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Mycological testing of plywood and board materials. Part 1: Review of information supplied by IRG members
1978 - IRG/WP 284
In December 1975 IRG members were asked for published information, information of current work in progress and views on mycological test methods for board materials. The object was to stimulate discussion and possibly establish a joint research effort within IRG in order to establish a meaningful test with reproducible results.
C R Coggins
Report of activity of CEN/TC 38: Test Methods for Wood Preservatives
1987 - IRG/WP 2287
Correlation between different international standard assessment procedures with termites. Part 1: Field exposure
1983 - IRG/WP 1198
Ramin treated with copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA), pentachlorophenate and lindane, each at three retentions, and three other untreated timbers were assessed in the field against Coptotermes lacteus and Nasutitermes exitiosus. Replicate specimens were exposed around five mounds of each termite species over a period of five years in south-eastern Australia. The field results provided the basis for judgement of corresponding laboratory trials conducted accordingly to the standard procedures of Europe, U.S.A. and Australia. In the field none of the wood preservative treatments with-stood termite attack for the full period of five years, not even CCA at the highest retention of 2.3 kg/m³. Merbau and Jarrah were the most resistant timbers but there was noticeable variation between trees.
M Lenz, C D Howick, N Tamblyn, J W Creffield, M Westcott
Further thoughts on standard principles of testing termiticides and/or wood preservatives
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1530
At the last annual meeting in Kyoto, Japan, there was a special session devoted to the standard principles of testing termiticides. There was definitely a perceived need by researchers and industry for some guidelines that spell out basic procedures required for any methodology in testing termiticidal formulations anywhere in the world. In the testing of new potential active ingredients, consideration for the field of application (or end-use) must be uppermost. However, in the testing of these potential termiticides, laboratory and field bioassays may also indicate their potential as wood preservatives. This paper describes the protocols carried out in our Division to evaluate the potential of both termiticides and/or wood preservatives. It is hoped that this will stimulate more discussion within the group and that we may be able to refine standard principles of testing that have merit when making global comparisons in the near future.
J R J French
Standard principles of testing termiticides: A discussion paper
1991 - IRG/WP 1502
Recent restrictions and banning of termiticides such as organochlorines in some countries has focussed attention on the need for new and novel compounds as termiticides. However, this poses problems for both wood preservative manufacturers and termitologists. Test procedures have to be devised to evaluate the new termiticides so that the tests are practical, encourage vigorous termite activity, and repeatable. Thus, irrespective of geographical location and particular species of subterranean termite considered most economicially important, test procedures need to be standardised in that they follow sound principles of testing, rather than slavishly adher to another countries standard test method. This would give industry and researchers a common base-line, and allow comparative evaluations and analyses. This paper is offered in order to stimulate discussion on this important topic.
J R J French
Resistance of DMDHEU-treated pine wood against termite and fungi attack in field testing according to EN 252. Results after 30 months
2006 - IRG/WP 06-40354
The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness against decay and termite attack of pine sapwood treated with pure and modified DMDHEU in a field test according to European Standard EN 252. Some of the treatments tested were able to increase, within the period of the test reported (30 months), the resistance of the wood both to micro-organisms and termites. The curing process seems to be the key factor for this increase as WPG (weight percent gain) of the modified wood alone was not sufficient for the prediction of the long-term performance.
S Schaffert, L Nunes, A Krause, H Militz
Review of candidate graded particle barrier testing methods in Australian Standard (AS 3660.3 – 2000): Assessment criteria for termite management systems
2009 - IRG/WP 09-20417
The Australian Standard (AS. 3660.3 – 2000) for assessment of candidate graded particle termite barriers is reviewed and suggestions for amendments are made. Areas requiring amending in light of current biological knowledge involve the inclusion of proprietary or patented systems rather than generic types; selection of test termites in the genus Coptotermes; duration of test periods; and inadequate detail proffered in the experimental design section (2.4.5) to ensure that all evaluators are conducting bioassays under similar standard conditions of temperature and relative humidity to ensure compliance with the performance criteria; and emphasise laboratory procedures that will accurately predict field performances.
J R J French, B M Ahmed (Shiday), B L Schafer
Bundle tests - Simple alternatives to standard above ground field test methods
2016 - IRG/WP 16-20581
Within this study we applied different new above ground test set ups to untreated Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) and Scots pine sapwood (Pinus sylvestris L.) which are frequently used as reference or control species in wood durability field tests. The overall aim of this study was to find a simple alternative method to the few standardized above ground field test methods, such as the L-joint and the lap-joint methods, and to overcome some of their shortcomings (e.g. costly and time-consuming specimen preparation, occurrence of hardly detectable interior rot behind sealants or coatings). Therefore, different bundle type specimens were exposed above ground and monitored in terms of moisture content for one year and fungal decay for up to eight years. Both wood species decayed rather fast and all four different bundle compositions accelerated decay compared to single stake shaped specimens. Brown rot was the dominating rot type independent from the set up and the wood species. The global moisture content (MC) of the specimens was not extremely high, but obviously wetting close to the contact faces was sufficient to allow fungal infestation and decay. Also from a practical point of view the set ups performed in a promising way: specimen preparation was simple and inexpensive, decay assessments were easy, and decay progress sufficiently fast, partly faster than expected from a moderate moisture induced risk as determined for all four bundle type specimens.
C Brischke, L Meyer-Veltrup
Post-layup protection of mass timber elements in above ground protected exposures: 2-year results
2022 - IRG/WP 22-30766
Mass timber has seen increased use as a building material for low and mid-rise construction in recent decades. The durability of mass timber elements has not been fully examined and the effects of wood destroying organisms on this these materials merits attention. The effectiveness of currently labeled soil termiticides and passively applied biocides at post-construction or as remedial agents needs to be evaluated for mass timber used in structures, particularly in areas with elevated risk of termite attack. The ability of soil insecticidal drenches or spray-on insecticide/fungicide treatments for protecting mass timber in service was assessed with a modified AWPA Standard E21 above-ground test using three ply Douglas-fir or southern pine cross-laminated timber as well as Douglas-fir mass plywood panels. Samples of each material (305 x 102 x 102 mm) were installed in an above ground protected test at the Harrison Experimental Forest (HEF) (Saucier, Mississippi) in September, 2019. Six replicates of five treatments including soil termiticide, no treatment, spray-on borate at initiation, borate rods and remedial treatment, using spray on borate of attacked material after two years, were tested. Samples were left undisturbed for two years and then examined and rated. Near surface moisture content increased to levels approaching the fiber saturation point over the two-year non-disturbance period. Untreated control samples were attacked by both decay fungi and termites. Samples treated with borates at test initiation showed limited decay or termite attack. Soil termiticide treated plots showed no sign of termite attack, but some samples had heavy decay compared to non-soil termiticide treated plots.
M E Mankowski, T G Shelton, G T Kirker, J J Morrell
Progress report on co-operative research project on L-joint testing
1983 - IRG/WP 2192
A F Bravery, D J Dickinson, M Fougerousse
Proposed method for out-of-ground contact trials of exterior joinery protection systems
1981 - IRG/WP 2157
Methods for testing the efficacy of preservative treatments for exterior joinery are described using the format of a European Standard. Commercially used treatments applied to jointed test units (L-joints) which are then protected by conventional finishes are exposed to normal outdoor hazards out of ground contact. Assessment is made a) by determining eventual failure through decay and b) by destructive examination of replicate treated and untreated units, after increasing time intervals, rating comparative performance in terms of wood permeability increase and the progress of microbial colonisation.
J K Carey, D F Purslow, J G Savory
JWPA method for testing effectiveness of surface coatings with preservatives against decay fungi
1981 - IRG/WP 2164
In 1979 JWPA established a new method for testing effectiveness of surface coatings in accordance with practical use of preservative-treated lumber. Comparing the new testing method with JIS A 9302, a few new trials - size of wood specimen, weathering procedure, and decay-test procedure - are incorporated.
A rapid field bioassay technique with subterranean termites
1983 - IRG/WP 1188
Details are summarised of a field procedure which is designed to ensure continuous exposure to a replenishing termite biomass. After pre-baiting to determine the presence and identification of a termite hazard, test specimens (35 x 35 x 250 mm³) are installed vertically in the ground adjacent to and in contact with bait specimens of the same dimensions and interconnected by susceptible feeder strip.
C D Howick, J W Creffield
Japan's comments on ISO/DIS 12583-1/2
1996 - IRG/WP 96-20100
The paper describes an accelerated field test for the evaluation of timber preservative formulations against subterranean termites. The method has been adopted by the South African wood preservation industry as a screening method for the approval of wood preservatives for use under SA conditions. The method which is based upon the fungal cellar test offers a rapid means of evaluating the comparative performance of new wood preservative formulations in an environment that accurately reflects field conditions.
P Turner, D Conradie
The accelerated field simulator (= fungal cellar)
1982 - IRG/WP 2170
G C Johnson, J D Thornton, H Greaves
Protocol for evaluation and approving new wood preservative
1985 - IRG/WP 2159
M E Hedley, J A Butcher
Trials on the field control of the Formosan subterranean termite with Amdro® bait
1982 - IRG/WP 1163
Amdro® - treated paper towels were introduced into two field colonies of the Formosan subterranean termite in Hawaii. At the concentration of 180 ppm, the toxicant bait was ineffective one month after the introduction. At higher concentrations (> 6,400 ppm), the baits were eaten initially; however, one week after introduction, termites avoided or covered the baits. The 15,000 ppm baits supressed the activity of one colony but did not affect the other.
N-Y Su, M Tamashiro, J R Yates III
Proposed standard laboratory method for testing fungicides for controlling sapstain and mould on unseasoned lumber
1977 - IRG/WP 292
This laboratory method is for determining the effective concentration, or concentration for zero growth (CGo), for fungicides or preparations of fungicides which are potentially useful in protecting packaged or unseasoned lumber in storage and shipment from biodeterioration by sapstain fungi and moulds. The test is rapid and may be completed in three weeks and gives a good indication of the toxicity of a chemical against sapstain fungi and moulds.
A J Cserjesi
Field tests out of ground contact in France: Definition of the test procedure and preliminary results after 18 months
1981 - IRG/WP 2161
Short-term field test method with accelerated infection of Basidiomycetes in wood
1981 - IRG/WP 2155
In the ŠIPAD - IRC Wood Protection Laboratory an attempt has been made to develop a simple short-term method for field testing out-of-ground contact wood using accelerated infections with Basidiomycetes. This method makes it possible to obtain a preliminary assessment of a preservative's quality and to estimate the possibility of achieving promising results in more expensive long-term tests. The idea was to use water traps (reservoirs) and 50 x 25 x 15 mm³ laboratory infected pine blocks as the substrate to improve the possibility of inoculation of L-joints.
What information can we glean from field testing
1995 - IRG/WP 95-20057
To mathematically compare the performance of preservatives in a field test, equations were formulated to describe the relation between log score and time and between rate of decay and retention. By combining these equations, a model was derived for the performance of a number of waterborne preservatives. Some relations between the estimated parameters for different preservatives were noted and these were used to develop a universal model to encompass a variety of patterns of deterioration. An attempt was then made to relate these common parameters to the factors known to affect preservative performance. As a result it may be possible to distinguish and quantify parameters specific to the efficacy of the preservative, the aggressiveness of the test site and the characteristics of the wood substrate.
P I Morris, S Rae
Introduction to a field demonstration of various instruments and methods for the detection of defects in poles
1984 - IRG/WP 2228
Field Testing of Copper Carboxylate Preservatives
2003 - IRG/WP 03-30322
This paper details our ongoing experience with field testing of copper naphthenate and other copper carboxylate preservative systems. Results from field stake tests at an AWPA Hazard Zone 4 test site are presented. In general, copper carboxylates made with ‘synthetics’ yielded results equivalent to or only slightly lower than systems with straight nap acids or nap acids amended with synthetic neo acid bottoms.
H M Barnes, M G Sanders, T L Amburgey
Soil blocks versus field test for evaluating and standardizing wood preservatives: A commercial view
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20024
On the basis of technical considerations, experience, costs and applicability, the author concludes that the soil block test and other laboratory tests have little meaning in a wood preservative standardization process and almost no merit in the commercialization of a wood preservative system. Field tests at sites known to be aggressive to preservative treated wood are strongly recommended.
W S McNamara
An in-ground natural durability field test of Australian timbers and exotic reference species. Part 2: Progress report after approximately 13 years' exposure
1983 - IRG/WP 1189
The condition of heartwood specimens of Australian and exotic timber species after approximately 13 years' in-ground exposure is given. Four of the 5 test sites have a termite hazard in addition to the hazard from a range of decay fungi. Values for specimen life are given only where all replicates of a timber species have become unserviceable. Results give evidence leading to doubt about the accuracy of the tentative durability ratings previously ascribed to at least some of the species under test.
J D Thornton, G C Johnson, I W Saunders