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Building with termites: The challenge of biomimetic design for carbon neutral buildings.
2009 - IRG/WP 09-20405
The main aim of this paper is to present humanity and termites as design partners in the creation of a new dimension of ecosystem understanding. “Beyond biomimicry: What termites can tell us about realizing the living building”, Turner and Soar (2008) opens up a new era in how we think of human habitations, not only on earth, but maybe on other planets, and using the termite model as the corner stone of innovative engineering. We know that termites are masters of constructing ‘buildings’ that meet all nutrition, energy, waste disposal needs, shelter, and food sources for many other animals and insects. We need to emulate the symbiotic abilities of termites to survive over time, for as Margulis (1998) pointed out, we all live on this symbiotic planet, and symbiosis is natural and common. The challenge to architects, builders and the wood protection industry will be immense, but none the less intellectually and practically stimulating, particularly with climate change implications. Also, briefly discussed is the need to amend Australian Standards and Building Code of Australia “deemed-to-satisfy” legislation. So, we can mimic termite design and management systems in our bid to manage and sustain energy efficient buildings.
J R J French, B M Ahmed (Shiday)


Preservatives treatment and field test monitoring of spruce pole stock: CCA and fumigant treatments
1990 - IRG/WP 3619
The fumigants trichloronitromethane (chloropicrin) and sodium N-methyldithiocarbamate (SNMDC) were used to treat red spruce pole stock, either CCA treated or untreated, through holes bored through the pole's center. The poles were analyzed for the presence of microorganisms immediately before ground installation and again after installation at a pole test site. Monitoring of fumigant movement in the poles was also performed after one year. Results indicate that both fumigants moved throughout the ground line regions of the poles, although less toxicity to the bioassay fungus was observed in the SNMDC treated poles. Reduced fumigant levels, and more sporadic diffusion was noted in the above ground portions of both chloropicrin and SNMDC treated poles although again chloropicrin exhibited greater toxicity to the bioassay fungus. Despite the variability of fumigant diffusion as determined by bioassay, no decay fungi could be isolated from the treated poles after one year. This was in contrast to high frequency isolation of decay from control poles.
A J Pendlebury, B Goodell


Wood preservation in Kenya
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40191
Current research on wood preservation in Kenya is mainly on the development of biological control of wood-destroying termite species, using mycoinsecticides. The major research institutions include the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI), Kenya Forestry Research Institute (KEFRI), Moi University and the International Centre for Insect Physiology (ICIPE). Training institutions include Forestry Training College, Forest Products Training Institute and Moi University. A number of publications, mostly an biological control of termites, are available and they range from workshop and conference proceedings to theses and journal publications. Wood-destroying termite species include several genera in Macrotermitidae and one drywood termite genus. Wood preservation facilities are available in Kenya, mainly for assorted timber products, sleepers and utility poles. The major preservatives used are CCAs, PCP and Creosote oil. There are still no set standards, specifications and requirements for wood preservatives and little, if any information exists on the marketing aspects of wood preservatives. The yet to be established Industrial Chemicals Act and the recently introduced Environmental Management and Coordination Bill (1999) may be able to handle regulatory, environmental, health and safety aspects of wood preservation in Kenya.
G Ochiel


List of Centre Technique du Bois translations in French
1985 - IRG/WP 1273
Anonymous


Preservative treatment and field test monitoring of spruce pole stock: Pressure and diffusible chemical treatments
1990 - IRG/WP 3605
One hundred and forty four spruce (test species) and southern yellow pine (reference species) poles were variously treated by center boring, incising, or kerfing, followed by pressure treatment with CCA and/or diffusible preservatives. The diffusible preservatives included NaF/creosote, borax and ammonium bifluoride. The poles were set at a test site and evaluated for preservative distribution and fungal invasion after one year of exposure. A narrow incising pattern was needed to obtain adequate CCA penetration even when a 'pulsation' pressure treatment schedule was used. Of the internally applied diffusible preservatives, both borax and ammonium bifluoride were found to diffuse successfully throughout the groundline region of the spruce pole stock. This treatment prevented invasion of decay fungi into the poles. A low incidence of fungal attack was observed in the CCA treated spruce that had been kerfed but not additionally treated with diffusible preservatives. Although additional years data are needed to make definitive recommendations, protection of spruce poles appears to be achievable through the use of either kerfing, or diffusible chemical treatment, in incised/CCA pressure treated stock.
B Goodell, A J Pendlebury


The new method of detecting decay in poles
1984 - IRG/WP 2229
In 1982 the Swedish Telecoms Administration in corporation with the Swedish Dog Training Centre started to investigate the possibility of using dogs for detecting decay in poles. At present two German Sheppheards and two Labrador Retrievers are in operation and the results have up to now well fulfilled our expectations. The following results have been obtained: 1.) The dogs can with high reliability indicate salt-treated poles with a diameter reduction of 40 millimeters ore more (Soft Rot). 2.) The method is usable in all seasons. We believe that we during 1984 can develope a method to discover inside decay in salt-treated poles, decay in Creosoted poles and storage-decay in "white" (untreated) poles. The pole route is divided into sections containing 6-8 poles. A pole record is compiled and "search" is performed at one section at the time. If the dog indicates (strong, weak or no indication) a pole, this is noted in the record. Then the dog is resting while the inspector completes inspection of the section. Normally, indicated poles are directly exposed and decay damages measured, but if poles are frozen this is performed by an other inspector at a more suitable season. The advantages of this method are: i) This method is faster than the ordinary as you are spared from exposing those poles the dog indicates as acceptable (e.g. no indication). ii) Poles with decay damages (as a defind limit value) are indicated more accuratly than with other methods. iii) Better accuracy of pole replacement time (e.g. less per centage replaced poles).
A Ammer, B Svedberg


Performance of wood exterior structures above ground in Spain. Performance and durability of a shelter of spruce in a shopping centre after 20 years
2022 - IRG/WP 22-20680
Across Europe is very common to find wood exterior structures mainly build in sawn and glue-laminated wood. Most of these exterior wood structures use softwood wood species such as: fir, spruce, pine or douglas. In Spain exterior wood structures, became more and more popular since nineties, when sawn and glue-laminated wood were utilized for building exterior wood structures in overall Spain. In most cases, damages due to early decays appear before ten years of service life and the magnitude and extent of the damages can be important and in some wood exterior structures, the magnitude and extent of the damage due to early decay is such that it has reduced the cross section and strength of wood components, affecting the safety of these structures. The aim of this study is to understand the key factors in the performance and durability of wood exterior structures in Spain affecting by early decays, showing the case study of an wood exterior structure located in the city of Ponferrada in the Northwest of Spain, analyzing the influence of the diversity wood species, preservative treatments and protection by design (detail designs); combined with the variability of environmental conditions (different climatic zones and exposure to weathering), use classes and position and thickness of wood elements and the influence in the emergence of early pathological processes associated primarily with fungal decay (wood destroying fungi) and wood destroying insects in lesser extent.
D Lorenzo, A Lozano, M Alonso, J Fernández-Golfín, M Touza, J Benito