Your search resulted in 30 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
Fumigant movement in Canadian wood species
1984 - IRG/WP 3296
Pole sections prepared from seven Canadian wood species (Thuja plicata, Thuja occidentalis, Pinus contorta, Pinus resinosa, Pinus banksiana, Pseudotsuga menziesii, southern yellow pine) were fumigated with chloropicrin, methylisothiocyanate and Vapam and the rates of fumigant penetration determined. All three fumigants were applied directly into holes bored radially into the pole sections. Analysi...
J N R Ruddick
Selective adsorption of antisapstain actives from two aqueous suspensions, and movement of actives into wood
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30103
Green-off-saw rough sawn Pinus elliottii (slash pine) boards were dipped in aqueous suspensions of two antisapstain formulations, NeXgenâ and Busanâ Sap Stain Preventative (Busan 1009), at three product concentration levels. Concentrations of active ingredients (NeXgen: CTL (chloro-thalonil) and MTC (methylene bisthiocyanate); Busan 1009: TCMTB (2(thiocyanomethylthio)-benzothiazole) and MTC) wer...
M J Kennedy, T L Woods
Movement of boron from fused boron rods implanted in Southern pine, Douglas fir, red oak, and white oak timbers
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30061
This paper reports the distribution of boron from fused boron rods installed into six-inch (15.2 cm) square timbers of Douglas-fir, Southern Pine, red oak and white oak exposed aboveground. The composition and size of rods was: sodium borate and sodium borate-copper oxide (8.5 x 100 mm²); sodium borate-copper, sodium borate and boric oxide-copper oxide (12 x 76 mm²). The boric acid equivalent wa...
T L Highley, L Ferge
Creosote movement from treated wood immersed in fresh water: Initial PAH migration
2003 - IRG/WP 03-50201
Creosote has a long history of successful use as a wood preservative, but polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in this preservative have raised environmental concerns, particularly when creosote-treated wood is used in aquatic environments. A number of models have been developed to predict the risk of creosote use in aquatic environments, but one limitation of these models is a lack of data o...
Sung-Mo Kang, J J Morrell, J Simonsen, S T Lebow
Preservatives treatment and field test monitoring of spruce pole stock: CCA and fumigant treatments
1990 - IRG/WP 3619
The fumigants trichloronitromethane (chloropicrin) and sodium N-methyldithiocarbamate (SNMDC) were used to treat red spruce pole stock, either CCA treated or untreated, through holes bored through the pole's center. The poles were analyzed for the presence of microorganisms immediately before ground installation and again after installation at a pole test site. Monitoring of fumigant move...
A J Pendlebury, B Goodell
Methods for testing fumigant efficacies against termites
1986 - IRG/WP 1297
Methodologies for testing fumigants against termites are reviewed and factors needed to be taken under consideration for standardization listed. Toxicity should be defined by both direct exposure to the gas and under more practical "barrier" conditions which include test enclosures simulating abiotic surroundings of the termites, i.e. wood, nest material, etc. To observe latent effects, mortality ...
N-Y Su, R H Scheffrahn
Movement and persistence of chloropicrin, Vapam, Dazomet and methylisothiocyanate in red and white oak timbers
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3728
This study describes the movement and persistence of four fumigants in sawn red and white oak timbers exposed out of ground contact for 2 years. Chloropicrin moved the furthest from the point of application, and was the most persistent. Vapam was next best, followed by Dazomet. Methylisothiocyanate (MIT), applied as pellets, was not effective, probably because MIT was lost from pellets prior to tr...
T L Highley
Movement and persistence of Dazomet and pellected methylisothiocyanate in wrapped Douglas fir and southern pine timbers
1991 - IRG/WP 1496
The movement and persistence of Dazomet (tetrahydro-3,5-dimethyl-2 H-1,3,5 thiadiazine-6-thione) and pelleted methylisothiocyanate (MIT) was evaluated in wrapped Douglas-fir and Southern Pine timbers. MIT pellets did not impart a fungistatic effect to any of the timbers. Failure of MIT was probably due to loss of MIT from pellets prior to application. Fungistatic effect of Dazomet was consistently...
T L Highley
The effect of wick action on the moisture distribution in heartwood and sapwood stakes of Pinus radiata D. Don.
1999 - IRG/WP 99-40139
The pattern of moisture distribution in stakes of Pinus radiata D. Don. subjected to "wick action" is investigated. There was incomplete saturation of the stakes even after 93 days of continual soaking. Maximum moisture absorption occurred at the base of the stake and at the air/water interface of the stake. Incomplete saturation of the stake was thought to be due to air embolism within the wood. ...
J Hann, P Vinden
A laboratory evaluation of the fumigant, sulfuryl fluoride (VikaneR), against the Formosan termite Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki
1982 - IRG/WP 1164
A series of laboratory experiments showed that the fumigant sulfuryl fluoride (VikaneR) was effective against small groups of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki exposed to the gas directly at temperatures from 20-40°C. At 10°C fumigations failed regardless of initial gas concentration. Very high or total mortality was observed at concentrations of 0.79 cc/L or higher. A second series of experiments ...
J P La Fage, M Jones, T Lawrence
Effect of fumigant residue in aerated wood blocks on the spore germination of decay fungi
1991 - IRG/WP 2382
Fumigants are increasingly used in several countries for remedial treatments of transmission poles to increase the service life. The present study was initiated primarily to test the remaining toxic effects of spruce (Picea rubra) wood, fumigated with chloropicrin (trichloronitro methane) or MIT (Methyl isothiocyanate) after long period of aeration, on the spore germination of decay fungi. This st...
J Bjurman, B Goodell
Preliminary modelling of methylisothiocyanate movement through Douglas fir transmission poles
1988 - IRG/WP 3466
Methylisothiocyanate is a volatile solid that is the active ingredient of several registered and experimental wood fumigants. Information on the sorption and diffusion of this chemical in Douglas-fir heartwood and sapwood was used to develop a two-dimensional model of fumigant movement within a single horizontal cross-section of a transmission pole. The model indicated that dry wood (14% MC) stron...
A R Zahora, P E Humphrey, J J Morrell
The effect of chemical treatment on the moisture distribution of Pinus radiata D.Don subjected to wick action
1999 - IRG/WP 99-40135
Radiata pine sapwood stakes were treated with a range of chemicals, including an ammoniacal copper quaternary ammonium compound (ACQ), a copper-chrome and arsenic (CCA) solution and a CCA-oil treatment, potassium linoleate copper linoleate, a paraffin wax and a proprietary alkyd resin. The effect of these treatments on the extent of water absorption and moisture movement through the stakes was inv...
J Hann, P Vinden
Field evaluation of CCA movement in sap-displaced copper chrome arsenic treated softwood poles
1989 - IRG/WP 3539
Commercial sap-displaced UK grown Scots and Corsican pine, and Sitka and Norway spruce poles were exposed in a field site at Dundee, Scotland and radial distribution profiles of CCA monitored prior to implantation and after subsequent field exposure. Results show that groundline levels of all preservative elements were higher after 1 and 2 years field exposure compared with those recorded prior to...
S D Hainey, G M Smith, A Bruce, P D Evans, B King, H J Staines
Movement of borates in a range of timber species at various moisture contents
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30181
Borate-based wood preservatives are used in industrial pre-treatment as well as remedial treatment of timbers in situ. In both of these areas, understanding the mobile nature of these compounds is important in optimizing the main benefits of borates. Considerable work has been conducted on movement of borates in dip-diffusion treatment of freshly felled wood, as well as focusing on subsequent diff...
M W Schoeman, J D Lloyd, M J Manning
Movement of water through quaternary ammonium treated wood
1987 - IRG/WP 3440
Radiata pine sapwood stakes were treated with didodecyl methyl 1, 3 dichloropropenyl ammonium chloride and distearyl dimethyl ammonium chloride. Various ratios of these two chemicals were, tested to determine the extent of water movement through the treated wood. Measurements were taken of the amount of water moved through the wood, degree of wetting of various sectors of the stakes, and the distr...
P J Hayward, J Duff
Fluoride movement through Douglas-fir and hem-fir lumber following dipping in potassium/ammonium bifluoride
1995 - IRG/WP 95-40040
The ability of ammonium and potassium fluoride to diffuse through Douglas-fir and hem-fir lumber was evaluated over a 90 day period. Boards were dipped in a solution containing 10% (by weight) of ammonium and potassium bifluoride, then stored under cover for 90 days. Samples removed 30, 60 and 90 days after treatment indicated that the fluoride was unable to completely penetrate the wood. Penetrat...
J J Morrell, C S Love
Assessment of the Termatrac™ system - a new microwave based technology for non-destructive detection of termites
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20265
Termites can be difficult to detect reliably and many detection methods are destructive to property or disturbing to the termites (which may interfere with remedial treatment). The reliability of Termatrac™, a new Australian device for the detection of termites in an unobtrusive manner, based on novel microwave technology, was tested in the field. Termite presence was assessed as indicated by th...
T A Evans
Prevention of non-microbial sapwood discolorations in hardwood lumber: chemical and mechanical treatments
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30137
Sapwood discolorations in hardwood lumber that are non-microbial in origin result from the formation of pigmented starch-like granules in ray parenchyma cells. These discolorations can be prevented by treating unseasoned lumber with an antioxidant (sodium bisulfite). Exposing unseasoned lumber to microwaves or treating logs with fumigants also will prevent these discolorations. Subjecting unseason...
T L Amburgey, S Kitchens
Methods for the assessment of wood preservative movement in soil
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-08
This paper presents preliminary results from a series of experiments constructed to provide laboratory data for the evaluation of the leaching of wood preservatives into and through soil. The experiments included: i) measurement of the adsorption of preservatives by soil; ii) determination of the concentration gradient of preservatives in soil following percolation of preservative solution through...
G E Holland, R J Orsler
Three-dimensional modeling of fumigant distribution in wood poles
1993 - IRG/WP 93-30025
The practice of using fumigants to control internal decay has been widely accepted in the United States and has shown to be effect in control internal decay in transmission poles and other large wood timbers. Mathematical models were developed to simulate the chloropicrin movement in utility poles after treatment. The simulation results indicated that treatment of utility poles, using either tradi...
Jing Liu, B Goodell
Effect of wrapping on movement of chloropicrin, Vapam, and Vanicide TH in southern pine timbers
1987 - IRG/WP 3411
Important fungi that decay wood protucts were "inoculated" into nonpressure-treated southern pine timbers as vapor-sensing agents to evaluate the effect of wrapping on the movement and persistence of fungitoxic concentrations of chloropicrin, Vapam, and Vanicide TH in the timbers. Fumigant movement and persistence in the timbers was enhanced by wrapping the timbers in polyethylene after fumigation...
T L Highley
The movement of iron into field test stakes
1987 - IRG/WP 2284
Failed and sacrificial stakes recovered from the Westham Island field test site were examined for their iron content. Varying amounts were recorded, which were greatest in the failed stakes. The possible role of the iron taken up by the below ground portion of the stakes, in accelerating the decay process and/or the preservative leaching is under investigation. The reaction of the iron with the ch...
J N R Ruddick, P I Morris
Gelatin encapsulated fumigants for wood fumigations: Current research status
1985 - IRG/WP 3336
The fumigants chloropicrin (trichloronitromethane) and methylisothiocyanate (MIT) were encapsulated in gelatin as an alternative to liquid fumigant treatments for control of decay fungi in wooden utility poles. Gelatin-encapsulated MIT was stored for over 2 years under dry conditions without significant fumigant leakage. Gelatin encapsulated MIT and chloropicrin were released from capsules when pl...
A R Zahora, M E Corden, J J Morrell
Movement of chloropicrin, Vapam, and methylisothiocyanate in southern pine and Douglas fir timbers
1987 - IRG/WP 3410
Douglas fir and southern pine timbers, 15.2 x 15.2 x 426 cm³ (6-in x 6-in x 14-ft), were "inoculated" with brown-rot and white-rot fungi as vapor-sensing agents to evaluate the movement and distribution of fungitoxic concentrations of chloropicrin, Vapam, and methylisothiocyanate (MIT) over a 20-week period. Residual fumigant in timbers was determined by a bioassay with Gloeophyllum trabeum. The ...
T L Highley