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Structural defects in CCA treated timber fence posts: A case study.
1997 - IRG/WP 97-40084
Since 1983 an environmental improvement programme has been in progress in the city of Dundee. This programme included the erection of rail and pale timber fencing throughout the city. The timbers had been pressure treated with CCA prior to painting with 2 coats of an exterior wood stain finish. However, the larger dimension timber fence posts (100 x 125 x 1500 mm3) regularly developed severe checks/shakes in service. These defects raised questions regarding the continued use of timber as a fencing material by the municipal authoritiy due to concerns relating to the long term efficacy of preservative treatment and timber durability. Statistical models generated from visual and physical measurements of aged post timbers recovered from field sites in the city indicated that a reduction in the development of structural defects was associated with lower heartwood:sapwood ratios. The sites from which posts were recovered also influenced defect development indicating inconsistent timber quality specifications and/or pronounced variation in environmental conditions at each site. This paper highlights the problem of many municipal authorities who, through lack of available information, fail to implement specifications for treated timber components tailored to their specific requirements.
S Muhsin, D C R Sinclair, A Bruce, H J Staines

Service life prediction of wooden components – Part 2: Impact of material, exposure and design details
2010 - IRG/WP 10-20440
Dose-response functions permit to estimate the moisture and temperature induced decay potential for any wooden building component and exposure, and thus the service life to be expected. In part 1 of this series dose-response functions were established as a result of double layer field trials carried out at 24 European test sites over up to eight years. Using them makes it no longer necessary to conduct field trials as long as decay actually occurs. They allow determining dose-time functions for a certain construction detail over shortened time periods (2 3 years). Within this paper we present the test set up of different studies aiming on quantifying the impact of material, exposure and design details on the service life to be expected for wooden components. Therefore long-term moisture recordings were applied to different wooden commodities, e. g. fence posts, pickets, decking, and facades. Furthermore, the impact of orientation, distance to the ground, and driving rain load on facade panels was studied. Finally dose-time functions will be recorded for ten different wood species used in horizontal and vertical orientation. First results from the various studies including preliminary service life estimation for various components are also presented.
C Brischke, B Lauenstein, M Bilstein, T Bornemann, A O Rapp

Field test evaluation of preservatives and treatment methods for fence posts
1985 - IRG/WP 3347
This work presents the field test results after fifteen years exposure of Eucalyptus saligna fence posts treated with six different preservatives and five treatment methods. All the combinations with oil-borne preservatives presented the best results and among the waterborne preservatives, the fence posts treated by immersion method were with the lowest performance in the field test.
G A C Lopez, E S Lepage

Fire resistance of preservative treated fence posts
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30033
Pine fence posts were pressure treated separately with CCA-C, CCA-wax, CCA-oil and creosote. Treated posts and untreated controls were planted in the ground in a randomised block design, weathered for six months and then subjected to a controlled burning test using two fuel loads. Creosote treatment increased the time that posts were alight whereas CCA treatment had no such effect. However, CCA treated posts smouldered until destruction of the majority of the posts occurred. Posts treated with CCA-oil took longer for destruction to occur than posts treated with CCA-C or CCA-wax. Creosote treated posts and untreated controls did not show prolonged smouldering and consequently were not destroyed by the burning test, although their strength was reduced. A high fuel load increased the time that posts were alight and smouldering, and for CCA treated posts decreased their time to destruction.
P D Evans, P J Beutel, C F Donnelly, R B Cunningham

Performance of treated fence posts after 6 years in five test plots in the State of Sao Paulo - Brazil
1976 - IRG/WP 376
Fence posts treated with creosote, pentachlorophenol and creosote/ pentachlorophenol mixtures showed good performance after 6 years of exposure in five test plots located in the State of Sao Paulo - Brazil. Good results were also achieved with copper sulphate/sodium arsenate and copper sulphate/potassium dichromate mixtures. Fungi and termites were the main destroying agents found attacking the posts.
M S Cavalcante

Pinus and Eucalyptus fenceposts treated with creosote and solvex tar by hot and cold open-tank process
1987 - IRG/WP 3455
A comparative study of the behaviour of two different wood preservatives, creosote and solvex-tar, was made, using two wood species, Pinus pinaster Ait and Eucalyptus globulus Labill, by the hot and cold open-tank process. Results showed that the creosote behaved better in relation with the uniformity of its distribution in wood. On the other hand, better results were obtained on Pinus for both preservatives.
M V Baonza Merino

Preservative treatment of Eucalyptus saligna fence posts by the double-diffusion method
1982 - IRG/WP 3196
Eucalyptus saligna fence posts treated by the double-diffusion method with two chemical combinations showed average lives of 11.2 years (copper sulphate and potassium dichromate at 10.5 kg/m³ retention)and of 14.3 years (copper sulphate and sodium mono-H arsenate at 7.1 kg/m³ retention), as determined in five test sites in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The exponential model was the best fit when expressing average life by the Decay Index (DI) as a function of time.
E S Lepage, A R De Freitas

Effect of water repellents on leaching from CCA treated wood
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50044
CCA treated fence boards brushed with a water repellent finish had consistently lower leaching losses of all CCA components compared to the rate for matched samples without the water repellent. These results are after 12 cycles of simulated rainfall in the laboratory (1800 mm rainfall total) and four months of natural rain exposure in Toronto.
P A Cooper, R MacVicar

Creosoted radiata pine by non-pressure methods
1988 - IRG/WP 3486
Posts of Pinus radiata have been impregnated with creosote by immersion for 1, 3, and 7 days, and by hot-and-cold open tank with hot bath temperatures at 40°C and 60°C. On the basis of the retention rates obtained, suitable procedures are described for wood elements that are going to be in ground contact, and an analysis is made of the way in which the variables tested affect the results.
M V Baonza Merino, C De Arana Moncada

Studies on the infestation behaviour of the powder-post beetle Lyctus brunneus (Steph.) and its physical control in the wood yards of the Caspian forests of Iran
1985 - IRG/WP 1271
Lyctus brunneus (Steph.) is a pest which has not been previously thoroughly studied in Iran. It severely attacks Iranian hardwoods, especially those used in wooden houses and that have not been treated. Research work was necessary to determine the natural resistance of the most important timber species in Iran against this insect.
P Niloufari

Production of treated wood in Brazil in 1982 and 1983
1985 - IRG/WP 3327
The data of Brazilian production of treated sleepers, poles, crossarms, fence posts and other commodities are given for the years of 1982 and 1983. This report updates information given to the Group in Document No: IRG/WP/3321 Wood Preservation in Brazil, STU information no 445
M S Cavalcante

The effect of sapwood on the rate of deterioration of fence posts
1986 - IRG/WP 1277
In order to evaluate the effect of the presence of sapwood on the rate of deterioration of fence posts, 30 specimens with and without sapwood of Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus paniculata, Eucalyptus saligna and Eucalyptus tereticornis were exposed in three test sites in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The results of the inspection carried out in 1985, after 5 years of exposure, are reported in the present paper.
M S Cavalcante, G A C Lopez, E S F Mucci, R G Montagna

Rates of emission from CCA-treated wood in the marine environment: measurement, modelling and requirements for further research
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-12
Accurate estimates of rates of emission of leachate from preservative treated wood are crucial for realistic predictions of the environmental impact of its use in maritime construction. Estimates are available for some commonly used preservatives, but these vary widely. Though variable, these measurements suggest that emission generally decreases exponentially with time. Part of the variation is due to differences in methodology employed. Physical and chemical characteristics of the seawater used (e.g. temperature, salinity, pH and oxygen content) affect emission rate. So too do the specifics of the treatment process especially the preservative formulation used, and pre- and post-treatment handling of the wood. The nature of the treated wood samples is also important, with misleadingly high estimates being obtained from samples with unrepresentatively high proportions of cross-cut surfaces. A suggested strategy for developing an informative and standardised methodology is discussed. To form useful models of impacts of leaching, emission rates need to be considered in conjunction with site-specific information regarding a) water exchange rates between the area where leaching occurs and the sea, and b) the extent of partitioning of leachate between the water column, biota and sediment. The risk of environmental impact may be reduced by modification to treatment procedures and by careful planning of installation.
S M Cragg, C J Brown, R A Albuquerque, R A Eaton

The resistance of fifteen Indonesian tropical wood species to the powder post beetle Heterobostrychus aequalis
1990 - IRG/WP 1429
A preliminary laboratory test on the resistance of 15 tropical wood species to Heterobostrychus aequalis has been carried out using small samples of 7.5 x 5 x 1.5 cm³. The results reveal that Pinus merkusii and Agathis borneensis are very susceptible to Heterobostrychus aequalis. Other 13 species vary between susceptible to resistance There is no signifisant relation between starch content and the infestation of Heterobostrychus aequalis in the fifteen wood species.
Jasni, Nana Supriana

Surface Barriers for Protection of Culture and Heritage Wooden Objects from Insect Attack
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40286
Anoxic treatment is an environment friendly procedure for eradication of wood boring insects in wooden objects of cultural and historical heritage. However, after the anoxic treatment, wooden antiques remain susceptible to further insect attacks. Possible protection against insects could be provided by the so-called post-repression protective barriers. Potential coating materials for such barriers to be used on hidden unpainted surfaces of wooden antiques were investigated. We studied relevant properties of five different coating materials: thickness, hardness by resistance to scratching, adhesion, flexibility, resistance to temperature changes, conformability to the concept of reversibility and bioresistance against wood boring insects. The most promising results were exhibited by the coating that is commercially used for protection of fresh log ends in forests, immediately after a tree is cut.
M Petric, M Pavlic, B Kricej, M Humar, F Pohleven

Copper naphthenate-treated Southern Pine pole stubs in field exposure. -Part 2: Chemical characterization of full size pole stubs 12 years after treatment
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30246
This study examines the influence of pre-treatment and post-treatment steaming on the character and physio-chemical nature of copper naphthenate in hydrocarbon solvent treated pine in larger, pole diameter, pole stub-length samples. This work is the continuation of two projects that began almost a decade ago. Previous reports indicated that certain morphological changes might occur in small laboratory steamed samples of copper naphthenate treated southern pine. Toluene-methanol extraction, UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) were used to investigate the nature and properties of the copper naphthenate present in the wood after 12 years of exposure. The formation of solid cuprous oxide occurred regardless of pre- or post-steaming conditioning.
H M Barnes, D P Kamdem, M H Freeman

Some statistics on the Brazilian Wood Preservation Industry: 1980-81
1982 - IRG/WP 3214
Statistical data on the production of pressure treated wood and on the consumption of wood preservatives are given for the years of 1980 and 1981 in Brazil.
M S Cavalcante, F C Geraldo, A R De Freitas

A laboratory method for assessing the effectiveness of remedial treatments in preventing post-treatment emergence of Anobium punctatum
1982 - IRG/WP 2175
R W Berry

Production of treated wood in Brazil in 1984
1986 - IRG/WP 3357
The data of the Brazilian production of sleepers, poles, crossarms, fence posts and other commodities are given for the year of 1984.
M S Cavalcante

Effects of some essential oils on wood destroying organisms
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10047
Three wood destroying fungi: Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat. (stain), Gloeophyllum sepiarium (brown rot), and Pycnoporus sanguineus (white rot) were exposed to six plant essential oils: the peppermint, kaffir lime or leech lime, lavender, tarragon, holy basil, and the eucalyptus. The peppermint oil showed most effective to inhibit fungal growth, while eucalypus oil was the least effective. The other oils inhibition rate varied according to the species of fungi. In the experiment of the powder post beetles Heterobostrychus aequalis Waterh., the insects were killed within three days in the oil of tarragon, eucalyptus and holy basil, while in lavender oil they could live to ten days the same as controls. But on the contrary in the oil of peppermint and kaffir lime, some of them could even lived longer than the controls.
K Atisongkroh, C Anantachoke, P Lekuthai, S Pensook, T Kittirattrakarn

Spatial arrangement of lignin peroxidase in pine decayed by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Fomitopsis pinicola
1988 - IRG/WP 1343
By applying immunoelectronmicroscopic methods, lignin peroxidase of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been localized in the cytoplasm of hyphae, close to the plasmalemma and on the plasmalemma. Infiltration of wood specimen with culture filtrates, concentrated 300-fold, gave clear information on the penetration of the enzyme into the wood cell wall. Penetration was restricted to superficial areas. No diffusion of enzymes into the cell wall took place in white rot. Likewise, infiltration of wood. degraded by the brown rot fungus Fomitopsis pinicola, did not indicate free diffusion of the enzyme within the cell wall. This was taken as a proof of non-ezymatic cell wall degradation in brown rot.
E Srebotnik, K Messner

Creosote immersion treatments in fence-posts of Castanea sativa, Pinus nigra and Pinus halepensis
1988 - IRG/WP 3488
The method of soaking in creosote was applied to fenceposts of Castanea sativa, Pinus nigra and Pinus halepensis, taking into account its easy use in the field. Absorption, retention and penetration rates were recorded and analysed. Absorption rates were higher in Pinus nigra than in Pinus halepensis, and lowest in Castanea sativa. Thin fence-posts always absorbed more preservative than thick ones. Penetration rates were similar in both pines, and much higher than in Castanea sativa. Retention levels were almost the same in Pinus nigra and Castanea sativa, and lower in Pinus halepensis.
C De Arana Moncada

Performance of chromated copper arsenate-treated aspen fence posts installed in Forintek's Eastern test plot from 1951 to 1963
1984 - IRG/WP 3272
Aspen poplar fence posts were pressure treated by the full cell process using three formulations of copper chrome arsenate wood preservative. A total of one hundred and fifty nine of the posts were installed in service in Forintek's Chalk River post plot from 1951 to 1962. During the 1982 general inspection of the post plot all 159 posts were still in service. A groundline inspection was carried out on the material to determine the extent to which decay had progressed during this period. Samples were taken from the surface of tanalith C treated posts and subsequent microscopic examination revealed that soft rot attack was present in the outer portion of posts. The groundline area of posts treated with (K 33), CCA type B and (greensalt) CCA type A were in generally good condition after 22 years and 31 years respectively. Rate of decay was highest for CCA-C tanalith treated posts at 0.3 mm per year with a retention of 3.04 kg/m³ oxides.
C D Ralph

Performance of treated and untreated sawn fence posts of Scots pine and Norway spruce
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30247
Sawn fence posts are a rather important product and the objective of this trial was to assess their durability. In 1985 a field trial with treated and untreated fence posts of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) was set out at the test field in Ultuna, Uppsala, Sweden. The posts had a dimension of 75 x 100 x 1400 mm3. The preservatives applied were a CCA, an ammoniacal copper and a creosote. In 1991 fence posts of the same species and size were set out at the test field in Simlångsdalen, Sweden and the preservatives used were a CCA and an ammoniacal copper quaternary compound. The assessment showed that all treated fence posts were attacked very little (mean rating 0 - 0.5) during the first 3 - 4 years at the two test sites. After 7 to 8 years the mean ratings were around 1.0 (slight decay). In Ultuna, after 13 years of exposure, the mean ratings are around 2.0 (moderate decay). The mean service life of untreated Scots pine was 10.2 years in Ultuna and 5.4 years in Simlångsdalen and for untreated Norway spruce 7.5 and 3.2 years, respectively.
Ö Bergman

Feasibility of AE (Acoustic Emission) monitoring for the detection of the activities of wood-destroying insects
1992 - IRG/WP 92-2416
The feasibility of acoustic emission (AE) as a nondestructive testing method for the detection of the wood destroying insects was investigated. AEs were detected from the wood specimens under feeding attack of sugi bark borers or powder-post beetles. However, the feasible monitoring area of an AE sensor is influenced by the attenuation of AE amplitude, so that this could be a problem in the practical AE measurements, especially with wood specimens of higher moisture content.
Y Fujii, Y Imamura, E Shibata, M Noguchi

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