IRG Documents Database and Compendium

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The effect of rate of pressure application on preservative uptake along and across the grain of fir (Abies bornmulleriana Mattf.) at different ramp and constant pressure times
2004 - IRG/WP 04-20292
This study was particularly design to determine the preservative uptake at different ramp (rate of increase in pressure) and constant pressure times on longitudinal, tangential and radial penetrations of fir (Abies bornmulleriana Mattf.) which grown indigeneously in Turkey. The samples of 2 cm cubes of kiln-dried wood (nominated to 12% moisture content) were treated at different ramp times varied ...
I Usta

Preservative treatment of rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis) to increase its service life
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40320
Rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis) possess excellent properties for interior designing, wood working and furniture making. But it is very much susceptible to sap stain and mould fungi which decreases the service life. For profitable uses , it is necessary to increase the service life of rubber wood. To protect the rubber wood from wood degrading agents, the sawn timber were treated with Borax – b...
K Akhter

Protection of rubberwood timber. Part 1: Impregnation with boron preservatives
1989 - IRG/WP 3551
Rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) were treated with a 3% proprietary mixture of borax/boric acid using three different treatment schedules i.e. full-cell, full-cell to refusal and full-cell with 12 cycles of vacuum/pressure. Freshly cut samples had mean preservative retentions of 187 kg/m³, 214 kg/m³ and 178 kg/m³ respectively. Pre-air dried samples for one week had retentions of 252 kg/m³, 308 ...
L T Hong, C C K Liew

Estimation of the impregnation degree of pine wood by the distribution analysis of active ions concentration in the cross-section
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20174
Samples in the form of pine wood rollers of diversified moisture content of ca. 50, 28 and 12% were impregnated with a water solution of the mixture type CCB with the use of the full-cell process. Moisture content was determined in individual layers from the girth to the pith. In the same way the concentrations of copper and chromium ions with the use of the spectrophotometric method and recalcula...
K Lutomski, B Mazela

Industrial fixation of chromium based wood preservatives
1990 - IRG/WP 3630
Fixation is an abstract and non-defined process. Nevertheless it is a specified requirement in most impregnation standards. The impregnation industry is facing increased pressure to deliver fixed products and to increase the safety of the handling of impregnated products. Industrial fixation of impregnated wood can be obtained by using different methods. The purpose of the process is to transform ...
T Christensen

Variation in biological performance of CCA caised by preservative application method
1996 - IRG/WP 96-40072
A series of laboratory studies to investigate the influence of treatment application method on CCA performance in Cosican pine has been completed. Biological decay tests, such as serial exposures, were used to induce decay in wood at preservative retentions of up to 10 kg/m³ CCA salts. Significant differences in performance of the preservative against either brown, white or soft rot decay fungi w...
P R Newman, R J Murphy

Microdistribution of water-borne preservatives in blue gum treated by full-cell process
1990 - IRG/WP 3617
The present work deals with the study of the microdistribution of copper, chrome and arsenic elements in Eucalyptus globulus Labill. sapwood, treated with a CCA water-borne preservative by full-cell process, with the help of scanning electron microscopy together with energy dispersion X-ray analysis technique. The work shows that the retention of CCA elements is high in vessels and vasicentric par...
D De Sousa Castro Reimão, J M Palacios

Bending strength of heat-treated spruce and pine timber
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40242
Heat-treatment of spruce (Picea abies) and pine (Pinus sylvestris) beams (45 x 145 mm) gave a reduction in bending strength of approximately 50%. The bending stiffness (modulus of elasticity) only decreased by 3.5%. Tests were carried out according to EN 408. Another effect of the heat-treatment was increased variation in bending strength. The 5th percentile value of the bending strength, the so c...
C Bengtsson, J Jermer, F Brem

Preliminary pole treatment trials with chlorothalonil in hydrocarbon solvent
1994 - IRG/WP 94-40027
A series of 460-mm long, end-sealed southern pine pole stubs were treated with chlorothalonil in hydrocarbon solvent. Over sixty sections were treated using various combinations of initial seasoning (kiln-drying, steam-conditioning), treating temperature (ambient, 200°F), initial air pressure, and final conditioning (steam flash + vacuum, expansion bath + vacuum, steam distillation + vacuum). Dis...
H M Barnes

The potential of high pressure pulsation processes to treat white spruce lumber with water-borne preservatives
1988 - IRG/WP 3471
Laboratory work using end sealed 4x8x46 cm³ white spruce samples has been done to explore the suitability of three variants of a 2.1 MPa pulsation process for the impregnation of white spruce with CCA. The results showed that the process improved significantly the penetration of the preservatives and reduced significantly cell collapse, when compared with the results of treatment using a 2.1 MPa ...
J P Hösli, J N R Ruddick

Multiple-Phase Pressure (MPP) Process: One-stage CCA treatment and accelerated fixation process. 3. Effect of process variables on sapwood treatment and CCA fixation.
1998 - IRG/WP 98-40114
The Multiple-Phase Pressure (MPP) Process achieves treatment and fixation as combined process using hot CCA, within a 2-3 hour time-frame. Timber is treated to saturation with hot CCA using an empty cell process. During the pneumatic pressure phase, hot solution is held in the wood in an otherwise liquid-free treatment vessel until fixation is >95% complete. This report details a factorial des...
H Pearson, K Nasheri, J A Drysdale, G Durbin, M E Hedley

The susceptibility to sludging of sulfate and oxide CCA
1990 - IRG/WP 3599
Radiata pine sapwood was treated separately with a sulphate CCA-C and an oxide CCA in a pilot scale pressure plant using a full cell process. CCA solutions were recovered from the final vacuum phase, placed in plastic tubes, and their susceptibility to sludging determined by examining changes in solution pH, time required for sludge to form and weight and chemical composition of sludge formed. Sul...
B T Mutandadzi, P D Evans

Comparative study between full cell and passive impregnation method of wood preservation for laser incised Douglas-fir lumber
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40359
Many wood species are highly resistant to conventional pressure treatment. To improve the chemical impregnation into Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Franco) lumber, the passive impregnation method had been developed. In this study, ability of the passive impregnation for lumber was compared with a conventional full cell method. Square Douglas-fir lumber with the incising density of 10,000 holes...
Md N Islam, K Ando, H Yamauchi, Y Kobayashi, N Hattori

Comparison of permeability at different levels of moisture content in Bornmullerian fir (Abies bornmulleriana Mattf.) and Eastern spruce (Picea orientalis L.) impregnated under vacuum/pressure through full-cell method by using CCA and CCB of different concentrations
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40366
In this study, a comparison has been made in terms of the combined, longitudinal, tangential, and radial permeability of the species of Bornmullerian fir (Abies bornmulleriana Mattf.) and Eastern spruce (Picea orientalis L.) with moisture contents of 50 % and 15 %, which were impregnated under vacuum/pressure through full-cell method by using water-borne wood preservatives (impregnation materials)...
I Usta

The influence of chemical compounds on wood cell wall to surface cracks
2020 - IRG/WP 20-40908
Degradation due to cracking and dimensional changes caused by drying, have a significantly negative impact on the preservation and durability of wood. Therefore, the prevention of surface cracking, which tends to occur during the drying process, is vital. High temperature set drying is one of the most effective methods for preventing wood surface cracking. It begins with softening the wood at a hi...
R Suzuki, Y Mori, K Yoshihiro, K Yamashita, M Kiguchi

Proposal for further work on accelerated ageing
1988 - IRG/WP 2314
M-L Edlund

Status of the research and development of a new preservative system (EFPL) for pressure treatment of spruce in Canada
1975 - IRG/WP 348
Our work has been to develop a system which would have the stability of the ACA system and the formulation flexibility of the CCA system enabling properties such as fixation of arsenic, water repellency, appearance and cost to be controlled. Our permeability studies of spruce using a method previously developed indicated that an ammoniacal solution of copper arsenate is an excellent candidate for ...
J Rak, M R Clarke

IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 2: Report of treatment and installation in Australia
1978 - IRG/WP 440
The purpose of this test and the procedures to be followed have been fully set out in documents distributed by the International Research Group on Wood Preservation and numbered IRG/WP/414 and IRG/WP/420. The prescriptions set out in these two documents have been closely followed....
J Beesley

Field test evaluation of preservatives and treatment methods for fence posts
1985 - IRG/WP 3347
This work presents the field test results after fifteen years exposure of Eucalyptus saligna fence posts treated with six different preservatives and five treatment methods. All the combinations with oil-borne preservatives presented the best results and among the waterborne preservatives, the fence posts treated by immersion method were with the lowest performance in the field test....
G A C Lopez, E S Lepage

Manual of a mini treating plant for waterborne preservative treatment of timber and bamboo
1999 - IRG/WP 99-40130
This contributional article includes machinaries and equipments necessary for a small wood treating plant for the pressure treatment of tim bers with waterborne preservatives along with the cost and design. The preservative treatment limitations, treatment schedules and specifications for different products have been described. The cost of a mini treating plant will be 6,00,000 Tk. (13,000 US$), s...
A K Lahiry

How to Document the Performance of Super-Critical Treated Wood in above Ground Situations?
2005 - IRG/WP 05-20316
The paper presents practical experiences from the preparation of a new preservative treated wood product for introduction to the market. The product in question is Superwood™, which is treated with organic biocides using CO2 in a supercritical state as a solvent. The question is how to evaluate the performance of a new product such as Superwood™ in order to get an acceptance on the market a...
N Morsing, A H H Wong, F Imsgard, O Henriksen

Strength loss associated with steam conditioning and boron treatment of radiata pine framing
1987 - IRG/WP 3438
The combined effect of included defects and wood moisture content on the strength loss of second rotation radiata pine framing following conventional steam conditioning is investigated. The green Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) is reduced by approximately 13% after steaming. When dried after steaming, however, neither the MOE nor MOR is significantly different from unsteamed dried controls....
M J Collins, P Vinden

The dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans. Examples of attack and remedial treatment
1988 - IRG/WP 1347
The film deals with several aspects of dry rot attack and eradication in buildings. The detailed biology and morphological charasteristics of the fungus are portrayed. The various forms of mycelial growth, the role of the strands in the nourishment and spread of the fungus, as well as the many types of fruitbody formation are outlined. Environmental and nutritional requirements of the fungus as we...
G Buchwald, B M Hegarty, W Metzner, R Pospischil, H Siegmund, P Grabow

Soft rot penetration - Effect of groundline maintenance treatment on poles in sevice
1983 - IRG/WP 3263
R S Johnstone

Improved techniques designed for evaluation of fungicides in soil for control of dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans
1985 - IRG/WP 2238
Improved techniques provide a laboratory method for the evaluation of chemicals in soil for control of dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans. Results with their application to three chemicals were reported. These techniques are useful to eliminate chemicals lacking the necessary toxicity and weatherbility for dry rot control when the chemicals have been applied to the soil....
M Takahashi, K Nishimoto

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