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Utility, deterioration and preservation of marine timbers in India
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40314
Timber is extensively used in India in the marine environment for various purposes due to its several advantages over modern materials. Infact, its use is increasing in recent years, finding wider and wider applications and this scenario is not going to change in the near future. Though, the bio-deterioration problem is found very severe in tropical waters, still indigenous methods are widely employed for the protection of fishing craft and the present level of chemical treatment is well below 5% of total timber used. This is due to socio economic problems of the potential timber user groups, unavailability of treatment plants in the coastal areas, lack of awareness in user groups, etc. In this paper, types of fishing craft used in the country, timber uses in the marine environment, bio-deterioration losses, research conducted on bio-deterioration aspects at various places and methods applied for the protection of wooden structures are presented.
B Tarakanadha, M V Rao, M Balaji, P K Aggarwal, K S Rao


Observations on the destruction of fishing craft in India by marine wood-borers with special reference to the West Coast
1981 - IRG/WP 468
The paper highlights the economic importance of the destruction of fishing craft in India by marine wood-destroying agencies. The annual loss involved is to the extent of over 94 million rupees. Thirty-nine spectes and one variety of woodborer have so far been recorded from India, of which Bankia campanellata, Bankia carinata, Bankia rochi, Dicyathifer manni, Lyrodus pedicellatus, Teredo clappi, Teredo furcifera, Nausitora hedleyi, Martesia striata, Sphaeroma terebrans, and Sphaeroma annandalei are widely distributed and quite destructive. Of the 59 timber species used in the construction of fishing craft, all are quickly damaged by these pests. Timber species which are in good demand for boat building are Tectona grandis, Artocarpus hirsutus, Calophyllum ionophyllum, Hopea parviflora, Lagerstroemia lanceolata, Mangifera indica, Melia composita, Pterocarpus dalbergioides, Pterocarpus marsupium, Shorea robusta, Salmalia malabarica, Terminalia alata, Terminalia paniculata, Tetrameles nudiflora and Xylia xylocarpa. Materials used for the indigenous methods of preservation of boats have been included together with details of special preparations. Crude fish oil, cashew nut shell oil, poon seed oil, neem seed oil, crude engine oil, red-ochre, lime plaster, animal fat, castor oil, ground nut oil, coal tar, karanjel oil and 'chandrus' constitute a series ingredients, used either alone or in various combinations. The indigenous preservative formulations have no particular efficacy to prevent biodeterioration, with the result the problem persists much to the disadvantage of the fishing industry.
L N Santhakumaran, J C Jain


Observations on the destruction of fishing craft in India by marine wood-borers with special reference to the West Coast
1981 - IRG/WP 472
The paper highlights the economic importance of the destruction of fishing craft in India by marine wood-destroying agencies. The annual loss involved is to the extent of over 94 million rupees. Thirty-nine spectes and one variety of woodborer have so far been recorded from India, of which Bankia campanellata, Bankia carinata, Bankia rochi, Dicyathifer manni, Lyrodus pedicellatus, Teredo clappi, Teredo furcifera, Nausitora hedleyi, Martesia striata, Sphaeroma terebrans, and Sphaeroma annandalei are widely distributed and quite destructive. Of the 59 timber species used in the construction of fishing craft, all are quickly damaged by these pests. Timber species which are in good demand for boat building are Tectona grandis, Artocarpus hirsutus, Calophyllum ionophyllum, Hopea parviflora, Lagerstroemia lanceolata, Mangifera indica, Melia composita, Pterocarpus dalbergioides, Pterocarpus marsupium, Shorea robusta, Salmalia malabarica, Terminalia alata, Terminalia paniculata, Tetrameles nudiflora and Xylia xylocarpa. Materials used for the indigenous methods of preservation of boats have been included together with details of special preparations. Crude fish oil, cashew nut shell oil, poon seed oil, neem seed oil, crude engine oil, red-ochre, lime plaster, animal fat, castor oil, ground nut oil, coal tar, karanjel oil and 'chandrus' constitute a series ingredients, used either alone or in various combinations. The indigenous preservative formulations have no particular efficacy to prevent biodeterioration, with the result the problem persists much to the disadvantage of the fishing industry.
L N Santhakumaran, J C Jain


Studies on the destruction by marine borers of fishing boats along the north-eastern Black Sea coasts of Turkey
1980 - IRG/WP 451
Marine wood-boring organisms are attacking fishing boats along the northeastern coasts of the Black Sea, Turkey. The damage and the intensity of attack of Teredo navalis L in fishing boats were studied.
O A Sekendiz, R Ilhan


Treatment behaviour of fresh and inservice catamaran logs
2001 - IRG/WP 01-30255
Catamaran is a conventional fishing craft fabricated by lashing 4 - 6 shaped logs of soft timber together. Over 73,000 of these craft fabricated out of 165,000 m3 of wood are in use along the vast east coast of India. Each craft lasts for 5-7 years. Over 15,000 m3 of timber is required annually for repairs and replacements of the craft. Such huge demand exerts enormous pressure on the resources. It is apt, therefore, to extend the practice of wood preservation to the catamaran sector and conserve the precious raw material. In order to achieve this objective, our Institute took up technology demonstrations way back in 1968. However, because of illiteracy and socio-economic constraints of the traditional fishermen, the efforts did not catch up well. Under these circumstances, as a renewed measure of propagation, treatment of 3 each of fresh as well as inservice catamarans was taken up some time ago. The results of pressure impregnation of these six catamarans made of Albizia falcataria timber with copper-chrome- arsenic (CCA) preservative were analyzed to understand the preservative absorption of the constituent logs. The study revealed that there was no significant variation in the total quantity of chemical absorbed among the fresh as well as inservice catamarans that served for three different periods prior to treatment . However, significant difference was noticed between all the fresh catamarans clubbed as one group and the inservice craft as another group. The CCA absorption ranged from 13.52 to 15.30 kg.m-3 averaging at 14.60 kg.m-3 in the fresh craft and 18.65 to 22.10 kg.m-3 averaging at 20.42 kg.m-3 in the inservice catamarans. Also, each constituent log of the six catamarans differed in its chemical content from the other. The analysis proved that it is possible to treat the inservice catamarans and achieve good preservative retentions.
V Kuppusamy, M V Rao, M Balaji, K S Rao


Studies on the destruction by marine wood boring organisms of fishing boats in the Eastern Black Sea of Turkey
1977 - IRG/WP 427
The present paper concerns the problem of fishing boats which are attacked by wood boring organisms in the Black Sea of Turkey. The aims of this study are: 1) to identify the marine wood boring organisms attacking fishing boats in the Northern Black Sea of Turkey; 2) to identify the wood species that are used in boat building construction and assess their durability; 3) to assess the degree of attack of the marine wood boring organisms and to evaluate the protection methods and chemicals currently applied to the fishing boats.
R Ilhan, O A Sekendiz


Rubber wood for fishing canoe construction
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40319
The rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) is cultivated for its latex and the wood comes as a by-product from the rubber plantations. The highly perishable nature makes it unsuitable for boat building. The Central Institute of Fisheries Technology, Cochin conducted laboratory and field studies with chemical preservative treated rubber wood and found that the durability of the wood increased considerably. The preservatives used were Copper-chrome-Arsenic (CCA) and creosote. Three canoes were made of treated rubber wood and are being operated successfully for the past 30 months in the backwaters as well as in the sea by gillnet fishermen. As a logical sequel to this, canoes were constructed out of rubber wood treated with CCA alone and sheathed with fiberglass making them more durable. Three such canoes were made and are given for experimental fishing. Performance monitoring shows that these canoes are free from biodeterioration and physical damage.
L Edwin, S N Thomas, B Meenakumari


Main problems of Turkish wooden boat manufacturers
1982 - IRG/WP 485
The best transportation system to the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey has been since the earliest history sea transportation. As is well known the historical 'silk road' from Europe to the Far East and China was over the Black Sea and via Trabzon. During the last five years also this same connecting route has become very important for the transportation of food and industrial products from the West to the Middle East. Two other factors that are influencing the building of boats in this region are the local rich forest resources and fishing facilities. It can be pointed out that 80% of the Turkish sea food is produced in the Black Sea region, which amounts to 380,000 tons per year. Therefore the main purpose of boat building in this area can be attributed to the needs of the fishing industry
R Ilhan


The present status of wooden catamarans of the Indian Coast
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10231
Catamarans (a.k.a. kattumarams) are the most widely used fishing craft in India, and hundreds of thousands of poor, traditional fishermen depend on these vessels for their livelihood that are almost made entirely of wood. In recent years, acute shortages and phenomenal increases in prices of timber species used in catamaran fabrication have been reported, causing great hardship to the user community. Further, the patterns of usage are based on age-old practices and not on scientific lines, resulting in significant waste of timber during fabrication and use. This paper, while highlighting the importance and benefit of usage of catamarans in the Indian context, stresses the need for introduction of steps to ameliorate the current losses, and outlines the various research and development efforts undertaken in this direction. Of special importance in this context is the on-going World Bank-aided program on catamarans, being handled at the Institute of Wood Science and Technology, Bangalore.
K S Rao