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Baiting techniques for subterranean termite control
1983 - IRG/WP 1205
The use of artificial baits, with and without toxins, have proved effective in attracting large numbers of non-mound and mound building subterranean termites in both urban and rural areas. An outline is presented of a termite baiting program which emphasises concurrent laboratory and field investigations on termite ecology, behaviour and physiology
J R J French, J P Robinson


Screening potential termiticides: Some thoughts and suggestions on methodology
1988 - IRG/WP 1363
While laboratory bioassays on the efficacy of potential termiticides against subterranean termites continues both to dominate and influence research efforts, suggestions are presented for the need to develop laboratory bioassays that more closely simulate "natural conditions". Not only is this considered desirable, but it will offer more confidence in laboratory and field evaluations and their analyses.
J R J French


A case for adopting a standardised protocol of field and laboratory bioassays to evaluate a potential soil termiticide
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20275
The rationale for adopting a new approach to the field testing of potential soil termiticides is advocated on the grounds that current testing methods are limited to termite bioassays and do not address quantitatively the persistence and bioavailability of soil termiticides to foraging subterranean termites over time and in different soil types. Furthermore, the present testing regimes assume field situations of uniform high termite hazard across field sites. Our testing procedures require the random sampling of soil cores from test soil pads (500 x 500 mm) at several geographically different locations. The soil cores from treated and untreated soil pads are returned to the laboratory and the soil residues in half of the samples examined for each year of test by gas chromatography. The bioavailability of termiticide residues in the remaining soil samples are evaluated by termite bioassays using the field collected subterranean termite, Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt). Both tunnelling distance and mortality are used as indicators of termiticide activity and availability. This paper compares the traditional soil test methods with our new approach, which addresses the problems of security with longevity of test, variability of termite hazard levels at different field sites, and a practical method for managing variables in assessing potential soil termiticides. Importantly, this technique prevents the direct destruction of natural populations of subterranean termites or the indirect contamination by contact from soil residues of termiticides applied in and around active termite colonies.
J R J French, B M Ahmed


Further thoughts on standard principles of testing termiticides and/or wood preservatives
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1530
At the last annual meeting in Kyoto, Japan, there was a special session devoted to the standard principles of testing termiticides. There was definitely a perceived need by researchers and industry for some guidelines that spell out basic procedures required for any methodology in testing termiticidal formulations anywhere in the world. In the testing of new potential active ingredients, consideration for the field of application (or end-use) must be uppermost. However, in the testing of these potential termiticides, laboratory and field bioassays may also indicate their potential as wood preservatives. This paper describes the protocols carried out in our Division to evaluate the potential of both termiticides and/or wood preservatives. It is hoped that this will stimulate more discussion within the group and that we may be able to refine standard principles of testing that have merit when making global comparisons in the near future.
J R J French


Standard principles of testing termiticides: A discussion paper
1991 - IRG/WP 1502
Recent restrictions and banning of termiticides such as organochlorines in some countries has focussed attention on the need for new and novel compounds as termiticides. However, this poses problems for both wood preservative manufacturers and termitologists. Test procedures have to be devised to evaluate the new termiticides so that the tests are practical, encourage vigorous termite activity, and repeatable. Thus, irrespective of geographical location and particular species of subterranean termite considered most economicially important, test procedures need to be standardised in that they follow sound principles of testing, rather than slavishly adher to another countries standard test method. This would give industry and researchers a common base-line, and allow comparative evaluations and analyses. This paper is offered in order to stimulate discussion on this important topic.
J R J French


Comparison of various types of bait containers designed to aggregate large numbers of foraging subterranean termites from natural populations in below-ground mound colonies
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10116
At Walpeup in the semi-arid mallee country of north-west Victoria (350 km from Melbourne), there are several indigenous subterranean termite species, none of which build above-ground mound colonies but build their colonies below-ground and/or in trees. This paper describes a baiting experiment in which three types of bait containers were compared in their ability to aggregate large numbers of foraging subterranean termites of the Coptotermes species. These species were targeted as they are considered the most economically important termite "pests" of wood and wood products in Australia. The area was pre-baited with radiata pine timbers that were buried just below the surface of the soil and located around trees and vegetation that were infested with Coptotermes species. After foraging termites had located and attacked the pre-baits, the various types of bait containers were installed on top of the infested pre-bait material. Bait containers were removed after five weeks and each was replaced by fresh bait containers. This occurred three times. All bait containers were transported to our laboratory in Melbourne and the mass of aggregated termites in each container weighed and wood consumption estimated. Bait containers that were half buried in the ground and covered with large plastic sheets and soil proved the most "attractive" of the various containers used in this field experiment. Also, the wood consumption rates of the two Coptotermes species collected from the field were compared in laboratory bioassays.
J R J French, B M Ahmed


A case for ecosystem-level experimentation - A discussion paper
1986 - IRG/WP 1296
Although laboratory bioassays provide a first step in testing for potential termiticides and assist in formulating recommendations of these chemicals for regulatory agencies and users, they are not designed for predicting effects on natural populations (including humans) and on ecosystem-level features. To overcome this we need microcosm studies, carefully controlled experimental manipulations of whole ecosystems run in parallel with laboratory bioassays, the gathering of long term field data, and a sound theoretical basis for extrapolation.
J R J French


Efficacy of Avermectin B1 dust and bait formulations in new simulated and accelerated field tests
1985 - IRG/WP 1257
Avermectin B1 on a silica carrier dust was used in dust and bait formulations whose efficacy against Reticulitermes flavipes was assessed in new simulated and accelerated field tests. A 0.5 mg avermectin/mg dust and a bait with 50 ppm avermectin in paper pulp sandwiched between pieces of corrugated boxboard caused nearly complete mortality in bioassays and suppression of foraging in field tests. These results indicate that the formulations can be developed into control effective gallery injection and/or bait treatments.
G R Esenther


The “wire-loop slicing technique” for the rapid field collection of large numbers of Coptotermes acinaciformis termites from above-ground mound colonies
2006 - IRG/WP 06-10583
This technique of rapidly slicing through an above-ground C. acinaciformis mound colony with a steel wire-loop attached to a vehicle allows the collection of large numbers of termites. The sliced mound topples onto a tarpaulin arranged on the ground, the outer wall layers break away in large segments, and the carton materials incorporating the termites are readily collected and transferred to large plastic containers. Termites are then separated via sieves from the carton into the collection jars and transported to a laboratory insectary for use in laboratory bioassays. This procedure requires only two people, and it is feasible to collect large numbers of termites from four mound colonies of C. acinaciformis within 8 hours. Termites are transferred into containers and transported by air to the insectary in Melbourne for use in laboratory bioassays. This slicing technique does not cause the death of mound colonies, which recover within 3-6 months.
B M Ahmed, J R J French


Review of candidate graded particle barrier testing methods in Australian Standard (AS 3660.3 – 2000): Assessment criteria for termite management systems
2009 - IRG/WP 09-20417
The Australian Standard (AS. 3660.3 – 2000) for assessment of candidate graded particle termite barriers is reviewed and suggestions for amendments are made. Areas requiring amending in light of current biological knowledge involve the inclusion of proprietary or patented systems rather than generic types; selection of test termites in the genus Coptotermes; duration of test periods; and inadequate detail proffered in the experimental design section (2.4.5) to ensure that all evaluators are conducting bioassays under similar standard conditions of temperature and relative humidity to ensure compliance with the performance criteria; and emphasise laboratory procedures that will accurately predict field performances.
J R J French, B M Ahmed (Shiday), B L Schafer


Progress report on co-operative research project on L-joint testing
1983 - IRG/WP 2192
A F Bravery, D J Dickinson, M Fougerousse


A comparison of soft rot, white rot and brown rot in CCA, CCP, CCF, CCB, TCMTB and benzalkonium chloride treated Pinus radiata IUFRO stakes, after 9-15 years exposure at five test sites in New Zealand
1991 - IRG/WP 1485
The aim of this study was to determine if decay type varies significantly between five field trial test sites of different soil type, aspect and climate in 9-15 year old, replicate CCA, CCF, CCP. CCB, TCMTB and AAC treated IUFRO stakes. A visual on-site assessment of decay type on every test stake was made and observations confirmed by microscopical examination. Regression analyses were used to determine significant differences of percentage frequency of occurrence of each rot type between sites and preservatives. Large differences in percentage frequency of occurrence of rot type were evident between sites. One site was dominated by brown rot (85%) and two were dominated by soft rot (99 and 91%). The fourth site had intermediate proportions of brown rot (40%) and soft rot (71%) but had the second highest occurrence of white rot (32%) (highest = 37%; lowest = 11%). The fifth site was distinct in that a large proportion of stakes (69%) had both well established brown rot and soft rot. Stakes at the other four sites tended to have only one rot type. Some highly significant preservative effects were also found. Possible causes of these differences are discussed in terms of inter-site soil type, climate and other differences.
R N Wakeling


Field trial with poles of Scots pine treated with six different creosotes
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30115
In the middle of the 50's field trials with creosote-treated poles were started in France, Germany and Sweden. The trials were initiated by WEI (Western-European Institute for Wood Preservation). Six different creosotes were used and 40 poles per creosote were installed at each test field. Results after 39 years of exposure in Simlangsdalen, Sweden are reported. Poles treated with a heavy creosote were less decayed than poles treated with medium-heavy creosotes. Poles treated with a light creosote were most decayed.
Ö Bergman


Wood preservatives: Field tests out of ground contact. Brief survey of principles and methodology
1976 - IRG/WP 269
This paper contains the following spots: 1.: The general need for field tests. 2.: Interests and limits of field tests in ground contact. 3.: Various methods in use for out-of-ground contact field tests. 4.: Fungal cellar tests are they an alternative to above-ground decay exposure tests? 5.: Conclusions.
M Fougerousse


Field test evaluation of preservatives and treatment methods for fence posts
1985 - IRG/WP 3347
This work presents the field test results after fifteen years exposure of Eucalyptus saligna fence posts treated with six different preservatives and five treatment methods. All the combinations with oil-borne preservatives presented the best results and among the waterborne preservatives, the fence posts treated by immersion method were with the lowest performance in the field test.
G A C Lopez, E S Lepage


Field performance of wood preservative systems in secondary timber species
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30152
The objective of this ongoing study is to evaluate the performance of new, potential, and standard wood preservative systems in secondary North American timber species. Eleven preservative systems were evaluated in this study - ACQ Type B, Copper Citrate 2: l, CDDC, chlorothalonil/chlorpyrifos, copper-8-quinolinolate, tebuconazole/chlorpyrifos, RH287, propiconazole/chlorpyrifos, copper naphthenate, CCA. and creosote. Field evaluations are being performed with ground contact field stakes and termite-specific testing in Hawaii, along with laboratory soil bed tests. The major wood species used with all the systems and evaluation methodologies are loblolly pine, northern red oak, tulip poplar, and cottonwood. More limited evaluations (field stakes only) are being conducted with eastern hemlock, red maple, and sweetgum. Information is presented from laboratory soil bed, field termite, and field stake evaluations. There is good correspondence between soil bed and field stake results. The more highly developed preservative systems and those in an AWPA P9 Type A oil carrier tend to perform better, and there can be a strong affect on performance from the wood species.
P E Laks, K W Gutting, R C De Groot


A rapid field bioassay technique with subterranean termites
1983 - IRG/WP 1188
Details are summarised of a field procedure which is designed to ensure continuous exposure to a replenishing termite biomass. After pre-baiting to determine the presence and identification of a termite hazard, test specimens (35 x 35 x 250 mm³) are installed vertically in the ground adjacent to and in contact with bait specimens of the same dimensions and interconnected by susceptible feeder strip.
C D Howick, J W Creffield


Performance of treated fence posts after 6 years in five test plots in the State of Sao Paulo - Brazil
1976 - IRG/WP 376
Fence posts treated with creosote, pentachlorophenol and creosote/ pentachlorophenol mixtures showed good performance after 6 years of exposure in five test plots located in the State of Sao Paulo - Brazil. Good results were also achieved with copper sulphate/sodium arsenate and copper sulphate/potassium dichromate mixtures. Fungi and termites were the main destroying agents found attacking the posts.
M S Cavalcante


Evaluation of new creosote formulations after extended exposures in fungal cellar tests and field plot tests
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30228
Although creosote, or coal tar creosote, has been the choice of preservative treatment for the railroad industry since the 1920s, exuding or "bleeding" on the surface of creosote-treated products has been one incentive for further enhancements in creosote production and utility (Crawford et al., 2000). To minimize this exuding problem, laboratories such as Koppers Industries Inc., USA, and Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Division of Chemical and Wood Technology, Melbourne, Australia, have developed changes in processing of coal tar that produce distillates with fewer contaminants. This "clean distillate" is then used to formulate "clean creosote" as a preservative. These new, unique creosote formulations are being investigated as part of a program to enhance the use of regionally important wood species in the United States. Four retention levels of each of two new creosote formulations creosote, one pigment-emulsified creosote (PEC) and one creosote formulation that meets the AWPA Standard C2-95 for P1/P13 creosote (AWPA, 1995a), were applied to two softwood species and two hardwood species. Two laboratory procedures, the soil-block and fungal cellar tests (accelerated field simulator), were used to evaluate the four creosote formulations. These procedures characterized the effectiveness of the wood preservatives. The soil-block tests were used to determine the minimum threshold level of the preservative necessary to inhibit decay by pure cultures of decay fungi. In general, the soil block tests showed there was little difference in the ability of the four creosote formulations to prevent decay at the three highest retention levels as summarized in a previous report by Crawford and DeGroot (1996). The soil-block tests will not be discussed in this report. Fungal cellar tests expose treated wood to mixtures of soil-borne fungi that promote accelerated attack. Crawford and DeGroot (1996) discussed the evaluation of the creosote formulations after 17 months of exposure in the USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory (FPL), fungal cellar. At that point in time data from the fungal cellar tests showed that softwoods are protected better than hardwoods for all four formulations of creosote tested. This report will discuss exposure of the fungal cellar stakes upto 36 months. In addition, field stake tests are being used to verify service life of the new creosote formulations in vivo. Results from accelerated tests are indicative of field performance, but the correlation between laboratory and field results is still being investigated. Field stake tests are regarded as critical, long-term evaluations that provide results most directly related to the performance of treated products in service. In this study, we report on the performance of the creosote formulations after five years of exposure in field tests.
D M Crawford, P K Lebow, R C De Groot


Results of chemical analyses in the field of wood preservation in the Bundesanstalt für Materialprüfung
1973 - IRG/WP 321
The results of qualitative and quantitative chemical analyses of wood preservatives are often the basis for evaluating the various works in the field of wood preservation. In the past 10 to 15 years a number of such works was carried out in the Bundesanstalt fur Materialprüfung, Berlin-Dahlem, dealing with the identification and effectiveness of wood preservatives and with methods of wood preservation. Fundamental realisations were made which will be summarised below. It seems advisable to differentiate between inorganic and organic chemical wood preservatives and methods of analyses. These are two distinct fields which differ also with regard to the analytical techniques applied.
H J Petrowitz


Synergistic effect of boron on Streptomyces rimosus metabolites in preventing conidial germination of sapstain and mold fungi
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1565
We evaluated the synergistic effect of boron (4% BAE solution of Tim-Bor or 4% boric acid) on Streptomyces rimosus metabolites in preventing spore germination of sapstain and mold fungi using plate bioassay, Southern yellow pine and sweetgum block tests, and green pine log sections: sapstain -- Ceratocystis coerulescens, Ceratocystis minor, and Aureobasidum pullulans; mold fungi -- Aspergillus niger, Penicillium spp, and Trichoderma spp. Inhibition of spore germination in plate bioassay by metabolites with boron was more effective than without added boron. Treatment of wood samples with the mixture of boron and unconcentrated metabolites also resulted in the synergistic effect and completely inhibited spore germination of sapstain and mold fungi.
S C Croan, T L Highley


Current techniques for screening initial formulations against Basidiomycetes and soft rot
1978 - IRG/WP 2103
J D Thornton, H Greaves


Japan's comments on ISO/DIS 12583-1/2
1996 - IRG/WP 96-20100
The paper describes an accelerated field test for the evaluation of timber preservative formulations against subterranean termites. The method has been adopted by the South African wood preservation industry as a screening method for the approval of wood preservatives for use under SA conditions. The method which is based upon the fungal cellar test offers a rapid means of evaluating the comparative performance of new wood preservative formulations in an environment that accurately reflects field conditions.
P Turner, D Conradie


Performance of preservative-treated hardwoods with particular reference to soft rot. Report of condition of specimens installed in Victoria, Australia
1980 - IRG/WP 3155
J Beesley, R McCarthy


Field trials of groundline remedial treatments on soft rot attacked CCA treated Eucalyptus poles
1983 - IRG/WP 3222
A total of 17 CCA treated Eucalyptus poles, which were found to contain 2-5 mm of soft rot in October, 1980, were reinspected in October, 1982. In 1980, 11 of the poles were given a supplemental groundline bandage treatment of either Osmoplastic or Patox, while 6 of the poles were designated as untreated controls. Two years after remedial treatment, samples were removed from the poles for microscopic observations and for chemical retention analysis. It was found that the remedial bandage treatments were effective in preventing any further advance of soft rot. Based on the positive results of this study, a treatment efficacy of five years or longer is predicted.
W S McNamara, R J Ziobro, J F Triana


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