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Strategies for popularizing wood preservation technologies. Role of Extension Support Division of IWST
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40313
Institute of Wood Science and Technology (IWST) has made several extension efforts to popularise the wood preservation technologies developed by various institutes of Indian Council of Forerstry Research and Education (ICFRE) by conducting demonstration programmes, exhibitions, workshops, trainings, audio visual displays and distributing semi-technical literature on different subjects published in regional languages as well as in English. The paper highlights the extension efforts of IWST, problems in popularising the technologies in India and recommends future strategies to be adopted.
A M Kanfade, S C Gairola, P K Aggarwal


Wood preservation in Kenya
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40191
Current research on wood preservation in Kenya is mainly on the development of biological control of wood-destroying termite species, using mycoinsecticides. The major research institutions include the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI), Kenya Forestry Research Institute (KEFRI), Moi University and the International Centre for Insect Physiology (ICIPE). Training institutions include Forestry Training College, Forest Products Training Institute and Moi University. A number of publications, mostly an biological control of termites, are available and they range from workshop and conference proceedings to theses and journal publications. Wood-destroying termite species include several genera in Macrotermitidae and one drywood termite genus. Wood preservation facilities are available in Kenya, mainly for assorted timber products, sleepers and utility poles. The major preservatives used are CCAs, PCP and Creosote oil. There are still no set standards, specifications and requirements for wood preservatives and little, if any information exists on the marketing aspects of wood preservatives. The yet to be established Industrial Chemicals Act and the recently introduced Environmental Management and Coordination Bill (1999) may be able to handle regulatory, environmental, health and safety aspects of wood preservation in Kenya.
G Ochiel


Sustainability Through New Technologies for Enhanced Wood Durability. COST Action E37 – A New Action in the Forestry Domain
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40293
The main overall objective of the action is to concentrate on the contribution of wood durability on the sustainability through the development of systems for quality assurance and perfoamance of modified wood and wood products as alternatives to wood treated with traditional preservatives. By this means it seeks to improve and consequently increase the cost-effective use of sustainably produced European timber, wood-based fibre, and recycled raw materials. The action will seek to optimize methods for testing and characterizing durability performance against physical as well as biological factors. This will exploit relevant selected results from specific aspects of the preceding COST Action E22 on “Environmental optimization of wood protection” and in the EU thematic network for wood modification. It will also exploit specific achievements from COST Action E18 “High performance in wood coating”.
R-D Peek


Preservación de maderas en Bolivia
1986 - IRG/WP 3360
Este documento ofrece datos generales concerníentes a los recursos forestales de Bolivia, las facilidades existentes para preservación de maderas, la investigación y educación en esa materia. Se proporciona información sobre instituciones vinculadas a la actividad y las perspectivas del tratamiento de maderas en el país.
A S Viscarra


Strategies for enhancing usage of treated wood in Indian context
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40305
India constitutes 2% of the world’s forest area but it has to support over 15% of the human and nearly 14% of the cattle population and therefore forests in India are under immense biotic pressure. The main concern today is the rate at which avoidable factors or man made threats accelerate the process of forest degradation and to evolve measures to check the same. Man made threats include exploitation and use of forests for commercial purposes in a non-scientific way. The need of the hour is to preserve our natural forests which can be done by utilization of man made forests scientifically. Wood continues to be an extensively used raw material for diverse, domestic, individual and structural applications such as housing, bullock carts, boats, toys, handicrafts, agricultural implements, furniture, fishing craft etc. Growing demands, diminishing supplies and the intensity of resource has led to acute shortage and phenomenal hikes in prices of conventionally preferred species and therefore, attention is now diverted towards fast growing plantation species to augment wood supply. However, most of these timber species are naturally non-durable or moderately durable and need protection from biological aspects like fungi, bacteria, termites, borers etc. Technologies such as preservative treatments can enhance the service life of timber several times and can save millions of well grown trees. However, the quantity of timber being treated in India is negligible as a favorable operation regime for scientific processing especially wood treatment does not exist. Compounding the problem is extremely weak, user group-researcher linkages, low level of technology development, technology absorption, extension efforts and non existence of R & D industry-researcher- end user association. These issues are discussed in detail in this paper.
P K Aggarwal, S C Gairola


An overview of the economic importance and control of termites in plantation forestry and wood preservation in Peninsular Malaysia
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10382
Both the plantation forestry and wood preservation industries in the tropical and sub-tropical belts of the world, exemplified by the humid equatorial Peninsular Malaysia, regard termites as major destructive pests of standing trees, various timber products and building timber structures. This paper is a compilation of information on these economically important structural pests encountered in both plantation forestry and the wood preservation industry in Malaysia, particularly the peninsula, and describes on-going termite research activities to establish practical control strategies for tree and wood protection.
L G Kirton, A H H Wong, Kee Suan Cheok


Risk of extension of Hylotrupes bajulus attack in glued laminated timber
1977 - IRG/WP 278
Although efficient work-methods and maintenance procedures, which prevent the wood from becoming damp and are therefore successful in considerably reducing and even in excluding the risks of decay, such methods are ineffective in eliminating the risks of infestation and destruction of timber by the House Longhorn Beetle, Hylotrupes bajulus, the chief enemy of softwood timber structures. The possible treatment of glue-laminated timber frames has only been systematically studied for the last few years and is generally limited to the surface application of organic solvent type preservatives. In most cases, this treatment is carried out at the factory before final warnishing takes place. The aim of this paper is not to discuss this type of treatment, which would require certain reservations. As many untreated timber frames have been erected and since in the majority of those which are currently being erected, cracks - ideal sites for the House Longhorn Beetle to lay its eggs are discovered chiefly during the first year, its seems pertinent to examine the dangers of increased infestation in this type of structure and the need for eradicant treatment; in other words, to examine wether successive laminates or ultimately the entire beam will be affected if one infested laminate is incorporated into a particular structure or whether infestation will remain confined to the initial laminate. We shall need to determine whether the larvae of Hylotrupes bajulus are capable of penetrating the various types of glued- laminated timber. By gluing together thin layers of wood of limited length, the technique of glued laminates aims at manufacturing wood products which are both thick and of great bearing, but which proportionally have only slightly less mechanical strength than the same piece of solid wood. There are two types of assembly: 1) by gluing together laminates lengthwise, so as to produce beams of given thickness, and 2) by gluing together end-grain surfaces of laminates so as to produce beams of a given length. Both types of assembly are included in the diagrams accompanying this paper. The possible penetration by larvae of the House Longhorn Beetle have been studied in the case of each type of assembly. It is also known that the larvae of this species are capable of penetrating various kinds of relatively hard substances. In this respect, larvae at various stages of development can behave in different ways for tunnelling capacities. Hence the experiments described below have been carried out with two types of larvae: newly hatched larvae and larvae of medium size.
M-M Serment


Social and economocal impact of an extension of service life resulting of an adequate preventive treatment. Application to wooden components used in urban areas with a high density of population
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-15
Le document évalue les problèmes rencontrés en zone urbaine pour le sauvetage des constructions: coordination de la lutte, délimination des chantieres et des périmètres d'investigation, nuisances causées par les interventions, risques pour la santé, risques pour l'environnement. Coûts. Comparaison socio-économique du traitement préventif et des interventions à posteriori. Cas particulier du détermitage.
A T De Lelis, G A C Lopez


Preservación de madera en Uruguay
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30492
Uruguay has a temperate climate and predominantly gently undulating landscape which is naturally suitable for farming activities. Therefore, its economy has always been based upon them and the related industries. In the sixties, the government decided it was necessary to increase forested areas in the country. Based on different consultancies, the legal frame was built in order to promote a sustainable forestry development. Rapid growth species were selected for this region and promoted to be cultivated. Economical subsidies were set for the private enterprises. By now there are about 750 thousand hectares of forests which are intended for industrial purposes. Meanwhile native forests, which have been protected, occupy about the same area. At this moment government priorities are to promote good quality lumber production, as well as diversify the wood industries for producing high added value products. Wood preservation industry has been treating only with CCA-C for decades. Almost all of them are small companies which deal with mainly local market. In the last decade the number of companies almost doubled. In 2006 this industrial sector started its way to the promotion of environmental management and cleaner production through a continuous improvement process. This would enhance the competitivity and improve environmental performance in wood preservation industry. La República Oriental de Uruguay es un país de clima templado con relieve suavemente ondulado, cubierto por pasturas naturales. Su aptitud para actividades agropecuarias ha determinado una economía históricamente basada en las actividades de ganadería, agricultura y las industrias vinculadas. Sin embargo desde la década del 60 se comienzan diversos estudios con el objetivo de aumentar la masa boscosa del país. Paulatinamente se fue creando un marco legal que asegurara un desarrollo forestal sustentable, basado en plantaciones con especies de rápido crecimiento adecuadas a la región y protección del bosque nativo. Así mismo se generan incentivos para promover las iniciativas privadas. De esa forma se llega al presente con una masa forestal plantada con fines comerciales de 750 mil hectáreas y un bosque nativo con una superficie total del mismo orden de magnitud. Actualmente el énfasis gubernamental está en la producción de madera de calidad y diversificación de la industria con énfasis en la incorporación de alto valor agregado. La industria de la preservación, conformada por empresas de bajo y mediano porte, utiliza maderas nacionales e impregna en su mayoría con CCA-C, produciendo principalmente para el mercado local. En la última década prácticamente se duplica el número de empresas del rubro. En 2006 se inicia el camino a la mejora continua, buscando un compromiso con la gestión ambiental e introduciendo los conceptos de Producción Más Limpia y también una mejora en la calidad del producto y el la competitividad de las empresas.
S Böthig


Climate change and wood protection, increasing demand of long life wood products and decreasing production of treated wood
2010 - IRG/WP 10-50269
Several new topics related to wood protection sector has appeared in Japan, as the awareness of climate change becomes bigger and bigger. The “Basic act for housing (2006)” and the “Long-life housing promotion act (2009)” were enforced to form a safe and high quality housing stock and to form a long-service-life housing respectively. Despite of the favorable background for wood protection sector, the amount of treated wood was steadily decreasing to 202,057 m3 till 2008 from the maximum of 445,689 m3 in 1996 (JWPIA: Japan Wood Preservers Industry Association statistics). The discussion in this presentation is how the wood protection sector in Japan combats the climate change through the establishment of appropriate wood protection system. Several keywords are exterior wood products which can improve the landscape of housing area, treated wood products which can decrease the construction cost of house/year from prolonged service life of housing, local wood products which can mitigate climate change through lower embedded energy of sustainable local resources. It also requires integrated strategy to realize the increased utilization of these wood products.
K Yamamoto, H Kato


Cost effective extension of service life of bridge tie (sleepers) - Effectively applying borate during Boulton conditioning and treatment with copper naphthenate
2014 - IRG/WP 14-30637
Current longevity of creosote treated wooden bridge ties in the South Eastern US is about 15 to 25 years, which is well below of the average service life of 33-50 years of railroad ties. Such short service life increases costs associated with maintenance of railroads including bridge down time for tie replacement as well as the cost for the new ties themselves. Because of this, many railroads are seeking non-wood alternative ties, even at vastly elevated initial cost. The objective of the study was to see if it is possible to apply borate as part of a dual treatment with copper naphthenate, in order to increase the service life of wooden bridge timbers at minimal additional cost. Green hardwood ties were ported, borate treated, and then Boulton treated with copper naphthenate at a commercial tie treatment plant in Pennsylvania. Diffusion of borate within the wood appeared to be significantly enhanced by the elevated temperature and steam generated during the Boulton cycle and subsequent pressure treatment with copper naphthenate. The achieved retention and penetration of borate and copper naphthenate met AWPA standard retentions and AREMA guidelines. The longevity of ties should be significantly increased by protecting the heartwood with disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT) and the sapwood with copper naphthenate. The results suggested that hardwood ties can be successfully treated with borate during a Boulton cycle and should allow the continued effective use of sustainable wooden bridge timbers.
J D Lloyd, T Chambers, J-W Kim


Pest and pathogens threaten the sustainability of plantation forestry: Global research collaboration will define the future
2018 - IRG/WP 18-50341
Global plantation forestry is dominated by intensively managed stands of Pinus, Populus, Acacia and Eucalyptus species. The greater proportion of these plantations has been established in areas where the trees are non-native and have thus been separated from their natural enemies. In all documented cases, these plantations have initially been free of serious pest and disease problems. But as time has passed, their health has been increasingly damaged by such agents. In some cases, disease and pest problems have led entire plantation failure, the closure of major business ventures and timber shortages. Pest and disease problems affecting planation forestry can have one of two conceptually different origins. They are either accidentally introduced into the areas where the non-native trees have been established or they are themselves native to these plantation areas. In the former case, the pests and pathogens arise through breaches in plant quarantine. They have become uncomfortably common and are closely linked to global trade in wood and plant products. The adaptation of native insect pests and pathogens to feed on non-native trees is complex and includes opportunistic organisms typically with wide host ranges as well as highly specialized, host specific insects and pathogens. The latter group have typically undergone host shifts to infect/ infest trees on which they would not naturally occur. The genetic basis of these changes in poorly understood and deserves more intensive study. Looking to the future, all indications are that pest and disease problems will increasingly affect the health and sustainability of plantation forestry. This will be driven by increased movement of people and products globally as well as growing complexity to control the movement of small and difficult to detect organisms that move in concert with trade and travel. While quarantine efforts must be encouraged and reinforced, the likely future of plantation forestry will lie squarely in innovative research that will make it possible to grow healthy trees. Tools relating to the genetic improvement of trees and those linked to computerization and information technologies will increasingly be required to enable sustainable forestry. In this regard, there is an urgent need for education and support of researchers able to meet the challenges posed by forest pests and diseases. Global collaboration, particularly including research across scientific disciplines will define successful and sustainable forest industries. International research networks such as the International Union of Forest Research Organisations (IUFRO; www.iufro.org) will surely play an important role in reaching the challenges posed by the ever increasing threats to forests due to pests and diseases.
M Wingfield


Preserved Wood in the Story of Sustainable Forestry
2018 - IRG/WP 18-50344
Sustainable forestry, at its simplest, is about growing trees. The full story, though, is much more complex. An important chapter of that story is the role that preserved wood plays in ensuring sustainability. Too often, this part of the sustainability story is rarely mentioned. It is time for the preserved wood industry to deliver a unified message of our critical role in sustainability. By responsibly adding preservatives into wood, we can expand the life of wood significantly and further extend the cycle of renewability for our forests. This is a message that will connect with people and place the focus to our ability to preserve and protect forests. This is a more positive message than the often-negative perceptions about the chemicals used in treating. A forestry association executive recently remarked that there were enough forests and preserved wood was not necessary to ensure sustainability. Another person noted she was being “green” by using natural wood in her garden boxes and replacing them every few years after the wood deteriorated. These are common misperceptions that underscore the need to tell preserved wood’s story when it comes to sustainability. It is not enough to grow more wood and replace it. For true environmental responsibility, we must protect the wood from deterioration to extend the time needed for renewing our forest resource. We as in industry have the ability to increase the life of wood products beyond the time it takes to grow a new tree that can be used to replace that product. Wood preservation’s role in sustainability is particularly important for infrastructure and buildings. Preserved wood products are essential in our electricity, communication, transportation and housing infrastructure. From utility poles and rail ties or marine pilings and bridge timbers to permanent wood foundations and decks. Our industry has a proven record in increasing the service life of these products beyond a half century or more. When comparing materials steel, concrete and plastics with wood, it is the only renewable resource, which is often overlooked by focusing on recycled content. Considering that most wood products are recycled or reclaimed for energy after service life, the story for wood gets even better. Therefore, this is not only environmentally sustainable, it is also an all-inclusive environmental, economic and social choice over all the alternatives. Preserved wood should be considered as a value-added product, not only in commerce, but in sustainability and the environment. As an industry, we have a great opportunity – and an even greater responsibility – to ensure that preserved wood in an important part of wood’s story of sustainability.
D Brookes


The Commercial Forestry and Forest Products Industry in South Africa – A brief overview
2018 - IRG/WP 18-50342
The presentation made by Mr Michael Peter, Executive Director of Forestry South Africa, provides insight into the commercial forestry and forest products industries in South Africa. The forestry industry in South Africa is based solely on the propagation of exotic trees, grown in plantations in the higher rainfall regions of South Africa. The presentation shows the ownership, geographical extent and distribution of plantations. It presents this by genus and by management objective and it provides a summary of the key products produced from these plantations in the processing sub-sector. The contribution of each of these products in turn, to the overall economic contribution of the sector, is also presented. The presentation demonstrates the disproportionately (relative to its land and water footprints) large economic, social (employment) and environmental contribution of the commercial industry to South Africa, including its contribution to the Gross Domestic Product of the country, through export earnings. The physical, regulatory and political challenges which have led to the shrinkage (geographic) of the Industry and which have hindered the achievement of the country’s stated growth objectives for the Industry, are discussed in some detail. The physical, regulatory and political challenges which have led to the shrinkage (geographic) of the Industry and which have hindered the achievement of the country’s stated growth objectives for the Industry, are discussed in some detail.
M Peter


Towards better integration of wood protection in the forestry wood industry chain - a case study on hybrid poplar
2019 - IRG/WP 19-50359
Wood and wood products are limited in service life as in the forest ecosystem trees at end of their life are degraded to re-enter the bio-geochemical cycle. Humans can select wood species with a level of natural durability fit for an envisaged end use. Mainly those applications that require a long service life under conditions that are similar to those at soil level in a forest ecosystem have been the early focus for wood preservation. Testing wood preservatives intended for enhanced performance of wood in soil or water contact was originally based primarily on performance benchmarked with wood species having higher natural durability. Over the last decades, wood protection has altered focus towards end uses out of ground contact even sometimes specifically for interior applications. Parallel to this evolution wood modification treatments were assessed also to improve general performance of wood species. Besides an increased potential for using low durability wood species, mainly dimensional stability related properties were envisaged. The forestry-wood chain has evolved in the second half of last century from mainly production based strategies to policies based on ecosystem services in a sustainability framework. Today forests are intended to provide services for the bio-economy, human health, biodiversity and climate control. An increased need for more renewable resources both for material and energy use has initiated extra focus on the potential to produce more lignocellulosic biomass, in short to increase wood production. Forest types identified as primary forest as well as (semi)-natural forests require conservation measures limiting the option to increase volume that can be harvested. One option is to provide in complementary production in planted forests. Both forestry and agriculture can take part in this. The cultivation of poplar hybrids in the temperate regions is a key option for the current and future bio-economy. These fast-growing trees are producing lightweight hardwood material with a low natural durability. All wood protection methods are of interest to be evaluated for this wood resource, making it suitable even for high quality applications. Poplar, for many reasons, has been nominated as hardwood with the best potential to perform similarly as softwoods for applications in wood construction. Benchmarking with wood species like spruce is relevant for several engineered wood products like plywood, LVL and even CLT. Wood treatments to increase durability have also evolved from traditional wood preservation towards modification techniques such as thermally modified timber depending on the performance required or fit for purpose in relation to a specific combination of use class and service life.
J Van Acker