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Wood preservation in Kenya
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40191
Current research on wood preservation in Kenya is mainly on the development of biological control of wood-destroying termite species, using mycoinsecticides. The major research institutions include the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI), Kenya Forestry Research Institute (KEFRI), Moi University and the International Centre for Insect Physiology (ICIPE). Training institutions include Forestry Training College, Forest Products Training Institute and Moi University. A number of publications, mostly an biological control of termites, are available and they range from workshop and conference proceedings to theses and journal publications. Wood-destroying termite species include several genera in Macrotermitidae and one drywood termite genus. Wood preservation facilities are available in Kenya, mainly for assorted timber products, sleepers and utility poles. The major preservatives used are CCAs, PCP and Creosote oil. There are still no set standards, specifications and requirements for wood preservatives and little, if any information exists on the marketing aspects of wood preservatives. The yet to be established Industrial Chemicals Act and the recently introduced Environmental Management and Coordination Bill (1999) may be able to handle regulatory, environmental, health and safety aspects of wood preservation in Kenya.
G Ochiel


Sustainability Through New Technologies for Enhanced Wood Durability. COST Action E37 – A New Action in the Forestry Domain
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40293
The main overall objective of the action is to concentrate on the contribution of wood durability on the sustainability through the development of systems for quality assurance and perfoamance of modified wood and wood products as alternatives to wood treated with traditional preservatives. By this means it seeks to improve and consequently increase the cost-effective use of sustainably produced European timber, wood-based fibre, and recycled raw materials. The action will seek to optimize methods for testing and characterizing durability performance against physical as well as biological factors. This will exploit relevant selected results from specific aspects of the preceding COST Action E22 on “Environmental optimization of wood protection” and in the EU thematic network for wood modification. It will also exploit specific achievements from COST Action E18 “High performance in wood coating”.
R-D Peek


Preservación de maderas en Bolivia
1986 - IRG/WP 3360
Este documento ofrece datos generales concerníentes a los recursos forestales de Bolivia, las facilidades existentes para preservación de maderas, la investigación y educación en esa materia. Se proporciona información sobre instituciones vinculadas a la actividad y las perspectivas del tratamiento de maderas en el país.
A S Viscarra


Safe application of copper-chrome-arsenate preservatives
1975 - IRG/WP 377
All wood preservatives contain biologically active substances and must, by design, be in some measure toxic to man. There is nothing fundamentally difficult, however, about using a wood preservative with complete safety. It depends on knowing the risks to health and/or the environment, which the preservative may present, and planning application accordingly. In this paper we examine these and other factors for copper-chrome-arsenate (CCA) preservatives applied in vacuum/pressure plants. We review briefly the toxicological properties of the components and their joint action; the contribution which design and the operation of plant make to safe treatment; also the training of plant operators, to ensure that the potential risks in applying CCAs are fully understood. We shall consider the functions of product labelling; to advisc others - concerned with transport - of the nature of preservatives, especially concentrates. The importance is emphasised of being able, by prior planning, to act swiftly and effectively to deal with any unforeseen emergencies, however infrequent these may be. This paper is not concerned with any risks to man and other animals arising from use of CCA-treated wood. After treatment, fixation leaves the preservative components less readily available as contaminants of the environment.
I N Stalker, P B Cornwell


Wood preservation in Kenya
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40190
Focussing an Wood Preservation in Kenya, the Report discusses and elaborates on Education and Training, Research, Wood deteriorating organisms, Treatment Plants and Processes, Preserving Chemicals, Specifications, Markets, Health and Safety and Environmental issues. Education and Research is limited to one Institution only, other Institutions involved with the properties and utilization of wood hardly touches Preservation. Publications and results of Research Projects over the years have emanated from that Institution. Conferences have not been held for a long time in the country. Fungi, insects, including termites, and Marine borers, are all present in the country. The amount of untreated or poorly treated wood lost through the activities of these organisms is substantial. Treatment is usually of a general nature, assuming that Schedules used will protect timber against all agents of decay. The Kenyan Wood Preservation Industry, now 50 years old and with some 27 Plants around the country, has not explored other Wood Preserving Chemicals or Treatment methods. The four Preservatives used are still CCA, Creosote, BFCA and PCP. The Bethel Process is used by all pressure Plants (CCA and Creosote), with only one immersion Plant (BFCA and PCP). Eucalyptus, Acacia,Cypress and some are the species commonly treated, mainly for the local market with some exports. Schedules have not been properly worked out for different end uses. Transmission, Telegraph poles and Fencing posts comprise the bulk of timber treated, with smaller amounts of Construction timber and Horticultural poles. The four Chemicals used are of foreign origin, imported by Treatment Plants. Apart from a few Standards formulated by the Kenya Bureau of Standards (KBS), there are no other Standards or Codes of Practice to guide the Industry and Users of treated timbers. Specifications have not been fully worked out. The KBS is the only Authority responsible for Quality Control and Certification. Health and Safety of Plant operatives is not of major concern. Problems associated with Toxic Preserving Chemicals in the environment has not been fully addressed yet.
R Venkatasamy


Industrial wood preservation in Kenya. Present status – future prospects
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30385
Although some 50 years old, industrial wood preservation in Kenya does not appear to have technically, scientifically, and commercially evolved and contributed to significantly extend service lives of timbers, protect health and the environment, and curb unnecessary over-exploitation of forests. The population of the country has increased by 530% over the past 50 years; regular excisions have reduced forests to less than 2% of the land area. Wastage of wood during processing, through decay, and due to ineffective chemical treatment remains high and unchecked. At present, four treating chemicals and three treatment techniques are commonly and inefficiently used by the industry. The industry started with no expertise in wood preservation or wood properties, the situation being still the same. Without research, testing, monitoring, assessments and service records, appropriate standards, specifications and legislations cannot be easily formulated. Less costly chemicals and simpler techniques of treatment have not been introduced in the country yet, especially in the rural areas, where about 80% of the population is located. The main stakeholders in trees and timber do not appear to have fully understood the necessity to effectively preserve timber with the additional objectives of conserving forests and protecting the environment. Training in decay and preservation has not been extended to architects, engineers, builders, and wood-based industries in general. It is now urgent that the industry, the producers of wood and those who use or recommend the use of timber, examine new approaches to wood preservation through the choice of safer, more effective chemicals, and cleaner, more appropriate techniques of production. Legislations, Codes of good practices, and Guidelines to minimise or prevent soil and water contamination, or risks to human health, are urgent necessities that have persisted to escape the attention of the relevant authorities in the country.
R Venkatasamy


Strategies for popularizing wood preservation technologies. Role of Extension Support Division of IWST
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40313
Institute of Wood Science and Technology (IWST) has made several extension efforts to popularise the wood preservation technologies developed by various institutes of Indian Council of Forerstry Research and Education (ICFRE) by conducting demonstration programmes, exhibitions, workshops, trainings, audio visual displays and distributing semi-technical literature on different subjects published in regional languages as well as in English. The paper highlights the extension efforts of IWST, problems in popularising the technologies in India and recommends future strategies to be adopted.
A M Kanfade, S C Gairola, P K Aggarwal


The new method of detecting decay in poles
1984 - IRG/WP 2229
In 1982 the Swedish Telecoms Administration in corporation with the Swedish Dog Training Centre started to investigate the possibility of using dogs for detecting decay in poles. At present two German Sheppheards and two Labrador Retrievers are in operation and the results have up to now well fulfilled our expectations. The following results have been obtained: 1.) The dogs can with high reliability indicate salt-treated poles with a diameter reduction of 40 millimeters ore more (Soft Rot). 2.) The method is usable in all seasons. We believe that we during 1984 can develope a method to discover inside decay in salt-treated poles, decay in Creosoted poles and storage-decay in "white" (untreated) poles. The pole route is divided into sections containing 6-8 poles. A pole record is compiled and "search" is performed at one section at the time. If the dog indicates (strong, weak or no indication) a pole, this is noted in the record. Then the dog is resting while the inspector completes inspection of the section. Normally, indicated poles are directly exposed and decay damages measured, but if poles are frozen this is performed by an other inspector at a more suitable season. The advantages of this method are: i) This method is faster than the ordinary as you are spared from exposing those poles the dog indicates as acceptable (e.g. no indication). ii) Poles with decay damages (as a defind limit value) are indicated more accuratly than with other methods. iii) Better accuracy of pole replacement time (e.g. less per centage replaced poles).
A Ammer, B Svedberg


An overview of the economic importance and control of termites in plantation forestry and wood preservation in Peninsular Malaysia
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10382
Both the plantation forestry and wood preservation industries in the tropical and sub-tropical belts of the world, exemplified by the humid equatorial Peninsular Malaysia, regard termites as major destructive pests of standing trees, various timber products and building timber structures. This paper is a compilation of information on these economically important structural pests encountered in both plantation forestry and the wood preservation industry in Malaysia, particularly the peninsula, and describes on-going termite research activities to establish practical control strategies for tree and wood protection.
L G Kirton, A H H Wong, Kee Suan Cheok


Safe handling of solvents in relation to classification and labelling
1990 - IRG/WP 3569
The classification and labelling of chemical products, safety data sheets and personal protective equipment are topics which at present are given a very high priority in Denmark. The area is very large and may seem extremely difficult to comprehend. The frequent publication of acts and announcements from the authorities does not make the work any easier. In the following I will try explain how we have chosen to deal with this topic at GORI. I will describe the problems which we have encountered and are still encountering.
J Haugaard


Future termite control requires partnership between industry, government and people
2006 - IRG/WP 06-10586
Given the behaviour of the pest control industry, together with the housing and timber industries, and performance of the State regulatory agencies, it is not surprising that all of these groups were philosophically ill-prepared to consider alternative measures in June 1995. However, conditions have altered and there is an awareness of such alternatives. In future, termiticides will have properties and characteristics vastly different from the chemicals previously used as termiticides in the ‘organochlorine-era’. Thus, innovative, flexible and performance based evaluative methods are required to screen potential termiticides that may act as bait, dust, or soil barrier toxicants. Furthermore, physical barrier methods will need to be coupled with chemical systems. Suggestions are offered for the pest control industry, government, the building and the timber industries and the general public to pursue and engage in an integrated pest management (IPM) approach to termite control based on sound ecological parameters and social priorities. These include adopting a mix of alternative strategies as mentioned above, plus planning to ensure continuous funding for termite R&D and training and education programs necessary to supply ‘termite expertise’ in the future. Screening and evaluation methods of new generation termiticide have to be flexible and considerate of the ecological impact. The assessors would require having a broader knowledge than just termiticide toxicity data and termite control.
J R J French, B M Ahmed


Preservación de madera en Uruguay
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30492
Uruguay has a temperate climate and predominantly gently undulating landscape which is naturally suitable for farming activities. Therefore, its economy has always been based upon them and the related industries. In the sixties, the government decided it was necessary to increase forested areas in the country. Based on different consultancies, the legal frame was built in order to promote a sustainable forestry development. Rapid growth species were selected for this region and promoted to be cultivated. Economical subsidies were set for the private enterprises. By now there are about 750 thousand hectares of forests which are intended for industrial purposes. Meanwhile native forests, which have been protected, occupy about the same area. At this moment government priorities are to promote good quality lumber production, as well as diversify the wood industries for producing high added value products. Wood preservation industry has been treating only with CCA-C for decades. Almost all of them are small companies which deal with mainly local market. In the last decade the number of companies almost doubled. In 2006 this industrial sector started its way to the promotion of environmental management and cleaner production through a continuous improvement process. This would enhance the competitivity and improve environmental performance in wood preservation industry. La República Oriental de Uruguay es un país de clima templado con relieve suavemente ondulado, cubierto por pasturas naturales. Su aptitud para actividades agropecuarias ha determinado una economía históricamente basada en las actividades de ganadería, agricultura y las industrias vinculadas. Sin embargo desde la década del 60 se comienzan diversos estudios con el objetivo de aumentar la masa boscosa del país. Paulatinamente se fue creando un marco legal que asegurara un desarrollo forestal sustentable, basado en plantaciones con especies de rápido crecimiento adecuadas a la región y protección del bosque nativo. Así mismo se generan incentivos para promover las iniciativas privadas. De esa forma se llega al presente con una masa forestal plantada con fines comerciales de 750 mil hectáreas y un bosque nativo con una superficie total del mismo orden de magnitud. Actualmente el énfasis gubernamental está en la producción de madera de calidad y diversificación de la industria con énfasis en la incorporación de alto valor agregado. La industria de la preservación, conformada por empresas de bajo y mediano porte, utiliza maderas nacionales e impregna en su mayoría con CCA-C, produciendo principalmente para el mercado local. En la última década prácticamente se duplica el número de empresas del rubro. En 2006 se inicia el camino a la mejora continua, buscando un compromiso con la gestión ambiental e introduciendo los conceptos de Producción Más Limpia y también una mejora en la calidad del producto y el la competitividad de las empresas.
S Böthig


Climate change and wood protection, increasing demand of long life wood products and decreasing production of treated wood
2010 - IRG/WP 10-50269
Several new topics related to wood protection sector has appeared in Japan, as the awareness of climate change becomes bigger and bigger. The “Basic act for housing (2006)” and the “Long-life housing promotion act (2009)” were enforced to form a safe and high quality housing stock and to form a long-service-life housing respectively. Despite of the favorable background for wood protection sector, the amount of treated wood was steadily decreasing to 202,057 m3 till 2008 from the maximum of 445,689 m3 in 1996 (JWPIA: Japan Wood Preservers Industry Association statistics). The discussion in this presentation is how the wood protection sector in Japan combats the climate change through the establishment of appropriate wood protection system. Several keywords are exterior wood products which can improve the landscape of housing area, treated wood products which can decrease the construction cost of house/year from prolonged service life of housing, local wood products which can mitigate climate change through lower embedded energy of sustainable local resources. It also requires integrated strategy to realize the increased utilization of these wood products.
K Yamamoto, H Kato


Pest and pathogens threaten the sustainability of plantation forestry: Global research collaboration will define the future
2018 - IRG/WP 18-50341
Global plantation forestry is dominated by intensively managed stands of Pinus, Populus, Acacia and Eucalyptus species. The greater proportion of these plantations has been established in areas where the trees are non-native and have thus been separated from their natural enemies. In all documented cases, these plantations have initially been free of serious pest and disease problems. But as time has passed, their health has been increasingly damaged by such agents. In some cases, disease and pest problems have led entire plantation failure, the closure of major business ventures and timber shortages. Pest and disease problems affecting planation forestry can have one of two conceptually different origins. They are either accidentally introduced into the areas where the non-native trees have been established or they are themselves native to these plantation areas. In the former case, the pests and pathogens arise through breaches in plant quarantine. They have become uncomfortably common and are closely linked to global trade in wood and plant products. The adaptation of native insect pests and pathogens to feed on non-native trees is complex and includes opportunistic organisms typically with wide host ranges as well as highly specialized, host specific insects and pathogens. The latter group have typically undergone host shifts to infect/ infest trees on which they would not naturally occur. The genetic basis of these changes in poorly understood and deserves more intensive study. Looking to the future, all indications are that pest and disease problems will increasingly affect the health and sustainability of plantation forestry. This will be driven by increased movement of people and products globally as well as growing complexity to control the movement of small and difficult to detect organisms that move in concert with trade and travel. While quarantine efforts must be encouraged and reinforced, the likely future of plantation forestry will lie squarely in innovative research that will make it possible to grow healthy trees. Tools relating to the genetic improvement of trees and those linked to computerization and information technologies will increasingly be required to enable sustainable forestry. In this regard, there is an urgent need for education and support of researchers able to meet the challenges posed by forest pests and diseases. Global collaboration, particularly including research across scientific disciplines will define successful and sustainable forest industries. International research networks such as the International Union of Forest Research Organisations (IUFRO; www.iufro.org) will surely play an important role in reaching the challenges posed by the ever increasing threats to forests due to pests and diseases.
M Wingfield


Preserved Wood in the Story of Sustainable Forestry
2018 - IRG/WP 18-50344
Sustainable forestry, at its simplest, is about growing trees. The full story, though, is much more complex. An important chapter of that story is the role that preserved wood plays in ensuring sustainability. Too often, this part of the sustainability story is rarely mentioned. It is time for the preserved wood industry to deliver a unified message of our critical role in sustainability. By responsibly adding preservatives into wood, we can expand the life of wood significantly and further extend the cycle of renewability for our forests. This is a message that will connect with people and place the focus to our ability to preserve and protect forests. This is a more positive message than the often-negative perceptions about the chemicals used in treating. A forestry association executive recently remarked that there were enough forests and preserved wood was not necessary to ensure sustainability. Another person noted she was being “green” by using natural wood in her garden boxes and replacing them every few years after the wood deteriorated. These are common misperceptions that underscore the need to tell preserved wood’s story when it comes to sustainability. It is not enough to grow more wood and replace it. For true environmental responsibility, we must protect the wood from deterioration to extend the time needed for renewing our forest resource. We as in industry have the ability to increase the life of wood products beyond the time it takes to grow a new tree that can be used to replace that product. Wood preservation’s role in sustainability is particularly important for infrastructure and buildings. Preserved wood products are essential in our electricity, communication, transportation and housing infrastructure. From utility poles and rail ties or marine pilings and bridge timbers to permanent wood foundations and decks. Our industry has a proven record in increasing the service life of these products beyond a half century or more. When comparing materials steel, concrete and plastics with wood, it is the only renewable resource, which is often overlooked by focusing on recycled content. Considering that most wood products are recycled or reclaimed for energy after service life, the story for wood gets even better. Therefore, this is not only environmentally sustainable, it is also an all-inclusive environmental, economic and social choice over all the alternatives. Preserved wood should be considered as a value-added product, not only in commerce, but in sustainability and the environment. As an industry, we have a great opportunity – and an even greater responsibility – to ensure that preserved wood in an important part of wood’s story of sustainability.
D Brookes


The Commercial Forestry and Forest Products Industry in South Africa – A brief overview
2018 - IRG/WP 18-50342
The presentation made by Mr Michael Peter, Executive Director of Forestry South Africa, provides insight into the commercial forestry and forest products industries in South Africa. The forestry industry in South Africa is based solely on the propagation of exotic trees, grown in plantations in the higher rainfall regions of South Africa. The presentation shows the ownership, geographical extent and distribution of plantations. It presents this by genus and by management objective and it provides a summary of the key products produced from these plantations in the processing sub-sector. The contribution of each of these products in turn, to the overall economic contribution of the sector, is also presented. The presentation demonstrates the disproportionately (relative to its land and water footprints) large economic, social (employment) and environmental contribution of the commercial industry to South Africa, including its contribution to the Gross Domestic Product of the country, through export earnings. The physical, regulatory and political challenges which have led to the shrinkage (geographic) of the Industry and which have hindered the achievement of the country’s stated growth objectives for the Industry, are discussed in some detail. The physical, regulatory and political challenges which have led to the shrinkage (geographic) of the Industry and which have hindered the achievement of the country’s stated growth objectives for the Industry, are discussed in some detail.
M Peter


Towards better integration of wood protection in the forestry wood industry chain - a case study on hybrid poplar
2019 - IRG/WP 19-50359
Wood and wood products are limited in service life as in the forest ecosystem trees at end of their life are degraded to re-enter the bio-geochemical cycle. Humans can select wood species with a level of natural durability fit for an envisaged end use. Mainly those applications that require a long service life under conditions that are similar to those at soil level in a forest ecosystem have been the early focus for wood preservation. Testing wood preservatives intended for enhanced performance of wood in soil or water contact was originally based primarily on performance benchmarked with wood species having higher natural durability. Over the last decades, wood protection has altered focus towards end uses out of ground contact even sometimes specifically for interior applications. Parallel to this evolution wood modification treatments were assessed also to improve general performance of wood species. Besides an increased potential for using low durability wood species, mainly dimensional stability related properties were envisaged. The forestry-wood chain has evolved in the second half of last century from mainly production based strategies to policies based on ecosystem services in a sustainability framework. Today forests are intended to provide services for the bio-economy, human health, biodiversity and climate control. An increased need for more renewable resources both for material and energy use has initiated extra focus on the potential to produce more lignocellulosic biomass, in short to increase wood production. Forest types identified as primary forest as well as (semi)-natural forests require conservation measures limiting the option to increase volume that can be harvested. One option is to provide in complementary production in planted forests. Both forestry and agriculture can take part in this. The cultivation of poplar hybrids in the temperate regions is a key option for the current and future bio-economy. These fast-growing trees are producing lightweight hardwood material with a low natural durability. All wood protection methods are of interest to be evaluated for this wood resource, making it suitable even for high quality applications. Poplar, for many reasons, has been nominated as hardwood with the best potential to perform similarly as softwoods for applications in wood construction. Benchmarking with wood species like spruce is relevant for several engineered wood products like plywood, LVL and even CLT. Wood treatments to increase durability have also evolved from traditional wood preservation towards modification techniques such as thermally modified timber depending on the performance required or fit for purpose in relation to a specific combination of use class and service life.
J Van Acker


GDR3544 “Science du Bois” - Academic and Industrial French Partnerships on Wood Science
2019 - IRG/WP 19-50362
The wood sciences are currently practiced by a very diverse community of disciplines, themes and institutional contexts of different actors. The Research Group in Wood Sciences (GDR3544 "Sciences du Bois") was created in 2012 by the National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS), and renewed from 2016 to 2020. The objectives of GDR " Science du Bois " are to manage the coordination of wood science in France, improve the communication between international scientific community and companies, develop formation and training courses for master and PhD students, facilitate the skills and capacities transfers, identify issues and challenges and finally to serve as relay to international networks. The GDR3544 " Science du Bois " is currently supported by several institutes of the CNRS (main affiliation with INSIS, with the support of INEE, INC, INSHS via the teams involved or the sections of the National Committee requested). It is subsidized by the CNRS, the Ministry of Culture and Communication, INRA, Labex and sponsors solicited by the hosts of the organized events. It includes about 730 people (including 450 permanent) distributed in CNRS units and other organizations (INRA, CIRAD, Culture Ministry, Universities, engineering schools, FCBA, etc ...). The teams concerned come from different disciplines: mechanics, physics, chemistry, biology, Human and Social Sciences. This scientific network is focused on an object: constituent of the tree, material of craftsmen and engineers and archive of past events. In addition to this national network, there are foreign partners who are geographically or culturally close to French teams and who have established lasting relationships with them in the field of wood sciences.
J Gril, R Marchal, K Candelier