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Studies on the infesting behaviour of the Formosan termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and its physical control
1983 - IRG/WP 1174
An outline of termite damage to buildings in Japanese National Railways, wood-infesting behavior, attacked traces in PVC-sheathed cables by termites, detection method of termites and the physical control method of the Formosan termite are given in the present paper.
K Yamano

An evaluation method for less termite attack execution on thermal insulation for fundation walls
2002 - IRG/WP 02-20245
According to the results by the real scale Japanese building tests, the termite installation was observed at very little spaces between foundation and insulation. The termite penetration spaces between foundation and insulation on foundation systems in Japanese wooden houses were checked by the way of streaming speed of colored water. Because of difficulty for its execution, the parts of outside angles and reentrant angles in continuous foundation were more sensitive for the termite penetration. Special accessories of thermal insulation for these angles can be effective for lesser termite installation.
K Suzuki, Y Tanaka

IRG Foundation Fund Report
1985 - IRG/WP 5215
B Henningsson, H Friis-Hansen

Japanese wood preserving industry
1990 - IRG/WP 3596
Although a great amount of wood is in use in Japan, a little attention has been paid to the significance and importance of wood preservation. The fact reflects that only less than 0.5% of the total wood consumption is treated with wood preservatives today in the country. Over the 20 years before 1970, the annual volume of preservative treated (pressure treatment) wood was relatively at a stable level of approximately 500,000 m³. After the prominent peak of 709,000 m³ in 1968, 500,000 to 600,000 m³ of wood had been annually treated until 1980. In the 1980's the pace of production of preservative-treated wood gradually declined, down to 400,000 m³ in 1988. As for commodities treated with wood preservatives, poles and sleepers have been remarkably decreasing, and wood foundation sills which newly appeared on the market in the late 1960's became a major item. It is expected that new treated commodities will be accepted among Japanese people to stimulate the activity of wood preserving industry in Japan.
K Tsunoda

IRG Foundation Fund Report
1984 - IRG/WP 5197
B Henningsson

IRG Foundation Fund Report for 1979
1980 - IRG/WP 97
L Borup, B Henningsson

Experimental real building evaluation of termite attack - Effect of the space between the mat foundation and the thermal insulation
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10374
For evaluating the termite resistance of the real house foundation, specially in the case of thermal insulation systems for foundation walls, thermal insulation which can be attacked by termite, must be evaluate. Because of the difficulty of the water penetration of thermal insulation, the water barrier systems can be protected against termite attacks, in our opinions. The observation on the process of the penetration by termites and ones of a traditional barrier system against termites were evaluate by the real building scale test method.
K Suzuki, K Hagio, Y Tanaka

IRG Fundation Fund Report for 1987
1988 - IRG/WP 5321
B Henningsson, H Friis-Hansen

IRG Foundation Fund Report for the period 1 January to 31 December 1988
1989 - IRG/WP 5344
B Henningsson, H Friis-Hansen

IRG Foundation Fund Report 1976-1978
1979 - IRG/WP 90
L Borup, B Henningsson

IRG Foundation Fund Report for 1985
1986 - IRG/WP 5248
B Henningsson, H Friis-Hansen

IRG Foundation Fund Report 1981
1982 - IRG/WP 5157
L Borup, B Henningsson

IRG Foundation Fund Report for 1986
1987 - IRG/WP 5281
B Henningsson, H Friis-Hansen

IRG Foundation Fund Report for 1981
1981 - IRG/WP 5127
L Borup, B Henningsson

IRG Foundation Fund Report for 1982
1983 - IRG/WP 5176
L Borup, B Henningsson

Effects of seed origin and site on both wood density and longitudinal fluid uptake of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) with height in the tree grown in the United Kingdom
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40226
The variation in density and longitudinal fluid uptake was investigated in short specimens of wood taken from eight seed origins of Sitka spruce trees grown at two sites in the UK. Five trees of each seed origin at each site were sampled at three heights (1, 2 and 3 m above ground level). The density of the samples decreased with increasing height within the stem. This corresponded with increasing ring width. The change of the longitudinal fluid uptake from base to apex showed an inverse trend to density. Site had an effect on density and increased density reduced fluid uptake. Seed origin had a marked effect on density and fluid uptake but the two factors showed no correlation. Some seed origins showed a variety of desirable characteristics and recommendations are made for the selection of seed origins for further UK plantations based on growth rate, density, tree form and permeability.
I Usta, M D C Hale

Intraspecific variability of durability of Wapa courbaril (Eperua grandiflora) against Antrodia sp. and Coriolus versicolor: effect of radial and height position in the stem
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10531
The variation of a lesser-used species, Eperua grandiflora attacked by brown and white rot has been examined. Trees of this specie showed differences in their behaviour against the type of rot used and also showed evidence of intra and inter tree variation. The “tree” effect is very significant concerning natural resistance. In the same way, there is variation of durability observed according to radial and vertical position in the stem. Although the vertical effect is less significant from practises point of view.
N Amusant, J Beauchêne, M Fournier

In vivo growth study on two gymnosperms and four angiosperms for REB wood poles
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10246
Revealed that the highest growth rates and pole yield in two plantation sites in Bangladesh are significant with 2.06 cm/y in diameter, 0.97 m/y in height and 90% pole yield within 19y in Pinus caribaea; 1.96 cm/y, 0.91 m/y and 100% pole yield within 15y in Xylia dolabriformis; 1.88 cm/y, 0.91 m/y and 22% pole yield within 13y in Dipterocarpus turbinatus; 1.64 cm/y, 0.82 m/y and 28.75% pole within 13y in Hopea odorata; 1.33 cm/y, 0.44 m/y and 100% pole yield within 28y in Polyalthia longifolia and 1.07 cm/y, 0.45 m/y and 00% pole yield within 15y in Podocarpus neriifolia. The study indicated that with 1.8m x l.8m spaced monocultured well managed plantation might produce about 33% poles within first 10y, additional 33% within 15y and rest 33% within 20y from Pinus caribaea, Xylia dolabriformis and Dipterocarpus turbinatus. Similar pole yield would be expected from Hopea odorata with rotation of harvesting of 15, 20 and 25y and from Polyalthia longifolia, Podocarpus neriifolia of 20, 25 and 30y. Revealed that the rate of growth in diameter increases with the increase of space of plantation and rate of growth in hight increases with the decrease of space between trees.
A K Lahiry

Decay rates and strength and stiffness loss in foundation beams
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1563
The TNO Centre for Timber Research has executed an extensive research programme into the rate of decay in foundation beams, as a result of lowering of ground water tables. The aim of the research was to develop a method, predicting the decrease in strength and stiffness in beams, due to wood decay during drytime of foundation beams. With the calculated extremes in decay, the damage caused by local settlements of the foundation can be estimated. Though this research deals with untreated timber only, the results yield information which may be used for methods of testing treated timber in ground contact. From 1987 to 1989 literature studies and field inspections have been evaluated, and the most important influencing factors were described. In the following laboratory research the aim was, to quantify the influence of these factors (wood species, dimensions, age, soil wetness, temperature, fluctuation of water) on the decay rate. The rate of decay was measured by mass loss after one year of exposure in a wet but aerated soil, using pine and spruce in different dimensions. For part of the specimens, decrease in strength properties was also measured. Results indicate, that for timber with high moisture contents (over 80%), the decay type is dominated by softrot (95%) and is mainly determined by the surface/volume ratio. The relation between mass loss and loss of strength and stiffness was determined. These results will be used for calculating the deformation of foundation.
P Esser, H S Buitenkamp

The effect of stack height on the performance of preservatives used for the prevention of sapstain on seasoning wood
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10192
The performance of three anti-sapstain preservatives was investigated under field conditions in south east England. The preservatives under test were: copper-8-quinolinolate (Mitrol PQ8) trimethylalkylammoniumchloride and sodium hexanoate (Sinesto B) and chlorothalonil (Tuff Brite). The preservatives were tested on Corsican Pine grown in south east England. The field trial was set up to investigate the robustness of the field trial protocol laid down as part of a collaborative European research project. Treated boards were close stacked and were assessed at 12, 18 and 24 week intervals. The test preservatives varied in efficacy: copper-8-quinolinolate (Cu-8) performed better than the quaternary ammonium compound (Quat) and chlorothalonil. However, very little mould colonisation occurred on the chlorothalonil treated boards compared with the boards treated with the other anti-sapstain preservatives. Observations also indicated that mould fungi were more prevalent on the upper boards of the top packs and that sapstain was heaviest on the bottom boards of the packs for all treatments. The results clearly showed that the height of the stacks had an effect on the infection pathways of colonising fungi and timber closer to ground level was clearly exposed to the greatest hazard. Statistical analysis supported this observation. Comparative field trials assessing antisapstain preservative performance should be set with the test stacks in a single layer at ground level.
J R Williams, D J Dickinson, J F Webber

Developments in wood preservation
1976 - IRG/WP 366
The purpose of this paper is to comment very briefly upon recent developments in wood preservation so that members of the Working Group have a basic knowledge of the activities in other countries. The last paper was prepared in 1974 and this paper refers to developments since that time. The last edition of this paper was welcomed by members of IRG. Many members wrote to the author to express their interest and to ask for further information but, unfortunately, very few members have contributed Information. As a result this present paper has been prepared largely from information assembled by Penarth Research Centre and its scope is naturally restricted as a result. If this regular paper on recent developments is to be a useful contribution to the work of IRG, it is necessary for all members to contribute their comments regularly so that they can be incorporated briefly in this review. Some members have stated that they have nothing to contribute from their own work but it is equally important that they should report developments by other workers in their own countries, either by submitting a comment themselves or asking the research organisation involved to write direct to the author of this paper.
B A Richardson

The effect of different foundation systems against fungal flora in the crawl space of a new wooden Japanese house
2009 - IRG/WP 09-10700
In order to establish novel preventive measures against damage of wooden houses by decay fungi with less-use or no-use of chemicals, we periodically monitored the fungal flora in the crawl space of a new wooden Japanese house build with recyclable and low-environmental load materials at the Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoto University. We employed either a layer of concrete or just soil as the foundation system of the crawl space of the model Japanese house. Moisture content of Sugi foundation timbers and temperature & humidity of the crawl space with different foundation systems were measured as well as the sampling of fungi by the following methods: a) from the crawl space atmosphere with a PDA plate, b) from foundation timbers with a soft transparent plastic tape, and c) from small wood blocks laid on a layer of concrete or on soil. Fungi, which were visually estimated to be basidiomycetes, were also identified with DNA-based methods. Then a monoculture decay test was conducted with these fungi. Numbers of fungal colonies grown from the concrete foundation samples were significantly lower than those from the soil foundation samples. Over the year the soil section generally showed higher humidity and moisture content than the concrete section. These findings suggested that the soil strongly influenced the water condition of the crawl space, indicating the higher decay risk in the soil section than in the concrete section. Most of isolated basidiomycetes were white rot fungi with the exception of a brown rot fungus, Fomitopsis pincola. The majority of the white rot fungi were Trametes vesicolor. In order to analyze effect of soil on the fungal flora, all ventilation slits were air-tightly closed with aluminium tape for each crawl space section after all the sampling was completed. This resulted in higher colony forming unites (CFUs), humidity and moisture content of foundation timbers. This study clearly indicated the close relationship between the risk of wood decay and the foundation system in wooden Japanese houses, and the higher decay risk in the soil section than in the concrete section.
A Toyoumi, S Horisawa, T Yoshimura, S Doi,Y Imamura

Protective Levels of Borates in timber Foundation Piles 5 – 18 Years after In-situ Remedial Treatment in Areas with Wet Clay Ground Conditions. The Jerbor and Eurobor Protocol, Part 1.
2011 - IRG/WP 11-30571
Timber has been used as foundation piles and grillages for decades or even centuries. Since the late 1970s a method for investigate, analyze and treat building timber foundations in soft clay grounds against decay fungus with a biocide have been developed and used by the late professor Allan Jerbo. Settling of buildings in soft clay grounds is continuously monitored and if damages to the building occur as a consequence of differential settling actions must be taken. Settling pattern, ground geotechnical properties and the condition of its timber foundation is evaluated. Settling damage is due to decay of foundation timber have been treated with biocides and special application techniques and results from 5 - 18 years after using these techniques, The Jerbor or Eurobor protocols, show that in-situ treatment with a water solution of borates have been successful. Samples of wood from piles were taken by digging or coring below the building foundations and determination of total boron in wood samples show concentrations in the decay front well above the 1 kg BAE /m3 wood limit for preventing wood degradation by fungi. One example of Jerbor® showed 1.74 kg BAE/m3 wood in average 18 years post treatment simultaneous as the foundation groundwater concentrations was 96 mg BAE/liter in average. To great damage of foundations cannot be repaired and consequently a new steel and concrete foundation have to be made. Costs are often in the 0.5 – 10 million € range for this work why a building benefit from choosing a preservative treatment when this is possible. Approximately 200 foundations have been treated with the Jerbor and Eurobor technique.
M Theorin, K-M Bandh

Effectiveness of Water Based Bentonite-Borate Slurry for In-situ Remedial Protection of Historic Wooden Piles: The Eurobor Protocol, Part 2
2011 - IRG/WP 11-30574
The study of the biocide product Eurobor®, water mixture of boric acid, borax and sodium bentonite, aimed to verify previous findings regarding borates penetration from a clay-water mixture of foundation timber. The product was applied on samples from 100 year old timber foundation from the city of Göteborg. Although in ground for this long the timber was in acceptable god condition due to ground water coverage of the foundation piles. The results show that borates diffuse readily into the sapwood and reach toxic concentrations (> 1 kg BAE/ m3 wood) for decay fungi in the decay front. Penetration of borates from the clay-mixture correlated with wood samples decay pattern and reached into sound heartwood. Concentrations reached 60000 mg BAE/kg in sapwood and 2500 mg BAE/kg inside the decay front towards heartwood. The technique with Eurobor® has been demonstrated both in field and laboratory to be effective by penetration and retention of the borates in toxic levels for decay fungi.
M. Theorin, K. Fimmerstad, K-M. Bandh

Termiticide Residues in Building Foundation Aggregate Fills After Trench and Surface Applications
2015 - IRG/WP 15-30679
Termiticide concentrations (ppm) in aggregate fill were determined by measuring active ingredient (a.i.) residues of two pyrethroid termiticides, Up-Cyde Pro® 2EC-cypermethrin, and BaseLine® EC-bifenthrin, at 24.0 hours, and then at 6.0- and 12.0-months after ‘horizontal’ surface applications, perimeter ‘trenching and rodding’ applications, or ‘rodding only’ trench applications at lowest label rates to two common building construction aggregate foundation fills often used in the state of Oklahoma, USA. Residues were determined within 5.1-cm-deep multiple-core composite aggregate fill samples extracted after surface applications, and 15.2-cm-deep multiple-core composite samples extracted from interior foundation perimeter trenches. Before termiticide applications were conducted, all test plots were raked to a level surface, then half the test plots were compacted and half remained not compacted. Residue concentrations were significantly influenced by aggregate fill type, regardless ofwhether compacted or not compacted.
B M Kard, C E Koneman, K T Shelton, C C Luper, R A Grantham

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