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Report on the activities of the European Standardization Committee CEN/TC 38 'Methods of Testing wood preservatives'
1980 - IRG/WP 279 E
G Castan


European standardization for wood preservation
1988 - IRG/WP 2321
G Castan


European standardization for wood preservation
1989 - IRG/WP 2335
G Castan


European standardization for wood preservation
1990 - IRG/WP 2359
G Castan


Draft Business Plan of CEN/TC 38 - Durability of wood and wood-based products - Introduction
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20207
CEN Technical Committees and Business Planning. The extension of formal business planning to CEN Technical Committees (CEN/TCs) is an important measure which forms part of a major review of business processes (known as 'Optimization'). The aim is to align the CEN work programme with expressed market needs and to ensure the adequate resourcing of projects through their development stages in the CEN/TCs. Your role in the implementation of the Business Planning concept will contribute significantly to the overall effectiveness of European standardization. We express our sincere appreciation and thanks for your time in reviewing this Business Plan.
R Hüe


Work programme of CEN/TC 38 (March 2000) and European publications
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20206
Remind of stage significance Stage 32 : Working document existing and circulated in the technical body (TC, WG). Stage 40 : Document available in the CEN/CS to start CEN/CENELEC enquiry (6 months). Stage 43 : Second CEN/CENELEC enquiry started (2 to 4 months). Stage 49 : Document available in the CEN/CS to start formal vote or ENV vote. New scope of the CEN/TC 38 " Standardization of the natural or conferred durability of wood and wood-based products against biological agents and their characteristics associated with exposure ". " Normalisation de la durabilité naturelle ou conférée du bois et de ses produits dérivés vis -à-vis des agents biologiques et leurs caractéristiques associées à leur exposition ". " Normung der natürlichen oder durch Behandlung herbeigeführten Dauerhaftigkeit von Holz und Holzwerkstoffen gegenüber Organismen und deren Eigenschaften mit der ensprechenden Exponierung ".
R Hüe


Work programme of CEN/TC 38 (April 1999) and European publications
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20165
Scope of the CEN/TC38: Standardization of the characteristics of natural or conferred durability of wood and its derived materials against biological agents, including the characteristics of protection products and associated processes to obtain this durability. This applies in particular to: - the identification of hazard classes-, - the test methods (wood preservatives and treated wood and wood based materials) and interpretation of the results; - the specification of wood preservatives and treated wood by classes of hazard including processes-, - quality control methods-, -terminology.
R Hüe


European standardization for wood preservation
1991 - IRG/WP 2365
Since the last IRG 21 conference in New-Zealand, there one meeting of the plenary committee and several meetings of working groups. The interprative documents prepared by CCE for expliciting the essential requirements of the CCE Directive on the construction products and specially: mechanical resistance and stability / hygiene, health and environment / safety in use are waited to valid the programme of work in the frame of the mandate officially received the 27th of September 1989. What is the advancement of the programme? Definition of biological hazard classes / Natural durability of wood / Treated wood / Performance of preservatives / Test methods
Anonymous


European standardization for wood preservation. Progress report 91-92
1992 - IRG/WP 92-2398
Since the IRG 22 conference in Kyoto, CEN/TC 38 Plenary met twice in relation with several working group meetings. 5 upon 6 of the interpretative documents have been prepared by adhoc groups of the Standing Committee for Construction within the scope of the 89/106/EEC directive on Construction Products. The expected requirements attached to wood preservation are both requirements 1) and 3): 1) mechanical resistance and stability; 3) hygiene, health and the environment. A consequence should be a redrafting of the previous official mandate delivered on September 27, 1989: - direct mandate on wood (solid and reconstituted) as well as wood preservatives as construction products - horizontal joint-mandates on wooden-commodities in relation with the other TCs in charge of such commodities. Another consequence is a formal exploration by TC 38/WG 11 "Permanence of active ingredients in treated timber" through a first couple of standards entitled "methods for measuring losses of active ingredients and other preservative ingredients from treated timber - Part 1: Laboratory method for measuring losses by evaporation to air - Part 2: Laboratory method for measuring losses into fresh water or salt water". This works anticipates the mandate and means that TC 38 is currently making progress, towards air and water quality. Apart from building activities, TC 38 got also by the end of 1991 an order of standardization on Creosote, and Creosoted-timber following the 13th adaptation of 76/169/EEC Diretive Creosote specifications. This additional event results from the trend in Brussels to develop the so-called "new approach" where the EC authorities elaborates essential requirements with mandates to CEN explicit them in close cooperation with the industry.
R Hüe


Focus on the European standardization - Towards a revision of the EN 350 natural durability standard: a different approach to the inherent resistance and performance of wood and wood-based materials
2013 - IRG 13-10811
The European standard EN 350 “Natural durability of solid wood”, Parts 1 and 2, is one of the fundamental standards developed by the CEN/TC 38 “Durability of wood and wood-based products”. This standard is widely used by wood industries as the reference document which provides information on the resistance of wood species used in mainly the construction sector against decay fungi, wood-boring beetles and termites as well as information on wood species’ capacity to be impregnated with wood preservatives. The standard also refers to the appropriate standards for testing these properties of wood and provides criteria of interpretation of such tests’ results. The changes that have occurred over the last few decades on the European market, including the appearance of new wood-based products such as modified wood, the publication and application of new regulations (Biocidal Directive/Regulation, Construction Products Directive/Regulation) and the evolutions of customers’ expectations in terms of the service life of the wood-based products which they may use, make it crucial to initiate a deep revision of the EN 350 standard. The new version would take into account the revisions made recently in related existing standards, the modifications that have occurred on the European market of wood products, and the outcomes of recent national and European research projects in order to provide a robust and relevant decision tool to all those who rely on wood.
M Kutnik


Proposed method for out-of-ground contact trials of exterior joinery protection systems
1981 - IRG/WP 2157
Methods for testing the efficacy of preservative treatments for exterior joinery are described using the format of a European Standard. Commercially used treatments applied to jointed test units (L-joints) which are then protected by conventional finishes are exposed to normal outdoor hazards out of ground contact. Assessment is made a) by determining eventual failure through decay and b) by destructive examination of replicate treated and untreated units, after increasing time intervals, rating comparative performance in terms of wood permeability increase and the progress of microbial colonisation.
J K Carey, D F Purslow, J G Savory


How to Document the Performance of Super-Critical Treated Wood in above Ground Situations?
2005 - IRG/WP 05-20316
The paper presents practical experiences from the preparation of a new preservative treated wood product for introduction to the market. The product in question is Superwood™, which is treated with organic biocides using CO2 in a supercritical state as a solvent. The question is how to evaluate the performance of a new product such as Superwood™ in order to get an acceptance on the market and fulfil the formal requirements. In the European Union countries, the EN 599-1 is the standard that needs to be complied when approving a new product for the market, but it only focuses on the toxic limit against representative decay fungi according to EN 113. However, decay test, above ground and other forms of field tests are optional, this is not in line with the traditional test philosophy in the Scandinavian countries. The open question is to which extent treatment to the level of the toxic threshold value also ensures a long service life and expected performance of the treated commodity. Superwood™ is evaluated using a strategy, in which basic laboratory tests are done to get the toxic value (according to EN 599-1) and in addition a number of field tests are done including accelerated testing in the tropics. These tests are focussed on the evaluation of the performance criteria such as durability and service life and maintenance requirements. These questions must be answered by the producer without having a full record of performance test for their new products. A short status on the test performed on super-critical treated wood (Superwood™) is presented. Based on a comparison between field test in Scandinavia and in the tropical Malaysia a service life of more than 25 years for a specific supercritical treated product is estimated. It is stated that the existing European standardisation system is insufficient when it comes to service life prediction. A number of important questions need to be addressed by the European standardisation system as soon as possible because the market and the public opinion change quickly due to environmental concern.
N Morsing, A H H Wong, F Imsgard, O Henriksen


European Biocides Directive (98/8/EC): Programme for systematic examination of all active substances of biocidal products on the market on May 13, 2000 Article 16(2)
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-03
PPT-Presentation
K Rasmussen, A B Payá Pérez


Wood preservation in Lithuania
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30363
This article is intended to give basic information on wood preservation activities in Lithuania and the main actors in wood preservations practice and research. Currently the main actors in practical Lithuanian wood preservation activity are enterprises of wood preservation industry united by the Lithuanian Wood Preservation Association. The most intensive activity in wood preservation practice and research started after 2001. The only active institution in wood preservation research currently is Lithuanian Forest Research Institute with 2 running projects. Lithuanian University of Agriculture and Kaunas University of Technology are active in standardization and have potential to start research. Main obstacles for future development of wood preservation research are: insufficient interest of industry in research and lack of skilled scientists.
J Saladis


Thermal treatment of wood: European Processes and their background
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40241
Recent efforts on thermal treatment of wood lead to the development of several processes introduced to the European market during the last few years. The total production capacity of heat treated wood in 2001 is estimated as approx. 165.000 m3. In the paper the different heat processes are presented. The general technology as well as scientific data on the chemical transformation of the cell wall polymers, on the biological performance, on the physical and mechanical properties of the treated wood are presented and discussed
H Militz


Bioaccumulation of pentachlorophenol in rainbow trout and zebra fish muscles
1986 - IRG/WP 3372
The bioaccumulation of pentachlorophenol in Rainbow Trout and Zebra fish has been evaluated by partition coefficient n-octanol/water determination at ph 7 and measured in vivo according to the OECD guidelines and the European directive 79/831/EEC. The obtained results confirm the low bioaccumulation potential of this product in aquatic organims.
J C Palla, M Dion


Report of CEN/TC 38
2002 - IRG/WP 02-20252
R Hüe


Report of CEN/TC 38
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20279
An annual update on activities in CEN/TC 38.
R Hüe


Interspecific variability of European oak durability against white rot fungi (Coriolus versicolor): Comparison between sessile oak and peduncle oak (Quercus petraea and Quercus robur)
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10393
The knowledge of wood natural durability against biologic predators enable its external use. The resistance of European oak wood was reported like durable according to the EN 350-2. However, some individuals may contain high durable wood. Our research was focused to understand this variability in oak population that represent the first french species (4.1 millions of ha). Natural durability of European oak heartwood (Quercus petraea and Quercus robur) against white rot fungi (Coriolus versicolor) was tested according to european standard EN 113. The experimental material consists in 23 oaks robur and 26 petraea oaks sampled from 9 French regions. For each tree, 3 twin samples were taken off from heartwood situated at 1.30 m from the bottom of the tree. Different effects were tested by hierarchic variance analysis: "species", "forest within species" and "tree within forest". The tree effect is very significant for biologic natural resistance. Variability between species was also demonstrated. Although the species effect is significant, it's relatively weak compared with tree differences (it was declared significant 5%). Durability classification was determined according European standard EN 350-1. 69.2% of petraea oak trees are classified as high durable, 19.2% durable, 7.7% moderately durable and 3.8% slightly durable. In the case of robur oak 91.3% of trees are classified as high durable and 8.7% durable.
N Ayadi, B Charrier, M Irmouli, J P Charpentier, C J Allemand, F Feuillat, R Keller


CEN Draft (38 N 460E) Standard: Test method for determining the protective effectiveness of a preservative in the marine environment
1986 - IRG/WP 4132
This European Standard describes a marine test method which provides a basis for asseasing the effectiveness of a wood preservative used to prevent attack of timber in sea-water by marine borers. The method is only suitable for testing preservatives which are intended to prevent attack by marine wood boring organisms of treated timber for use in more or less permanent contact with sea-water. It is not suitable for assessing the effectiveness of preservatives against micro-organisms. The main objective of the method described is to evaluate the relative effectiveness of a wood preservative applied by vacuum/pressure impregnation. For this reason permeable timbers are used throughout so that the protective efficacy of various retentions of the preservative can be determined. However, it is recognized that modifications of the method may be used for other purposes, e.g. to determine the relative efficacy of a preservative treatment or to determine the natural durability of the heartwood and sapwood of a selected timber species. The method is primarily intended for testing in temperate waters where Teredine and Limnoria borers dominate. However, it is also capable of being used in tropics where attack by Pholads and specific Crustacean borers may be very destructive. It has to be considered that the test has to be run for a minimum period (usually for 5 years or until the point of failure) before any interpretation of the results can be made. Variations in the test conditions can be expected from one test site to another depending on temperature, salinity, population density of the various borer species etc. This will inevitably influence the general rate of attack. However, by comparing the results obtained for samples treated with the test product with those obtained with a reference preservative and those obtained with untreated control samples, the relative protective effectiveness of the product tested can be evaluated.
G Castan


Conforming to european standards for preservative-treated timber: Specifying with confidence
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20194
A four-year collaborative study between four industrial partners and BRE has assessed timber treated by current UK industrial practices in the light of current European Standards. Data were collected for CCA and creosote treated timber components, and compared with the requirements laid out in EN351-1 and -2. A number of difficulties were encountered that have been described in previous IRG papers (98-20150, 99-20156), such as the poor reproducibility of chemical analyses and variable timber density. This paper describes the conclusions of our collaboration, focusing on the application of the findings and how to overcome any difficulties encountered. The data collected allowed the calculation of figures that have been submitted for inclusion into the UK's proposed national code for preservative-treated timber (DD239). An example is the recommendation of new minimum retention figures for creosote-treated commodities. This paper describes the factors that will enable UK specifiers to use the European Standards with confidence and greater understanding of how they map onto traditional methods of specification. In addition valuable lessons have been learnt applicable to the industry world wide.
E D Suttie, R J Orsler


The biocides directive
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-25
G Wilson


CEN Draft Standard (38 N 460F): Méthode d'essai pour determiner l'efficacité d'un produit de préservation du bois en milieu marin
1986 - IRG/WP 4132 F
G Castan


Collaborative soft rot tests
1981 - IRG/WP 2151
There appears to be need for reconsideration of attitudes towards Standardisation of laboratory tests for determining the toxicity of preservatives to soft rot fungi. The original approach was that a limited number of test methods were available and that collaborative effort would determine the suitability of the methods for Standardisation. It has been established so far that pure culture testing of treated softwoods using an Abrams agar/block method is not feasible. Secondly when laboratories employ a soil burial method using as inoculum the natural microflora of their soil of choice there is a trend towards different relative performances of preservatives in different soils. (Document No: IRG/WP/251, 1975). Consideration of the results available led to the concept (Document No: IRG/WP/ 2119, 1978) that in the case of testing preservative toxicity towards soft rot fungi the two basic requirements of a Standardised test could not at present be achieved in one and the same test, these requirements being: Reproducibility, ie that different laboratories should obtain the same result. Realism, ie that the results should give a reliable indication of performance in practice. Europe, under the auspices of the European Homologation Committee, envisages reproducibility as the major requirement. However the soil burial type of test, though not giving reproducible results, achieves a considerable degree of realism in that it represents the ground contact situation which in practice presents inevitable and sustained soft rot hazards; these are all the greater in respect of certain hardwood species especially when used in the tropics. Thus workers faced with major problems of protection of hardwoods place realism before reproducibility and favour soil contact types of test using the most preservativetolerant of the natural soil floras available in their particular territories. It must be remembered in this context that the concept of "homologation" of preservative testing, ie the acceptance of test results beyond national boundaries, is peculiarly European. Thus broadly speaking there is in effect a schism, within the IRG sub group devoted to soft rot test methodology, between northern hemisphere temperate softwood users and southern hemisphere hardwood users. This means that, as presently convened, the sub group is more fitted as a vehicle for exchange of ideas and information than for the development of collaborative test programmes which have Standardisation as their objective. It must be acknowledged that improvements in test methodology have been made on independent lives by supporters of both the "reproducible" and the "realistic" approaches. It is to be hoped that this will continue and that all will use the soft rot sub group for early dissemination and discussion of their findings. On the other hand, the aspirations of Europe towards homologation should not be neglected. Would a European working party within the confines of the IRG soft rot sub group meet this requirement?
J G Savory


Current models used by the European Health Authorities to evaluate the volatilization of active ingredients from treated wood used inside dwellings. A case study: Volatilization of azaconazole and propiconazole from treated wood
1990 - IRG/WP 3565
The use of wood preservatives inside houses may result in measurable aerial concentrations of active ingredients. These airborne contaminants may be inhaled by the inhabitants over periods lasting from a couple of days to several months. To assess the potential health hazard of preservative residues in the air, various risk-assessment models have been worked out. Three schemes, currently used by the European health authorities, are discussed in this paper. They are based on the saturated air vapour concentration, the volatilization rate measured in laboratory experiments and the aerial concentrations determined in practice. For each model various safety margins can be calculated. These are based on e.g. the subchronic inhalation toxicity, the acceptable daily intake and the acceptable aerial concentration of the insecticides and fungicides used in wood preservatives. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of these health- assessments, a case study has been carried out with the fungicides azaconazole and propiconazole, developed by Janssen Pharmaceutica - Belgium.
A R Valcke, L Van Leemput


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