotary-cut veneers of Pinus sylvestris impregnated with a solution of 1.3 M 1.3-dimethylol-4.5-dihydroxyethyleneurea (DMDHEU) and glued with a phenolic resin (Prefere 4976 DYNEA) were inoculated with Coniophora puteana, Coriolus versicolor and Pleurotus ostreatus, following the European standard ENV 12038. The specimens were leached following European standard EN 84. The re...
A Dieste, A Pfeffer, S Bollmus, H Militz


Modification of Wood by a Water-Repellent Compound Used in the Textile Industry: Boron Release and Termite Resistance
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40447
In the study, wood specimens were treated with disodium octoborate tetrahydrate (DOT) and a commercial water and oil repellent compound, FORGUARD M®, a weak cationic emulsion containing dipropylene glycol monomethylether, water and solids in its formulation and used in the textile industry. There were two different processes for preservative treatments: double and single treatments. The leaching ...
S N Kartal, E Terzi, B Erilkun, Y Imamura


Use of wax emulsions for upgrading of wood properties
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40451
Waxes are used for treatment of wood surfaces for several decades, predominately as surface treatments, because they did not penetrate into the wood. In order to overcome this issue, water emulsions were applied in present experiment. Five water emulsions of various concentration was used namely; two emulsions of montan wax (LGE, MW1), emulsion of polyethylene (WE1), emulsion of ethylene copolymer...
B Lesar, F Pohleven, M Humar


Properties of strand board bonded with ammonium pentaborate (APB) modified phenol formaldehyde resin
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40455
Ammonium pentaborate (APB) is combined with phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin in this study to develop a high-performance wood-based composite. The effect of APB and its combination with polyethylene glycol (PEG) on the physical, mechanical properties as well as formaldehyde emission of strand board were tested and compared with disodium octaborate tetrahydrateand (DOT) and zinc borate (ZB). The resu...
Wei Gao, Jinzhen Cao


Borate Redistribution in Glulam in an Above Ground Field Test
2014 - IRG/WP 14-30652
Researchers have refocused on the use of boratesin the wood protection industry in the last two decades due to their broad spectrum effectiveness against fungi and insects, and favourable environmental characteristics. This study was designed to determine borate distribution in a limited number of samples from a large field test of composites protected by a combination of coating and borate treatm...
P I Morris, A Temiz, J Ingram


Fabrication and characterization of MicroPCMs filled wood-plastic composites: Effects of polyethylene glycol on melamine–formaldehyde shell material
2016 - IRG/WP 16-40728
Microencapsulated phase change materials (MicroPCMs) containing dodecanol were fabricated using melamine-formaldehyde (MF) or polyethylene glycol 200 modified melamine-formaldehyde (PMF) resin as the shell materials by in situ polymerization. Wood flour/high-density polyethylene (WF/HDPE) composites with MF shell MicroPCMs (MF-MicroPCMs) or PMF shell MicroPCMs (PMF-MicroPCMs) were prepared, respec...
Xi Guo, Jinzhen Cao


Wood Protection Using Nano Metal Oxides in Propylene Glycol
2022 - IRG/WP 22-30760
Metals and metal oxides are known to have properties that can protect wood from degradation. Nanoparticles, due to its unique physical and chemical properties can enhance the protection to a much greater extent. Major constraints in dealing with nanoparticle dispersion can only be resolved by identifying a proper dispersive medium. Studies were carried out by preparing nanodispersion of four metal...
S Nair, G B Nagarajappa, K K Pandey


Preservative Treatment of CLT: An Example at Shimojishima Airport
2019 - IRG/WP 19-30748
Cross laminated timber (CLT) is a relatively new construction method that allows multi-storey construction using solid wood instead of concrete or steel. It is a method favoured by progressive architects and recognized for its much lower environmental footprint. Wood is an excellent construction material and is a long-term carbon sink that also performs well in the event of earthquakes and fire....
J Lloyd, N Yamashita, A Taylor