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Susceptibility of angiosperm sapwood to white-rot fungal colonization and subsequent degradation: a hypothesis
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10211
It has long been recognized that angiosperm sapwood in nature is relatively easily and preferentially degraded by white-rot fungi. This susceptibility to white-rot fungi is generally believed to be mainly caused by the structure and concentration of angiosperm lignin. However, an explicit explanation as to why lignin structure makes a particular wood vulnerable to white-rot colonisation and subseq...
T Schultz, D D Nicholas


Fungal detoxification of organotin biocides
1985 - IRG/WP 1258
The ability of a range of wood decaying fungi to inactivate bis(tri-n-butyltin) oxide (TnBTO) in the extracellular growth medium, in stationary liquid culture was determined. A distinction between the ability to tolerate the fungicide and to inactivate it was made: the white-rot organism Coriolus versicolor being the most efficient inactivator. In an attempt to determine the extracellular agents r...
P S Belford, D J Dickinson


The effect of low molecular weight chelators on iron chelation and free radical generation as studied by ESR measurement
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10367
The focus of this work was to improve our current knowledge of the non-enzymatic mechanisms involved in brown-rot decay. Electron Spin Resonance (ESR), also known as Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR), is an attractive technique for the identification and study of chemical species containing unpaired electrons (such as radicals and certain transition metal species). ESR spin-trapping techniques...
Yuhui Qian, B Goodell


Generation of hydroxyl radical by the brown-rot fungus, Postia placenta
1988 - IRG/WP 1360
In an electron spin resonance (ESR) survey of various liquid cultures and wood slivers innoculated with the brown-rot fungus, Postia placenta, the spin trap dimethyl-l-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) was used to detect the presence of the hydroxyl radical. The ESR spectra for the paramagnetic DMPO- hydroxyl radical adduct was observed in (1) nitrogen-limited, liquid cultures having 1.0% glucose or 0.1% c...
B Illman, D C Meinholtz, T L Highley


Environmentally benign wood preservatives based on organic biocide antioxidant combinations: A brief review of laboratory and field exposure results and discussion of a proposed mechanism
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30335
The combination of various organic biocides with commercial antioxidants generally increased the biocides’ efficacy 2-3 fold against wood-destroying fungi in short-term laboratory decay tests, and some positive results have been obtained after 2-4 years of outdoor exposure. The two antioxidants principally examined, propyl gallate and butylated hydroxytoluene, are low cost and, since both are f...
T Schultz, D D Nicholas, W Henry, C Pittman, D Wipf, B Goodell


Free radical process controlled by manganese peroxidase and lipid-related metabolites produced by Ceriporiopsis subvermispora
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10412
Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, a specific lignin-degrading fungus produced free unsaturated fatty acids (USFAs) including 9,12-octadecaienoic asid, together with saturated fatty acids (SFAs) at an incipient stage of cultivation on wood meal cultures. In prolonged cultivation period after two weeks, the amount of intact fatty acids decreased with increasing in organic hydroperoxide and TBARS producti...
T Watanabe, M Enoki, S Sato, Y Honda, M Kuwahara, N Shirai, K Messner


Radical changes in the requirements for more safe pressure impregnation in the Nordic countries in 1988
1990 - IRG/WP 3581
After introduction of quality control schemes and standards in the Nordic countries during the seventies, the first radical change of the standards and practice of work took place after pressure from the labor unions and authorities in 1988 and 1989 in Denmark and in Sweden. A new class of preservation with less retention for out of ground contact use was introduced, fixation times were prolonged ...
B Moldrup


Non-enzymatic Gloeophyllum trabeum decay mechanisms: Further study
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10395
Information will be presented on the mechanisms involved in, and potential application of, non-enzymatic wood decay by brown rot decay fungi. Specifically, the hypothesized role of low molecular weight phenolate derivatives will be discussed in relation to non-enzymatic degradation of wood. The mechanism of binding of iron by cellulose, and binding and reduction of iron by fungal derivatives and m...
B Goodell, J Jellison


Characterization of glycopeptide from white-, brown- and soft rot fungi
2002 - IRG/WP 02-10424
Extracellular low-molecular-weight substances that catalyze a redox reaction between O2 and electron donors to produce hydroxyl radicals have been isolated from wood degrading cultures of white-rot, brown-rot, and soft-rot fungi. They contained protein, neutral carbohydrate, and Fe(II). These substances were glycosylated (glycated) peptides and suggested to form Amadori product (ketoamine). The...
H Tanaka, S Itakura, A Enoki


The use of ESR spectroscopy to assess the photostabilising effects of wood preservatives
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20186
The degradation of wood surfaces exposed to UV light which leads to poor performance of clear coatings is understood to be due to delignification via a mechanism involving free radicals. Certain wood preservatives most notably CCA are able to photostabilise wood and therefore they may reduce the concentration of free radicals formed when treated wood is exposed to ultraviolet light. As a first ste...
S Schmid, R D Webster, P D Evans


Destaining wood sapstains caused by Ceratocystis coerulescens
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10159
Fungal sapstain does not reduce the strength of wood, but it does discolor the wood, detracting from its appearance and decreasing the value of wood and wood products. The purpose of this investigation was to assess whether wood sapstain caused by Ceratocystis coerulescens could be destained and existing growth eradicated. The hydroxyl radicals generation under optimized conditions destained the s...
S C Croan


Extracellular hydrogen peroxide producing and hydrogen peroxide reducing compounds of wood decay fungi
1991 - IRG/WP 1516
Extracellular H2O2-producing and H2O2-reducing compounds were isolated from wood-containing cultures of all the white-rot and brown-rot fungi and Ascomycetes which well degraded wood, but were not detected in the culture of the fungi which degraded little wood. The compounds are glycopeptides with a low molecular weight, require H2O2 for one-electron oxidation, catalyze the redox reaction between ...
A Enoki, G Fuse, H Tanaka


Relationship between degradation of wood, cellulose or lignin-related compounds and production of hydroxyl radical or accumulation of oxalic acid in cultures of brown-rot fungi
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10062
The degradation activities of brown rot fungi against wood, cellulose, and lignin-related compounds were measured in cultures containing glucose or wood as a carbon source. Also the activities of one-electron oxidation and hydroxyl radical production and the amount of oxalic acid present in the cultures were measured. The degradation activities of the fungi against wood, crystalline cellulose and ...
S Itakura, T Hirano, H Tanaka, A Enoki


Preliminary studies of the performance of iron chelators as inhibitors of brown rot (Coniophora puteana) attack
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10185
This paper describes experiments to examine the proposal that the presence of iron is essential for brown rot fungi to utilize hydroxyl radicals remote from the hyphae as a means of converting the wood into a food source. reliminary test results are presented from trials using three different iron chelators impregnated into Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapwood blocks. Their relative effects on th...
E D Suttie, R J Orsler, P M Wood


Recent development in North American industrial wood preservation plants
1988 - IRG/WP 3467
After remaining static for many years there have been a number of changes in plant design and treating cycles in recent years. This has been particularly true in the USA where few restrictions are placed on plant treating cycles by specifications; since only results type specifications are used. It is also important to realize that the AWPA Specifications for Southern Yellow Pine only call for tre...
J F Bridges


Extracellular hydrogen peroxide-producing and one-electron oxidation system of brown-rot fungi
1990 - IRG/WP 1445
Wood-component-degrading compounds involved in the initial degradation of the cellulose and lignin in wood were isolated from wood-containing culture of brown-rot fungi, Gloeophyllum trabeum and Tyromyces palustris and partially purified by gel filtration on Sephadex G-25 and DEAE-Sepharose ion-exchange chromatography. The compounds were glycoproteins. The molecular weights of the glycoproteins as...
A Enoki, S Yoshioka, H Tanaka, G Fuse


Experiments on the degradation of tributyltin oxide: A progress report
1984 - IRG/WP 3287
A variety of experiments designed to assess the chemical and physical factors affecting the degradation of tributyltin oxide in treated timber are described. Simple procedures in which temperature and oxygen availability were increased in the presence of wood and water suggest that the wood itself was of prime importance. Attempts to decrease degradation with antioxidants were unsuccessful but led...
R J Orsler, G E Holland


The effect of a chelator mediated fenton system on activation of TMP fibres and decolorization of synthesized dyes
2004 - IRG/WP 04-50223
The purpose of this work is to improve our current knowledge of the non-enzymatic mechanisms involved in the brown rot degradation of wood, but also to study the potential applications of a chelator-mediated Fenton system in activation of wood fibers and decolorization of synthesized dyes. In this work, Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spin-trapping techniques were used to study the generation of hyd...
Yuhui Qian, B Goodell, J Jellison


Wood and filter paper degradation, phenol oxidase and one-electron oxidation activities by the white rot fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10486
The activities of one-electron oxidation and phenol oxidase during incubation of cultures of the white-rot basidiomycete Ceriporiopsis subvermispora containing either glucose or wood were periodically measured. Further, the degradation activities against wood and filter paper were examined during the course of cultivation. Weight losses of Japanese beech wood and Japanese cedar wood after 12 wee...
H Tanaka, S Itakura, A Enoki


Some fundamental thoughts on the prediction of field performance from lab-testing based on comparison of lab and field test results of some copper-free materials
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20269
In the paper results from lab testing (ENV 807 and EN 113) are compared with field results (EN 252) of differently treated wood. Depending on the type of the organic biocide containing material and depending on type of soil and type of decay differences were found in suitability of the lab methods to predict field performance. The attempt is made to interpret the found differences. Furthermore it ...
A O Rapp, U Augusta


The involvement of extracellular substances for the generation of hydroxyl radical during wood degradation by white-rot fungi
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10218
The activities of one-electron oxidation, hydroxyl radical generation, and phenol oxidase during the incubation of cultures of four white-rot fungi containing either glucose or wood were periodically measured. Further, their degradation activities against wood were examined during the course of cultivation. The generation of hydroxyl radical was correlated to the activity of wood degradation and i...
H Tanaka, S Itakura, A Enoki


Further steps in the development of above ground wood preservative systems
2002 - IRG/WP 02-30300
Metal and organo-metallic wood preservative systems have provided the consumer with cost effective wood preservative systems which satisfy the performance requirements in a wide range of end uses. With increasing environmental and legislative control, metal-free formulations have emerged as the dominant preservative systems for the protection of timber in the lower hazard classes. In higher ha...
P Warburton, A S Hughes


Degradation of resin constituents in various wood species by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10301
In previous studies, the white-rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 was shown to cause extensive degradation of lipophilic extractives (resin) in Scots pine wood. Further research was carried out in order to investigate the ability of Bjerkandera sp. for reducing resinous constituents in various softwood (Douglas fir, larch and spruce) and hardwood species (birch, beech and poplar). The greates...
J Dorado, T A Van Beek, F W Claassen, R Sierra-Alvarez


A model for attack at a distance from the hyphae based on studies with the brown rot Coniophora puteana
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10104
In timber infested by brown rot fungi, a rapid loss in strength is attributed to production of hydroxyl radicals (HO·) at a distance from the hyphae. The immediate precursor is Fenton's reagent (Fe(II)/H2O2), but the pathways leading to Fe(II) and H2O2 have remained unclear. Cellobiose dehydrogenase, purified from cultures of Coniophora puteana, will couple oxidation of cellodextrins to ...
S M Hyde, P M Wood


Bethoguard; A new wood protecting fungicide for use in metal free ground contact wood preservatives
2002 - IRG/WP 02-30301
Research has identified the limitations in both the spectrum of activity and permanence of organic biocides placed in wood in high hazard environments, particularly in the absence of heavy metals such as copper. More specifically, the control of soft rot decay in wood in soil contact has proven to be most problematic. The new organic biocide, Bethoguard; an oxathiazine, has demonstrated excellen...
S C Forster, G R Williams, M Van Der Flaas, M Bacon, J Gors


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