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Proposed method for out-of-ground contact trials of exterior joinery protection systems
1981 - IRG/WP 2157
Methods for testing the efficacy of preservative treatments for exterior joinery are described using the format of a European Standard. Commercially used treatments applied to jointed test units (L-joints) which are then protected by conventional finishes are exposed to normal outdoor hazards out of ground contact. Assessment is made a) by determining eventual failure through decay and b) by destructive examination of replicate treated and untreated units, after increasing time intervals, rating comparative performance in terms of wood permeability increase and the progress of microbial colonisation.
J K Carey, D F Purslow, J G Savory


CEN Draft (38 N 460E) Standard: Test method for determining the protective effectiveness of a preservative in the marine environment
1986 - IRG/WP 4132
This European Standard describes a marine test method which provides a basis for asseasing the effectiveness of a wood preservative used to prevent attack of timber in sea-water by marine borers. The method is only suitable for testing preservatives which are intended to prevent attack by marine wood boring organisms of treated timber for use in more or less permanent contact with sea-water. It is not suitable for assessing the effectiveness of preservatives against micro-organisms. The main objective of the method described is to evaluate the relative effectiveness of a wood preservative applied by vacuum/pressure impregnation. For this reason permeable timbers are used throughout so that the protective efficacy of various retentions of the preservative can be determined. However, it is recognized that modifications of the method may be used for other purposes, e.g. to determine the relative efficacy of a preservative treatment or to determine the natural durability of the heartwood and sapwood of a selected timber species. The method is primarily intended for testing in temperate waters where Teredine and Limnoria borers dominate. However, it is also capable of being used in tropics where attack by Pholads and specific Crustacean borers may be very destructive. It has to be considered that the test has to be run for a minimum period (usually for 5 years or until the point of failure) before any interpretation of the results can be made. Variations in the test conditions can be expected from one test site to another depending on temperature, salinity, population density of the various borer species etc. This will inevitably influence the general rate of attack. However, by comparing the results obtained for samples treated with the test product with those obtained with a reference preservative and those obtained with untreated control samples, the relative protective effectiveness of the product tested can be evaluated.
G Castan


CEN Draft Standard (38 N 460F): Méthode d'essai pour determiner l'efficacité d'un produit de préservation du bois en milieu marin
1986 - IRG/WP 4132 F
G Castan


Rapport sur l'activité du CEN/TC 38 "Méthodes d'essais des produits de préservation du bois"
1982 - IRG/WP 2188
M Pottevin


Information from the COIPM Wood Group
1986 - IRG/WP 4130
The Chairman outlined the progress of the co-operative work "testing the resistance to marine borers of heat shrinkable polyolefin sheathings and of wood treated by vacuum/pressure with polymers (polystyrene)". The first part of the work has been started: the samples of wood wrapped with shrinkable polyolefin sheathings have been prepared and sent to the stations participating. The second part of the programme has for the moment been stopped because in some preliminary trials samples treated with polystyrene have shown a light to moderate attack by molluscan and crustacean borers after 18 months' immersion. The results of these trials have been related and supported by photos and X-ray pictures. Four other stations are involved in this programme: three have been made available by Hempel Technology in Copenhagen (Denmark) and one by CNEXO (France). A presentation was given of the project for a European Standard "Field test method for determining the protective effectiveness of a preservative in the marine environment" which had been prepared by Professor Björn Henningsson (Sweden) and considered in the CEN meeting in September 1985. The participants were informed of the research being carried out by the IRG Marine Wood Preservation Group and the minutes of the 12th Meeting held in Brazil during May 1985 were presented.
A Gambetta


Assessing the performance of wood preservatives from biological tests - the European approach
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20040
The impetus for the European Standardisation Committee to undertake the development of a performance standard for characterising the effectiveness of wood preservatives from biological tests, lies in the Construction Products Directive. This is effectively the European Community law which provides the basis for Construction Products to be traded across all member states without technical or regulatory barriers and without having to undergo further testing or re-certification. The performance standard covering wood preservatives is EN 599 and it defines the performance which preservative products will be required to achieve in specific laboratory and field tests, in order to be accepted and marketed as suitable for particular conditions of use. Five hazard classes of use are defined in another standard (EN 355-1) and EN 599 lists the specific biological tests required for each hazard class, the maximum amount of the product that can be applied in each test, the need for pre-leaching or pre-ageing and the rationale for deriving a value (the biological reference value) for the minimum amount of product deemed effective in each test. The highest biological reference value determined from all the tests is defined as the critical value and it is this value which is carried forward to the standard covering treated wood (EN 351) to provide the basis for defining the minimum amount of product required for effectiveness within treated commodities. EN 599 lists the minimum testing requirements for each hazard class together with optional additional tests to provide efficacy assessment against a wider range of target pests or to increase confidence in the critical value by incorporating data from longer-term field tests. The standard also describes the requirements for marking and labelling preservative products to describe their suitability for specific uses. Work on EN 599 commenced in 1988 and its development has required negotiated agreement between the 18 member states of the CEN/CENELEC region with 12 different working languages and 3 different official languages for documentation. EN 599 is now at the final stage of submission to vote and the decision on its adoption and implementation will be announced before the end of 1994.
A F Bravery


Fungi used in standard tests on the toxicity value of wood preservatives in various European countries
1975 - IRG/WP 255
The aim of the present paper is to make the comparative analysis of test fungi used in various European countries in order to define the toxicity value of wood preservatives against fungi of the Basidiomycetes class. Only the methods with national standard rank, present on the currently binding standards list are taken for consideration. The analysis of similarities and differences in the choice of test fungi used in these methods should be a further step in the investigation on the unification of the test methods
J Wazny


Towards harmonisation of regional approaches for an International Standard for the approval of wood preservatives
1997 - IRG/WP 97-20122
Recent proposals from the European Standards body (CEN) for an ISO Standard on wood preservatives has initiated debate on whether there is any prospect of an acceptable common approach among ISO member countries, to a harmonised framework of hazard classes, with agreed supporting biological tests, leading to a unified rationale for demonstrating compliance with minimum performance standards for specific preservatives in specific end-uses. This paper discusses a potential framework for developing an International Standard prescribing hazard classes and the biological test methods capable of supporting a common approach to the approval or standardisation of a wood preservative system. An approach is proposed which incorporates elements of existing standards or protocols used in Europe, Japan, Australasia, South Africa and North America based on the framework of European Standard EN599 but adopting regional variants with incorporation of field testing for the suggested Hazard Classes 2, 3, 4a, 4b and 5. The proposals are intended to initiate development of a consensus process rather than to suggest a solution in itself. However, it is hoped that the framework provided will allow the discussion process to advance more effectively and harmoniously.
A F Preston, A F Bravery


Eucalyptus globulus. Impregnability in relation with plantation and crop
1992 - IRG/WP 92-2402
Eucalyptus globulus Lasill is currently classified in Pr EN 350 on the basis of the characteristics of the first log. In practice, there are usually several following crops of branches developped on each stump in plantations. Up to a diameter of 8 cm, round wood of 2nd crop and further crops present a maximum of sapwood and characteristics which differ significantly from the basic classification and justify an amendment of the standard for the purpose of use in ground contact as impregnated stakes.
D Dirol


Evaluation of the european standard ENV 12038 for durability testing of plywood
2001 - IRG/WP 01-20237
The latest improved version of the standard ENV 12038 drafted as document N44 by CEN Technical Committee 38 (WG 7 - WG 23) is used to evaluate the effect of wood composition and structure on plywood durability. The method described is based on the agar-block test of the EN 113 standard used for the determination of the efficacy of wood preservatives and the assessment of the natural durability of timber. This test method differs from the soil-block test commonly used in North America and vermiculite test procedures used earlier for plywood testing. The ENV 12038 method is essentially developed to deviate minimal from the European basidiomycete tests currently established. Therefor it was important to evaluate whether or not vermiculite or soil as a test medium could be replaced by a malt- agar medium using an adequate preconditioning of panel specimens prior to fungal testing. Based on two consecutive experiments both test methodology and the assessment of plywood durability are investigated. Plywood is a material that allows a direct evaluation of test methods for assessing the durability of board materials in comparison with test methods used for solid wood. The presence of glue-lines and the layered structure based on solid wood veneers enables to investigate in detail the impact of wood composition as well as the type and amount of glue. Preconditioning plywood prior to testing according to ENV 12038 proved to be essential. However the impact of the glue is not entirely eliminated that way.
J Van Acker, M Stevens, E De Clercq


Physiological properties of fungal test strains according to the European Standard EN 113
1986 - IRG/WP 2258
For the discussion of the European standard EN 113 the EMPA's procedure of culturing the test fungi and the corresponding virulence of the test fungi as well as the wood moisture content at the end of the test are shown. It is mainly shown that within the standard the choice of the solvent may not be left at the test lab if reproducible results shall be obtained. The different solvents influence in different form the wood decomposition values due to fungal attack. A water leaching of the wood specimen impregnated with solvents generally Further increases the negative effect of the solvent on the fungi. It is therefore the task of the Technical Committee of the European Committee for Standardization (CEN/TC3B) to agree to a standard solvent and to evaluate this in the original state as well as after a leaching followed by uniform drying periods by means of an interlaboratory test.
E Graf, B Zgraggen, P Manser


Aggressiveness of Reticulitermes species in laboratory test
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10026
In European Standards concerned with the preventive action of wood preservatives against termites, i.e. EN 117, EN 118 the obligatory test species is Reticulitermes santonensis. It is argued that this species is more aggressive than the second European Reticulitermtes species, Reticulitermes lucifugus. Since Reticulitermes santonensis is confined to certain smaller areas in France and thus not readily available and since furthermore experimental data are not at hand, a comparative laboratory investigation on the wood consumption of several Reticulitermes species was performed employing the experimental setup of EN 117. It was shown that a comparative evaluation of the aggressiveness of different species should be performed on the basis of mass wood-consumption/unit body-mass rather than comparing the consumption rates per individual. There is no indication of a significant difference in aggressiveness between Reticulitermes santonensis and Reticulitermes lucifugus when tested under the experimental conditions of EN 117.
H Hertel, S Pantos, D Rudolph


Overview of European discussions on Standardisation and list of proposed standards for WPC performance qualification
2006 - IRG/WP 06-20345
The standardisation is a driving force to promote the development of Wood Polymer Composites (WPC) by giving confidence to users and consumers. In Europe, the high interest of WPC require at this time a diffusion of information concerning the performances of WPC products. The WPC performances must be assessed according relevant standards in order to qualify the intrinsic properties of WPC (mechanical properties, physical properties, durability, …). WPC processing and environmental aspects must be taken in account. A CEN/TC 249 WG 13 "Wood Plastics Composites (WPC)" have been created in 2005. In France, a French Standardisation committee BNPP/BNBA T54 W has been created in France in 2004, jointly by the BNPP (Bureau de Normalisation des Plastiques et de la Plasturgie) and the BNBA (Bureau de Normalisation du Bois et de l'Ameublement). A high interest of French companies from the two sectors have been observed. An overview of European discussions on Standardisation and list of proposed standards for WPC performance qualification are discussed. Following discussions in very at European level will be to define a list of suggested standards elaborated to qualify plastics and wood-based products and to propose relevant standards to qualify WPC. Current discussions are on going at this time in CEN/TC 249 WG13 and in French standadisation committee T54W to select and to propose change of the standards (ISO standards, EN standards and other document) in order to purpose test methods for characterisation of WPC material and products. Future works will be done in 2006 to validate these documents and to purpose standards.
G Labat, M Vernois, T Gay


Resistance of DMDHEU-treated pine wood against termite and fungi attack in field testing according to EN 252. Results after 30 months
2006 - IRG/WP 06-40354
The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness against decay and termite attack of pine sapwood treated with pure and modified DMDHEU in a field test according to European Standard EN 252. Some of the treatments tested were able to increase, within the period of the test reported (30 months), the resistance of the wood both to micro-organisms and termites. The curing process seems to be the key factor for this increase as WPG (weight percent gain) of the modified wood alone was not sufficient for the prediction of the long-term performance.
S Schaffert, L Nunes, A Krause, H Militz


Focus on the European standardization - Towards a revision of the EN 350 natural durability standard: a different approach to the inherent resistance and performance of wood and wood-based materials
2013 - IRG 13-10811
The European standard EN 350 “Natural durability of solid wood”, Parts 1 and 2, is one of the fundamental standards developed by the CEN/TC 38 “Durability of wood and wood-based products”. This standard is widely used by wood industries as the reference document which provides information on the resistance of wood species used in mainly the construction sector against decay fungi, wood-boring beetles and termites as well as information on wood species’ capacity to be impregnated with wood preservatives. The standard also refers to the appropriate standards for testing these properties of wood and provides criteria of interpretation of such tests’ results. The changes that have occurred over the last few decades on the European market, including the appearance of new wood-based products such as modified wood, the publication and application of new regulations (Biocidal Directive/Regulation, Construction Products Directive/Regulation) and the evolutions of customers’ expectations in terms of the service life of the wood-based products which they may use, make it crucial to initiate a deep revision of the EN 350 standard. The new version would take into account the revisions made recently in related existing standards, the modifications that have occurred on the European market of wood products, and the outcomes of recent national and European research projects in order to provide a robust and relevant decision tool to all those who rely on wood.
M Kutnik


Potential valorization of wood extractives from waste products of steam distillation of Aniba rosaeodora: antitermitic activity
2013 - IRG/WP 13-30629
Aniba rosaeodora, is a slow growing evergreens of the Lauraceae family which are indigenous over a wide range of the Greater Amazon Region (the Guianas and Venezuela, Brazilian Amazon…). The essential oil obtained from the wood has a characteristic aroma and is a long-established ingredient in the more expensive perfumes. The wood is also composed with alkaloid compounds like anibin. These compounds contribute to the protection of the wood against insects and fungi. This work is focused on the valorization of steam distillated sawdust; the sawdust was extracted with methanol in order to study the antitermitic activity of the extract. The methanolic extract shows an efficacy against termites at low concentrations according to the EN 117 standard.
N Amusant, A Digeon


Performance classification of wood in construction – drafting a user friendly European standard
2014 - IRG/WP 14-20545
The performance classification for wood products in construction is an extremely important topic in Europe and beyond – warranty providers and end users demand service life and performance information in the face of competition with other materials. The European project PerformWOOD has formalised and drawn together the on-going research to focus on generation of a material resistance factor for performance classification and alongside WG28 is developing the first moisture dynamic test protocols in the Technical Committee’s history, again based on research work being drawn together. In this paper some of the early concepts around a future user friendly standard to enable wood and enhanced durability wood to be specified by construction professionals on the basis of performance are considered. A draft standard (EN460) for consideration of performance classification of wood in construction is underway and relies on concepts that are being road-tested with industry, construction professionals, researchers and the general public.
E Suttie, C Brischke, L Meyer, J Van Acker, M Kutnik, E Heisel, F Englund, J Jermer, S Thelandersson, M Polášek, D Lorenzo


Can CCA be substituted as reference preservative?
2018 - IRG/WP 18-20641
While field testing of wood protective formulations remains probably the best method to find out the effective preservative concentration, the use of chrome-copper arsenate (CCA) as reference becomes debatable due to environmental and legislative reasons. This emerges from the European standardization bodies who have discussed reference alternatives that can omit the use of CCA. The present debate article suggests one possible approach to cope with the problem. CCA has served in the tests fields of the Nordic countries for more than 50 years and thus, offers a solid database for modelling of its behaviour and service life in in-ground conditions. Based on data from the field of Simlångsdalen (Sweden), this paper outlines a simple but reliable model that can substitute the use of CCA. Seventeen tests were included into the model; some extremes, i.e. very short or long test durations were discarded. Statistical analysis shows that both logarithmic and linear regressions can describe the decay index in a similar way. Some applications of the model to real test data that the Technical Group at the Nordic Wood Protection Council works with have been compared to the standard method based on the European standard EN 599-1. Results demonstrated that the model generates similar data of formulation concentrations compared to the standard method. It is suggested that identical models, based on data from the other Nordic fields, could be developed and applied. The proposed method demands a wide discussion between the testing and standardization bodies for further practical implementation.
N Terziev, M Jebrane, P Larsson Brelid, N Morsing, P-O Flaete, P Torniainen, J S Kim, G Daniel


JWPA method for testing effectiveness of surface coatings with preservatives against decay fungi
1981 - IRG/WP 2164
In 1979 JWPA established a new method for testing effectiveness of surface coatings in accordance with practical use of preservative-treated lumber. Comparing the new testing method with JIS A 9302, a few new trials - size of wood specimen, weathering procedure, and decay-test procedure - are incorporated.
K Tsunoda


How to Document the Performance of Super-Critical Treated Wood in above Ground Situations?
2005 - IRG/WP 05-20316
The paper presents practical experiences from the preparation of a new preservative treated wood product for introduction to the market. The product in question is Superwood™, which is treated with organic biocides using CO2 in a supercritical state as a solvent. The question is how to evaluate the performance of a new product such as Superwood™ in order to get an acceptance on the market and fulfil the formal requirements. In the European Union countries, the EN 599-1 is the standard that needs to be complied when approving a new product for the market, but it only focuses on the toxic limit against representative decay fungi according to EN 113. However, decay test, above ground and other forms of field tests are optional, this is not in line with the traditional test philosophy in the Scandinavian countries. The open question is to which extent treatment to the level of the toxic threshold value also ensures a long service life and expected performance of the treated commodity. Superwood™ is evaluated using a strategy, in which basic laboratory tests are done to get the toxic value (according to EN 599-1) and in addition a number of field tests are done including accelerated testing in the tropics. These tests are focussed on the evaluation of the performance criteria such as durability and service life and maintenance requirements. These questions must be answered by the producer without having a full record of performance test for their new products. A short status on the test performed on super-critical treated wood (Superwood™) is presented. Based on a comparison between field test in Scandinavia and in the tropical Malaysia a service life of more than 25 years for a specific supercritical treated product is estimated. It is stated that the existing European standardisation system is insufficient when it comes to service life prediction. A number of important questions need to be addressed by the European standardisation system as soon as possible because the market and the public opinion change quickly due to environmental concern.
N Morsing, A H H Wong, F Imsgard, O Henriksen


European Biocides Directive (98/8/EC): Programme for systematic examination of all active substances of biocidal products on the market on May 13, 2000 Article 16(2)
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-03
PPT-Presentation
K Rasmussen, A B Payá Pérez


Wood preservation in Lithuania
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30363
This article is intended to give basic information on wood preservation activities in Lithuania and the main actors in wood preservations practice and research. Currently the main actors in practical Lithuanian wood preservation activity are enterprises of wood preservation industry united by the Lithuanian Wood Preservation Association. The most intensive activity in wood preservation practice and research started after 2001. The only active institution in wood preservation research currently is Lithuanian Forest Research Institute with 2 running projects. Lithuanian University of Agriculture and Kaunas University of Technology are active in standardization and have potential to start research. Main obstacles for future development of wood preservation research are: insufficient interest of industry in research and lack of skilled scientists.
J Saladis


Report on the activities of the European Standardization Committee CEN/TC 38 'Methods of Testing wood preservatives'
1980 - IRG/WP 279 E
G Castan


Thermal treatment of wood: European Processes and their background
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40241
Recent efforts on thermal treatment of wood lead to the development of several processes introduced to the European market during the last few years. The total production capacity of heat treated wood in 2001 is estimated as approx. 165.000 m3. In the paper the different heat processes are presented. The general technology as well as scientific data on the chemical transformation of the cell wall polymers, on the biological performance, on the physical and mechanical properties of the treated wood are presented and discussed
H Militz


Bioaccumulation of pentachlorophenol in rainbow trout and zebra fish muscles
1986 - IRG/WP 3372
The bioaccumulation of pentachlorophenol in Rainbow Trout and Zebra fish has been evaluated by partition coefficient n-octanol/water determination at ph 7 and measured in vivo according to the OECD guidelines and the European directive 79/831/EEC. The obtained results confirm the low bioaccumulation potential of this product in aquatic organims.
J C Palla, M Dion


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