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Surface Characteristics of Southern pine treated with Eastern red cedar oil
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40393
Treatment of wood with various chemicals play an important role on their surface characteristics including as roughness and hardness for further processing such as finishing and machining. The objective of this study is to evaluate surface roughness of Southern pine (Pinus taeda L.) treated with oil extracted from eastern redcedar (Juniperus viginiana L.). Both tangential and radial surfaces of...
S Hiziroglu


Application of radio frequency heating to accelerate fixation of CCA in treated round-wood
1999 - IRG/WP 99-40133
The potential of radio frequency heating to accelerate the fixation of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) in treated round-wood was assessed. Pre-dried Douglas-fir and western red cedar round-wood sections were pressure treated with CCA in a pilot plant retort, after which they were placed individually in a pilot radio frequency (RF) chamber. Based upon the color reaction of chromotropic acid with he...
Fang Fang, J N R Ruddick


Evaluation of Barrier Wrap Systems after 71 Months of Exposure
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40631
A 71 month study of the performance of booted samples in ground contact was conducted in AWPA hazard zone 4. Data indicated that excellent performance of wrapped systems, even over untreated wood, could be obtained. Instances of decay colonization or termite attack could all be attributed to some breaking of the integrity of the barrier system. Good performance for treatment below ground contact...
H M Barnes, M G Sanders, G B Lindsey, C McIntyre


Corrosion of zinc-coated nails used with preservative-treated western red cedar shakes in service
1982 - IRG/WP 3197
The corrosion of metal fasteners used with certain wood species and with preservative-treated woods can be a serious problem. The chemical reactivity of western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn) extractives to iron and copper is well documented and wood preservative treatments containing copper, chromium, and/or ammonium hydroxide can be expected to similarly attack some metals. This problem is compo...
R S Smith, E L Johnson, A J Cserjesi


Black Stain of Western red-cedar by Aureobasidium pullulans and its Relationship with Tropolone Depletion
2005 - IRG/WP 05-10564
Western red-cedar is valued for its natural durability conferred by fungicidal tropolone chemicals. However, weathered surfaces of WRC products are still susceptible to ‘black stain’ caused by fungi such as Aureobasidium pullulans. The effect of weathering on the tropolone content of heartwood was characterized and correlated with the ability of this fungal species to colonize the same weather...
R Chedgy, R Daniels, P I Morris, C Breuil


Fumigation of New Zealand grown western red cedar for export markets
2001 - IRG/WP 01-30262
The objective of this study was to demonstrate that methyl bromide fumigant penetrates into the centre of western red cedar (Thuja plicata L.) timber to meet the standard for export markets. Kiln dried western red cedar was used and a cavity (50x 30 x 13mm3) was prepared into the centre of each sample board (500 x 200 x 26 mm3 thick). An absorbent sachet used in industry for cross checking that th...
B Kreber, G Durbin, D Wilson


Effect of substrate type and moisture requirements in relation to colony initiation in two carpenter ant species
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10320
Conditions necessary for optimal colony initiation or the rate of initial colony expansion by early brood in the carpenter ant species Camponotus modoc and C. vicinus on various substrates conditioned to different moisture contents were studied. Camponotus modoc and Camponotus vicinus queens were placed in Douglas-fir, western red cedar and Styrofoam® blocks conditioned in sealed chambers at 70% ...
M E Mankowski, J J Morrell


Effects of pre-harvest girdling on selected properties of red pine, red maple and Eastern larch
1999 - IRG/WP 99-40137
Trees of three species - tamarack (Larix laricina), soft maple (Acer rubrum) and red pine (Pinus resinosa) - were girdled immediately below the crown,one to two years before felling. The wood from these trees was compared with wood taken from un-girdled control trees felled at the same. Sapwood and heartwood, from the controls, and from above and below the girdle of treated trees, were examined fo...
A Taylor, P A Cooper


Corrosion of metal fasteners in contact with copper preservative treated wood
2007 - IRG/WP 07-20370
The corrosion rates of metal fasteners in contact with alkaline copper quat (ACQ) treated wood with or without commercially available water repellent was compared to that of cedar. In this experiment, fasteners were sandwiched between two pieces of treated wood and exposed to a humid environment at a slightly elevated temperature. The use of a “sandwich” design allowed periodic examination of ...
BaekYong Choi, J N R Ruddick


Development of a Weatherometer to Accelerate the Surface Checking of Wood
2008 - IRG/WP 08-20388
There is significant interest in developing preservatives that are better at preventing wood from checking. Currently, however, there is no accepted test methodology for accelerating the development of checks in wood samples so information on the effectiveness of treatments at restricting checking can be obtained more quickly. This paper describes the development of a new type of weatherometer (Ac...
R Ratu, P D Evans


Effect of Preservative Treatment on Fungal Colonization of Teak, Redwood, and Western Red Cedar
2009 - IRG/WP 09-20404
Fungal flora present in preservative treated samples or non-treated samples from sapwood and heartwood of teak, western red cedar, redwood, and southern yellow pine was assessed after 6 to 18 months of exposure near Hilo, Hawaii. The objectives were to compare fungal composition and diversity between treated and non-treated samples, and to examine the use of molecular techniques for assessing fung...
Y Cabrera, C Freitag, J J Morrell


A comparison of the corrosion of alkaline copper and micronized copper treated wood
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40515
With the replacement of chromate copper arsenate (CCA) by alkaline copper wood preservatives, there have been reports of increasing corrosion of metal fasteners and connectors in contact with treated wood. This may be explained by the presence of more mobile copper in the treated wood. One novel industrial response has been to develop a wood preservative based on an aqueous solution containing sus...
M Kofoed, J N R Ruddick


Extractives in Norwegian-Grown and North American-Grown Western Redcedar and Their Relation to Durability
2012 - IRG/WP 12-10762
The extractives responsible for the natural durability of western redcedar (WRC) are not well understood. Recent work by the Norwegian Institute of Wood Technology and the Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute has evaluated the natural durability of Norwegian wood species and reference species, including Norwegian-grown WRC and North American-grown WRC, in a series of decay tests. The availabil...
R Stirling, P O Flæte, G Alfredsen, P I Morris


An Overview of Western Red Cedar as a Wood Pole Species
2014 - IRG/WP 14-10815
This paper reviews the characteristics of western red cedar, with particular emphasis on its use in utility poles. Western red cedar naturally grows primarily in British Columbia, Alaska, Washington, Oregon, California, Idaho and Montana. Compared to other commercial softwoods it has low density, increased corrosivity, weaker mechanical properties, high dimensional stability, and high natural dura...
M H Freeman, R Stirling


Reducing Extractives Stain in Western Red Cedar Sidewall Shingles
2014 - IRG/WP 14-30654
One of the aesthetic challenges that western red cedar shingles face is extractives redistribution stain, particularly in unpainted sidewall applications. Dip and pressure treatments with a mixture of quaternary ammonium compounds and alkyl amine oxides were investigated for their ability to prevent this stain. After nine months of exposure in Vancouver, extractives stain was present on nearly all...
R Stirling


Field Performance of Old-Growth and Second-Growth Western Red Cedar Fence Posts with and without Barrier Wraps
2015 - IRG/WP 15-10838
Many authors have suggested natural durability may be lower in second-growth western redcedar than in old-growth. One potential means of offsetting a decline in durability is use of physical barriers to separate the wood from soil. In the present work we compared the durability of old-growth and second-growth western red cedar posts, with and without barrier wraps, in a field test. After ten year...
P I Morris, J K Ingram, R Stirling


Colorant Treatments to Enhance the Weathering Resistance of Western Red cedar
2016 - IRG/WP 16-40737
Western redcedar is renowned for its decay resistance, but, like most wood products, it requires frequent maintenance in many exterior applications to maintain its appearance. To provide adequate long-term performance in exterior applications, it must be protected against light, water, and disfiguring fungal growth. Colorant treatments, with and without preservatives, were investigated for their a...
R Stirling, V Landry


Comparative performance of wood/wood-based claddings predicted by four hygrothermal simulation tools
2019 - IRG/WP 19-20646
A number of hygrothermal numerical simulation packages are available, either wholly or partially dedicated to heat, air and moisture transfer simulations of building materials and wall assemblies. The objective of this work was to compare the hygrothermal responses and the moisture performance of western red cedar and composite wood claddings of a wood frame wall as predicted by four hygrothermal ...
M Defo, M Lacasse, A Laouadi


Field test evaluation of preservatives and treatment methods for fence posts
1985 - IRG/WP 3347
This work presents the field test results after fifteen years exposure of Eucalyptus saligna fence posts treated with six different preservatives and five treatment methods. All the combinations with oil-borne preservatives presented the best results and among the waterborne preservatives, the fence posts treated by immersion method were with the lowest performance in the field test....
G A C Lopez, E S Lepage


Fire resistance of preservative treated fence posts
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30033
Pine fence posts were pressure treated separately with CCA-C, CCA-wax, CCA-oil and creosote. Treated posts and untreated controls were planted in the ground in a randomised block design, weathered for six months and then subjected to a controlled burning test using two fuel loads. Creosote treatment increased the time that posts were alight whereas CCA treatment had no such effect. However, CCA tr...
P D Evans, P J Beutel, C F Donnelly, R B Cunningham


Principles and procedure of the planeing test
1981 - IRG/WP 2162
Small end-sealed samples of pine-sapwood (1.5 x 2.5 x 5 cm³) are treated by brushing and afterwards different parts of the treated surface are removed. The remaining part of the sample is tested against either insects or fungi. If no attack occurs sufficient amounts of biocides have been penetrated at least beyond the zone which has been removed. In spite of some problems the test seems the only ...
H Willeitner, M Gersonde


Inspection results of preservative treated stakes, maximum 33 years in field
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3690
Since in 1958, we have undertaken field experiments in Japan. For these field experiments, we used sapwoods of Japanese cedar called Sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) because of majority of plantation forest soft wood species in Japan. For some preservatives, we added sapwood of Japanese beech called Buna (Fagus crenata), a main Japanese hard wood species. Dimensions of these specimens were 30 x 30 x 60...
K Suzuki, K Yamamoto, M Inoue, S Matsuoka


Studies on the destruction by marine borers of fishing boats along the north-eastern Black Sea coasts of Turkey
1980 - IRG/WP 451
Marine wood-boring organisms are attacking fishing boats along the northeastern coasts of the Black Sea, Turkey. The damage and the intensity of attack of Teredo navalis L in fishing boats were studied....
O A Sekendiz, R Ilhan


Wood-destroying insects found in the Eastern Black Sea sub-region of Turkey
1982 - IRG/WP 1153
The Eastern Black Sea subregion has important forest resources. The settlement areas are scattered at the countryside. That's why a good deal of wood and timber is used in the construction of buildings without sufficient protective measures in the rural areas. In the forests and rural buildings 52 wood-destroying insect species have been specified 35 of which are new in this subregion and...
O A Sekendiz


A new ground-contact wide-spectrum organic wood preservative: DNBP
1986 - IRG/WP 3358
A new organic wood preservative, which 25 years field tests have proved to be of efficiency and effectiveness comparable to CCA wood preservatives for ground-contact applications, is presented. Physical and chemical tests, supporting the long term field test results as well as indicating the characteristics of this preservative, are also presented....
W E Conradie, A Pizzi


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