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The suitability of isothiazolone microemulsions as long term wood preservatives
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30150
Microemulsion formulations of 4,5 dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one were investigated to determine the leaching potential of these formulation types as well as their efficacy against decay fungi. These patented low leaching formulations exhibited good anti fungal efficacy in standard tests combined with minimal leaching of the active ingredient from the wood. The data suggests that the excel...
B M Hegarty, Bing Yu, L E Leightley


Tebuconazole, a new wood-preserving fungicide
1990 - IRG/WP 3634
TEBUCONAZOLE, an anti-fungal triazole compound, has been tested to assess the effectivness as wood preserving fungicide. Tests were made with the active ingredient and also in formulations against basidiomycetes, blue-staining fungi and mould. Results of the DESOWAG laboratories and also from official institutes will be presented. In addition to this there were made different toxicological and eco...
B Wüstenhöfer, H-W Wegen, W Metzner


Discussion of diiodomethyl p-tolyl sulfone (Amical® 48) as a fungicide for wood preservatio
1987 - IRG/WP 3425
The effectiveness of diiodomethyl-p-tolyl sulfone (Amical® 48) as a fungicide for preservation of wood is supported by a discussion of results from the literature and current research programs....
J M Stamm, K J Littel, F M H Casati, M B Friedman


Synergistic effects between 2-HPNO, Irganox 1076 and EDTA on the inhibition of wood degradation by Coriolus versicolor
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30331
The efficiency of 2-hydroxypyridine-N-oxide (2-HPNO) as wood preservative has been investigated. As shown using classical experiments as well as using response surface methodology, the efficiency of 2-HPNO as wood preservative is strongly improved in presence a chelator like EDTA and/or of Irganox 1076 an industrial antioxidant. In these conditions, wood preservative efficiency of the mixture the ...
A Mabicka, S Dumarçay, N Rouhier, M Linder, J P Jacquot, P Gérardin, E Gelhaye


Mold inhibition on unseasoned southern pine
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10465
Concerns about indoor air quality due to mold growth have increased dramatically in the United States. In the absence of moisture management, fungicides need to be developed for indoor use to control mold establishment. An ideal fungicide for prevention of indoor mold growth on wood-based materials needs to specifically prevent spore germination and provide long-term protection under conditions of...
C A Clausen, V W Yang


Evaluation of an alkyl ammonium compound as a fungicide to control sapstain and mould during diffusion storage
1984 - IRG/WP 3282
An alkyl ammonium compound ('Akzo' ES 255) was evaluated for its effectiveness against mould and sapstain during diffusion storage of boron-treated rubber wood. Though ES 255 at 1.0% concentration was effective against mould (71%) and sapstain (89%) it is less satisfactory compared to 0.5% sodium pentachlorophenoxide against mould (92%) and sapstain (98%)....
R Gnanaharan


Tolylfluanid - fungicide against blue stain in service
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3736
Physical and chemical properties and efficacy of Tolylfluanid are compared with the properties of Dichlofluanid. Whereas the difference in the molecular structure influences the physical properties significantly, the efficacy of both fungicides is comparable. The toxicological and ecotoxicological profile of Tolylfluanid is summarised....
H-U Buschhaus


Tebuconazole - a new triazole fungicide for wood preservation
1991 - IRG/WP 3680
The great potential of Tebuconazole for wood preservation is demonstrated. Test carried out by official institutes shown that Tebuconazole is particularly effective against wood-rotting basidiomycetes strains. The efficacy of Tebuconazole against the brown rot Gloeophyllum trabeum is outstanding: the toxic value measured in accordane with EN 113, without·ageing, after leaching (EN 84) and after e...
O Exner


The use of TCMTB in applications other than sapstain prevention: A review
1990 - IRG/WP 3606
The efficacy of TCMTB against staining fungi and surface moulds has been thoroughly investigated during the last decade. As a result, the chemical is used as an alternative to the chlorinated phenols in various parts of the world for the preservation of freshly sawn timber. Less known are the data obtained against brown rot, white rot and soft rot fungi. The termite repellent and bactericidal prop...
R Van der Eynde


Polyflavonoid tannins - From a cause of CCA soft-rot failure to the "missing link" between lignin and microdistribution theories
1986 - IRG/WP 3359
Polyflavonoid tannins are proven to be fast-reacting with CCA solutions and hence, to be strong competitors of the structural wood constituents for fixation of CCA preservatives. The consequence of this effect is that even relatively small amounts of tannin cause severe undertreatment of the structural wood constituents which in turn badly affects the long term durability of CCA-treated timber. Th...
A Pizzi, W E Conradie, M Bariska


Resistance of painted wood to mould fungi. Part 2. The effect of wood substrate and acrylate paint systems on mould growth
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10234
Resistance of acrylate paint systems on different types of pine and spruce sapwood to mould fungi was studied. Dipping into the preservative prior to painting, a primer with and without a fungicide (propiconazole + IPBC 0.50 + 0.2%) and a topcoat with and without a fungicide (propiconazole + IPBC 0.25 + 0.12%) were combinations of the treatments studied. The efficacy of the treatment systems varie...
H Viitanen, P Ahola


Evaluating possibilities of leaching of deltamethrin and TCMTB (insecticides and fungicide for protecting wood) by rain water or by soaking in water
1988 - IRG/WP 3464
Deltamethrin and TCMTB have been subjected to several field leaching tests on freshly fallen trees and in the laboratory, using standard EN 84. All the trials gave the same results and confirm that Deltamethrin and TCMTB are not washed out after they have been allowed to penetrate the trunk surface properly. According to the EN 84 standard, less than 1% Deltamethrin and less than 1.7% TCMTB were r...
J S Duguet, V Dartigues


Soft Rot Decay of Cengal (Neobalanocarpus heimii) Heartwood in Ground Contact in Relation to Extractive Microdistribution
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10501
The heartwood of cengal (Neobalanocarpus heimii, fam. Dipterocarpaceae) is naturally durable. A square-sawn utility pole specimen of cengal heartwood, after 30 years in ground contact, showed 10-15 mm surface decay all around the ground line position, accompanied with isolated surface termite attack at the decayed region. Light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the decayed regions prov...
A P Singh, A H H Wong, Yoon Soo Kim, Seung-Gon Wi, Kwang Ho Lee


Integrated protection of freshly sawn lumber using Bacillus subtilis and selected fungicide
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10235
Bioprotection against stain fungi has tremendous potential for reducing discoloration of freshly sawn wood while decreasing chemical consumption. Unfortunately, most bioprotectants appear to be unable to consistently perform under the array of conditions to which freshly sawn wood is exposed. While research is underway to understand the nature of the inconsistent performance, a more pragmatic appr...
M E Mankowski, M Anderson, J J Morrell


Properties-enhanced albizzia particleboards by incorporating fungicide and insecticide in the glue
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30060
Preservative-treated particleboards were prepared by using tropical fast-growing albizzia and adding fungicides and insecticides to the adhesive-glue. the physical and biological properties of these boards were evaluated. No significant reduction in bending or internal-bond strength due to incorporation of the chemicals was detected. Treated particleboards effectively resisted attack by Coptoterme...
B Subiyanto, S Yusuf, Y Imamura, S Fushiki, T Saito, T Katuzawa


Cell wall microdistribution of chloropicrin and methylisothiocyanate in treated spruce
1989 - IRG/WP 3548
Chloropicrin and methylisothiocyanate (MIT) residues were observed using SEM/EDXA and TEM/EDXA in treated spruce wafers that had been exposed to the vapors of the two fumigant preservatives. Chlorinated residues from chloropicrin were found throughout the wood cell wall, even in acetone extracted material. The residues were most heavily concentrated in extractive materials in the rays, but unlike ...
G F Daniel, B Goodell


Tebuconazole - A new triazole fungicide for wood preservation
1990 - IRG/WP 3629
The main cause of economic damage to timber and millwork worldwide are Basidiomycetes (brown and white rot). After testing a wide range of triazole derivatives for their effectiveness against decay fungi, Tebuconazole, a triazole compound, was selected. The physico-chemical, toxicological and ecotoxicological data of this substance are described. Tebuconazole is unleachable, light-stable, heat-sta...
R Gründlinger, O Exner


IPBC - A new fungicide for wood protection
1984 - IRG/WP 3295
3-iodo-2-propynyl butyl carbamate (IPBC) is presented as a potential low toxic alternative to pentachlorophenol and the sodium chlorophenoxides. Data on its effect against basidiomycetes is shown. Tests according to both the European standard method, EN-113, and American, ASTM D-413, have shown its potential. The chemical gives protection against both the wood destroying fungi, blue stain, mould and algae. It is possible to have it formulated in both water-based and organic solvent-based products. Treatment of wood out of ground contact (vac-vac products, pretreatment products, primers, stains, etc.) and sapstain control are some of the most potential end use areas within wood protection. Besides wood protection, the IPBC is used as a fungicide in paint, adhesives, caulks and sealants, cement, leather, paper, cutting oil, ink and in different roofing materials.
J Hansen


Practical experiments with Boracol 10 Rh used as a fungicide in the repair process after attack by the dry rot fungus (Serpula lacrymans)
1987 - IRG/WP 3458
The test is carried out in an old house in Nyhavn, Copenhagen. The roof and the walls close to were heavily attacked by dry rot fungus (Serpula lacrymans) because damage to the zinc covering the frontspice were letting in water to the wood and wall construction. An attack by the dry rot fungus is more complicated to repair compared with other wood destroying fungi because beside the damage on wood...
J Bech-Andersen


Suitability of propiconazole (R 49362) as a new-generation fungicide
1989 - IRG/WP 3529
Propiconazole (R 49362), an anti-fungal triazole-compound of Janssen Pharmaceutica, has been extensively tested to determine its potential use as a wood preserving fungicide. Various tests in both private laboratories and official institutes indicate a good activity against Basidiomycetes (brown and white rot) and Ascomycetes (blue stain-in-service). The active ingredient seems very resistant to w...
A R Valcke


A laboratory evaluation of tributyltin ethanesulphonate as an aqueous fungicide in wood preservation
1983 - IRG/WP 3229
Toxic limit data, using both leached and unleached wood test blocks, are reported for aqueous solutions of tributyltin ethanesulphonate against four Basidiomycete fungi, Poria placenta, Gloeophyllum trabeum, Coriolus versicolor and Coniophora puteana. An in situ study of the tributyltin compound in Scots pine and ponderosa pine sapwood has been carried out, using the technique of 119mSn Mössbauer...
R Hill, P J Smith, J N R Ruddick, K W Sweatman


Microdistribution of Copper in Copper-Ethanolamine (Cu-EA) Treated Southern Yellow Pine (Pinus spp.) related to density distribution
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40270
The relationship between copper absorption and density distribution in wood cell walls was investigated in this study. The density distribution on layer level was obtained from two approaches: (1) calculation by using data obtained from literature; (2) microdistribution of carbon and oxygen atoms in the wood cell. The microdistribution of carbon and oxygen in untreated southern yellow pine (Pinus ...
Jinzhen Cao, D P Kamdem, E Pasek


The influence of carrier fluid type on the efficacy of a wood preservative against cavity forming soft rot
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30244
Propiconazole was applied to Scots pine sapwood (Pinus sylvestris) and beech (Fagus sylvatica) using three different carrier systems selected on their varying ability to swell timber. The effects of microdistribution on the activity of cavity forming soft rot fungi were examined to determine the practical benefits of using swelling and non-swelling carriers with this active ingredient. Efficacy of...
P A Hodges


Evaluation of tropolone as a wood preservative : activity and mode of action
2002 - IRG/WP 02-30282
The fungicidal activity of 2-hydroxy cyclohepta-2,4,6-trienone (tropolone) analogue of b-thujaplicin a natural product responsible for the durability of heart wood of several cupressaceous trees was investigated in vitro on growth of white and brown rot fungi. Results obtained show that tropolone, easily prepared from commercially available products, possesses strong fungicidal activity similar ...
P Gérardin, M Baya, N Delbarre, P N Diouf, D Perrin, P Soulounganga, E Gelhaye, J P Jacquot, C Rapin


Microdistribution of water-borne preservatives in blue gum treated by full-cell process
1990 - IRG/WP 3617
The present work deals with the study of the microdistribution of copper, chrome and arsenic elements in Eucalyptus globulus Labill. sapwood, treated with a CCA water-borne preservative by full-cell process, with the help of scanning electron microscopy together with energy dispersion X-ray analysis technique. The work shows that the retention of CCA elements is high in vessels and vasicentric par...
D De Sousa Castro Reimão, J M Palacios


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