IRG Documents Database and Compendium


Search and Download IRG Documents:



Between and , sort by


Displaying your search results

Your search resulted in 20 documents.


GDR3544 “Science du Bois” - Academic and Industrial French Partnerships on Wood Science
2019 - IRG/WP 19-50362
The wood sciences are currently practiced by a very diverse community of disciplines, themes and institutional contexts of different actors. The Research Group in Wood Sciences (GDR3544 "Sciences du Bois") was created in 2012 by the National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS), and renewed from 2016 to 2020. The objectives of GDR " Science du Bois " are to manage the coordination of wood science in France, improve the communication between international scientific community and companies, develop formation and training courses for master and PhD students, facilitate the skills and capacities transfers, identify issues and challenges and finally to serve as relay to international networks. The GDR3544 " Science du Bois " is currently supported by several institutes of the CNRS (main affiliation with INSIS, with the support of INEE, INC, INSHS via the teams involved or the sections of the National Committee requested). It is subsidized by the CNRS, the Ministry of Culture and Communication, INRA, Labex and sponsors solicited by the hosts of the organized events. It includes about 730 people (including 450 permanent) distributed in CNRS units and other organizations (INRA, CIRAD, Culture Ministry, Universities, engineering schools, FCBA, etc ...). The teams concerned come from different disciplines: mechanics, physics, chemistry, biology, Human and Social Sciences. This scientific network is focused on an object: constituent of the tree, material of craftsmen and engineers and archive of past events. In addition to this national network, there are foreign partners who are geographically or culturally close to French teams and who have established lasting relationships with them in the field of wood sciences.
J Gril, R Marchal, K Candelier


Case histories involving attempts at identifying infestations, determining the source and controlling the Formosan subterranean termite in Atlanta, Georgia USA
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10342
The University of Georgia Department of Entomology and the Georgia State Department of Agriculture have been involved in identifying and working with Pest Control Operators and homeowners dealing with Formosan subterranean termite infestations in the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area since 1993. Our involvement with seven separate infestations is outlined in this paper in the form of case histories to highlight the need for the development of community-based action plans to deal with the inevitable introduction of this economically important insect pest to other non-endemic areas.
B T Forschler, J Harron, T M Jenkins


Fungal colonisation of the keelson and associated structures of a nineteenth century wooden frigate: Concepts of community structure and development
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10072
The early stages of microbial colonization and succession of wooden surfaces exposed to the sea have been extensively studied as have the community structures of archaeological timbers subjected to submergence and then retrieval from the sea. The frigate UNICORN, a largely intact 19th century wooden ship based in Dundee, Scotland, provides the microbial ecologist with a unique opportunity to study the microbial community structures of untreated and treated (with brine) English oak timbers of a vessel which apart from the occasional dry-docking, has remained afloat since 1824. The spatial structure of the keelson and sister keelson areas will be described as will the decay abilities of isolates and the decay status of core samples. The results will be discussed in terms of the development of community structures under different moisture content regimes.
N A White, J W Palfreyman, G M Smith


Fouling assemblage development on copper-chromium-arsenic-treated timber submerged in European waters
2002 - IRG/WP 02-50181
The effect of the anti-marine-borer timber preservative CCA on community development of non-target marine fouling animals was investigated. Panels of Scots pine treated to target retentions of 12, 24 and 48 kg CCA per m3 of wood, plus untreated controls were submerged at seven coastal sites (Portsmouth, UK; La Tremblade (2 sites), France; Ria Formosa, Portugal; Sagres, Portugal; Kristineberg, Sweden; Athens, Greece). Inspections were made after 6, 12 and 18 months exposure and the fouling community on the surface of the panels was assessed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Multivariate statistical methods were used to compare community structure between panel treatments. Results showed that panels treated to the three CCA loadings supported very similar fouling assemblages which, in most cases, had higher numbers of taxa and individuals compared to assemblages on untreated panels. There were no detectable detrimental effects on epibiota community development caused by the presence of CCA preservatives within the matrix of the wood at any of the treatment levels. Similar trends were found at all seven exposure sites. This indicates that the range of environmental conditions at the sites had no bearing on preservative impact on fouling biota. Differences in community structure between CCA-treated and untreated panels may be due to enhanced larval settlement on CCA-treated timber by some species as a result of modifications to the surface properties of the timber by the CCA preservative. Possible reasons for the higher numbers of certain species on the surface of CCA-treated panels are discussed.
C Brown, R J Eaton, S M Cragg, P Goulletquer, A Nicolaidou, M J Bebianno, J Icely, G F Daniel, T Nilsson, A J Pitman, G Sawyer


Effects of chlorothalonil (CTN) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on microbial communities involved in the deterioration of wood using T-RFLP I: Accelerated laboratory decay study
2006 - IRG/WP 06-20332
The effects of Chlorothalonil (CTN) and Butylated Hydroxy Toluene (BHT) on microbial species diversity in wood and the surrounding soil are being assessed by Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP). CTN was selected as a trial organic wood preservative, and BHT is being evaluated for its synergistic effects with CTN. Results from an accelerated decay test will be presented. The accelerated decay test evaluates the performance of wood preservatives in conditions optimized to promote accelerated microbial degradation. This study is evaluating six retentions in two different soil mixtures (with and without compost), resulting in a total of twelve treatments. Each month, one box (containing three sticks) per treatment was removed to provide thirty-six samples per sampling period. Biomechanical stress testing is being utilized to determine modulus of elasticity (MOE) as a measure of microbial degradation. TRFLP data is being analyzed to determine significant differences in patterns of microbial colonization over time due to wood preservative treatment in southern yellow pine (SYP) both in and out of soil contact. Soil samples have also been collected to observe changes in soil microbial community due to contact with preservative treated wood. Wood preservative retention is being analyzed using HPLC. Initial results show decreases in fungal and bacterial phylotype diversity for both soil contact and non-soil contact portions of preservative treated SYP wood samples compared to untreated controls. Characterization of these pattern shifts will provide a better understanding of the biology and ecology of wood decay microorganisms, the effects of biocides on the microbial community in treated wood and in the soil, and the effects on microbes on biocide breakdown and wood failure.
G T Kirker, M L Prewitt, S V Diehl


Community-wide suppression of R. flavipes from Endeavor, Wisconsin – Search for the Holy Grail
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10674
In 2006, the Forest Products Laboratory, in collaboration with Alternative Pest Solutions Inc. and the UW-Madison Entomology department, developed a strategy for sustained suppression/elimination of R. flavipes from Endeavor, Wisconsin. Our commitment includes a minimum of five years of active treatment followed by at least one year of monitoring. The Whitmire Micro-Gen Advance baiting system (a.i. 0.25% diflubenzuron) was chosen to be the main method of termite treatment in the Village as the collaborating pest control company had access to this system. The efficacy of these baiting treatment cartridges were assessed in field and laboratory situations. Initial results after the first treatment season suggested a significant effect of the active ingredient on R. flavipes populations as activity in the buildings located in the central treatment zone appeared to be eliminated. However, the two following treatment seasons seemed to show reduced effectiveness of the baiting cartridges in controlling termite populations. In order to improve the efficacy of the commercial bait system, supplementary termiticidal dusts were tested including: borates, N’N-napthaloylhydroxylamine, zinc and boron oxide (nanoparticles) as well as dusting with the Micro-Gen cartridge itself. Liquid fipronil was also examined. Although preliminary laboratory tests involving dusting with N’N-napthaloylhydroxylamine did not show the dust to transfer to undusted termites, subsequent field and laboratory tests support this compound for used with commercial systems in treatment of northern colonies of R. flavipes.
F Green III, R A Arango, G R Esenther


Effects of chlorothalonil (CTN) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on microbial communities involved in the deterioration of wood using T-RFLP II: Results from field studies
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30429
The effects of Chlorothalonil (CTN) and Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT) on microbial species diversity in wood and the surrounding soil are being assessed by Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP). CTN was selected as a trial organic wood preservative, and the non-biocidal BHT was evaluated for its synergistic effects with CTN. ACQ-C was a positive control and untreated SYP stakes were negative controls. Tests were installed at two separate field sites in MS that represent two different AWPA hazard zones. Samples were taken every 3 months over a 15 month period and visually evaluated for termite attack and decay. Samples were processed and whole genomic DNA was extracted for molecular analyses. Upon initial amplification of DNA using both specific and general primers, the presence or absence of target fungi was confirmed using gel electrophoresis. We are currently using T-RFLP to analyze the patterns of microbial colonization over time and in response to external stimuli (i.e., wood preservative treatment) to identify potential shifts in microbial community. Preliminary results indicate that the presence of non-basidiomycete fungi (i.e. molds, stains, and soft rots) are uniformly distributed throughout the samples regardless of treatment, while basidiomycetes are less common and severe decreases in overall basidiomycete populations occurred during periods of drought at both test sites.
G T Kirker, M L Prewitt, S V Diehl


Microbial Community Analysis Using Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) Analysis: Field Study Results
2008 - IRG/WP 08-20377
The effects of chlorothalonil (CTN) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on the fungal community in southern yellow pine (SYP) were assessed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis. Field stakes treated with 0.25% and 0.37% ammoniacal copper quat (ACQ-C), 0.1 and 0.25% CTN, and 0.1 and 0.25% CTN combined with 2% BHT were installed with untreated controls in field sites in Mississippi. Stakes were sampled at 90 days intervals and rated for decay damage. Microbial DNA was extracted from wood and amplified using non-specific (bacteria and fungi) and specific (basidiomycete) primers. Alpha diversity (richness and diversity), species composition, and beta diversity, were all calculated using T-RFLP data. Results indicate the presence of wood preservatives containing biocides: (1) increases initial colonization by bacteria that decreases over time, (2) slows the initial colonization of field stakes by fungi resulting in lower richness and diversity that increased over time, and (3) increased richness and diversity of basidiomycetes. Preservative treatment also changed the community composition of bacteria, fungi, and basidiomycetes found in wood, that became more similar over time to untreated controls for fungi and basidiomycetes, but not bacteria. The beta diversity of treated samples was less similar in early stages of exposure (3-9 months), but coalesced over time into stable populations that were similar to fungal and basidiomycete communities in untreated controls, but still bacteria remained different. Correlations were found between depletion of 0.1% CTN and increasing bacterial and fungal diversity.
G T Kirker, S V Diehl, M L Prewitt, W J Diehl


Effect of Preservative Treatment on Fungal Colonization of Teak, Redwood, and Western Red Cedar
2009 - IRG/WP 09-20404
Fungal flora present in preservative treated samples or non-treated samples from sapwood and heartwood of teak, western red cedar, redwood, and southern yellow pine was assessed after 6 to 18 months of exposure near Hilo, Hawaii. The objectives were to compare fungal composition and diversity between treated and non-treated samples, and to examine the use of molecular techniques for assessing fungal community structure in a ground-proximity-test located in Hilo, Hawaii. Fungi were recovered in culture after 6, 12, or 18 months, yielding 178 unique DNA sequences that represented 85 taxa. Sequence data from the nuclear ribosomal internal transcriber spacer (ITS) region showed the taxa represented 56 ascomycetes, 17 basidiomycetes, 1 zygomycete and 10 unknowns. Basidiomycetes were mainly found in samples treated to the lowest biocide concentrations or non-treated samples, while there were no consistent isolation patterns with ascomycetes. Overall, treatment did not appear to affect community structure. Our results highlight (i) the need for caution in designating taxonomic units (species) based on culture or ITS BLAST matches, (ii) the utility of fungal culturing followed by molecular identification but the limitation of the sampling process, (iii) the remarkably high diversity of fungi colonizing wood in a ground proximity test under these tropical conditions.
Y Cabrera, C Freitag, J J Morrell


Seasonal shifts of fungal community structure at the interface of treated or untreated wood and soil
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10721
Many wood species are degraded rapidly in soil by the fungal community. In order to preserve wood and structures in which it is used, chemical preservatives are used. Little is known about the interaction of treated wood and the surrounding soil fungal community. For this work, presented at IRG 41, wooden specimens (Pinus sylvestris sapwood, sizes 25 mm x 50 mm x 500 mm (longitudinal)) were treated with a formulation of chromium-copper-arsenic-(CCA) at two concentrations. Untreated wood of the same dimensions was used as controls. After drying and an appropriate fixation period, the specimens were buried in soi1 up to half of their length at the BAM test site in North East Germany. The interface of the wooden specimens and soil were sampled in spring, summer and autumn 2008 and the nucleic acids were extracted. The structure of fungal community was assessed by T-RFLP analyses (terminal-restriction fragment-length polymorphism) of the fungal ITS (internal transcribed spacer) region. In addition, samples were sequenced to identify fungal community members. Significant differences in the fungal community composition were detected in response to the presence (and concentration) of wood preservatives and to the season. The species identified were predominated by ascomycete fungi, and only at the actual interface of the non-preserved wood and the soil were basidiomyecte fungi detected. The interface to CCA preserved wood was composed of sequences affiliated to the genera Phoma, Peziza and Cladosporium. Patterns of the fungal communities were highly reproducible and the spatial sampling at the test site had only a minor effect on their composition.
M Noll, I Stephan


Towards Understanding the Biology of Wood Decay
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10739
Our previous research has focused primarily on ways to identify the wood decay fungi and microbial community. We continue to explore this complex and dynamic community and its interactions through microbial community ecology studies, gene expression interactions and proteomics. However, in order to better understand the mechanisms of fungal decay, we have sequenced the genome of a copper tolerant brown rot fungus, Antrodia radiculosa. To advance our goals, we will be using structural and comparative genomics to identify novel genes and functional genomics and transcriptomics to systematically discover what genes are activated during wood decay under different environmental conditions.
J Tang, K Jenkins, L Parker, S V Diehl


Profiling fungal community in wood decay ecosystem by Denaturing High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
2010 - IRG/WP 10-20443
A DNA-based fingerprinting technique, Denaturing High Performance Liquid Chromatography (DHPLC) was developed to profile fungal communities colonizing indoor timber. Molecular fungal diversity was assessed using amplification based on the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS1) rDNA of 74 wood samples collected from infected buildings in France. Due to its high sensitivity, the PCR-DHPLC technique was optimised for the detection and identification of wood rot fungi as well as ubiquitous contaminants. Serpula lacrymans was the most the widespread indoor wood-decay fungi and its occurrence accounts for 64% of total wood rot Basidiomycetes detected. The common cellar rot Coniophora spp. was detected in 9 environmental samples. White rot fungi like Donkioporia expansa and Heterobasidion annosum were also found in buildings. Whereas Basidiomycetes like Phlebiopsis gigantea, and Schizoporia radula were detected for the first time in the built environment. Ascomycetes responsible for wood decay were Guignardia vacinii and Oidiodendron griseum. The most prevalent moulds and Blue stain fungi found belong to the Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Cladosporium species. The identification of indoor fungi based on a molecular typing technique has provided useful data in community profiling of wood-decay ecosystem, without prior fungal isolation step and most of all put into evidence the coexistence of different wood rot fungi within the same microbiotope.
S Maurice, G Le Floch, M Le Bras-Quéré, J P Rioult, G Barbier


Biodegration of treated wood waste by native fungal communities of tropical soil in French Guiana
2012 - IRG/WP 12-50285
Woods have been protected with fungicides for a long time, and the effects of these fungicides on soil after being leached into the ground have turned out to be a true environmental issue. It is in this perspective that we are proposing to study fungal communities of these contaminated woods in a purpose of bioremediation. Most of precedent studies have focused on ability of some Basidiomycetes and white rot fungi to degrade these biocide products. Treated and reference (non-treated) woods samples have been incubated in containers of forest soil in Guyana. The first two samplings of these woods and soils have been realized five months apart. A crop and molecular study allowed us to isolate and identify forty strains of Ascomycetes able to develop on wood and resist xenobiotics. Until now, no Ascomycete was known to resist xenobiotics. Furthermore, a study of fungal communities of the woods and soil were done by D-HPLC and SSCP, and then analyzed by ACP. According to these analyses, biocides are leached in the soil and have an impact on these fungal communities, which are different depending on time of sampling and the way wood is processed.
A Zaremski, L Gastonguay, C Zaremski, F Chaffannel, J Beauchêne, G LeFloch


Succession after Fire of Fungal Fruiting Bodies in Mediterranean Pinus pinaster Stands in Spain
2012 - IRG/WP 12-10789
In this study we present the results of a 4-year survey aimed at describing the succession of fungal communities following fire in a Mediterranean ecosystem in Northwest Spain, dominated by Pinus pinaster Ait. After a large wildfire in 2002, six 2 x 50 m study plots were established in burned and unburned areas corresponding to early and late succession stages. During the autumn seasons from 2003 to 2006, fruiting bodies were collected and identified. We also collected information about dry and fresh weight, the saprotrophic or mycorrhizal status and the edibility of every species. During the four-years sampling, a total of 115 fungal taxa were collected (85 in the late stage and 60 in the early stage) from which only 30 appeared along the whole succession. Mycorrhizal population not only increased the number of species from early to late stage but also shifted in composition. After fire, pyrophytic species such as Pholiota carbonaria, Peziza violacea, Rhizopogon luteolus and Rhizopogon sp. appeared. The effect of fire on fungal fruiting body’s production was opposite depending on the saprotrophic or mycorrhizal status of the species: mycorrhizal decreased 6-fold, while saprotrophic increased 4-fold. Production of edible species was negatively affected by fire, decreasing significantly the potential of rural populations to harvest marketable mushrooms. The provided results can be useful to forest managers for optimization of management and harvest of these increasingly appreciated non-wood resources. Management may also prevent or alleviate stand-replacing wildfire in these Mediterranean forests.
P Vásquez Gassibe, M Hernández-Rodriguez, R Fraile Fabero, J A Oria-De-Rueda, P Martín-Pinto


Changes in bacterial gut community of Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) and Reticulitermes tibialis banks after feeding on termiticidal bait material
2014 - IRG/WP 14-10819
In this study, 454-pyrosequencing was used to evaluate the effect of two termiticidal baits, hexaflumuron and diflubenzuron, on the bacterial gut community in two Reticulitermes flavipes colonies and one Reticulitermes tibialis colony. Results showed two bacterial groups to be most abundant in the gut, the Bacteroidetes and Spirochaetes, both of which do not appear to be adversely affected by bait treatment according to analysis conducted to date. Other major bacterial lineages present included Actinobacteria, Fibrobacteres, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Tenericutes, TM7, Verrucomicrobia and unclassified species, which matches closely with other studies examining termite gut bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis examining similarity among treated groups versus controls showed a treatment effect in both R. flavipes colonies, but no effect on R. tibialis samples. Overall community analysis also showed treatment groups were separated by their collection location indicating a distinct bacterial community within a colony. Future analysis will focus on the types of bacteria affected by bait treatment and the role of these changes in overall termite fitness.
R A Arango, F Green III, K F Raffa


Microbial Community Analysis of Naturally Durable Wood in an Above Ground Field Test
2014 - IRG/WP 14-10826
This paper presents preliminary results of an above ground field test wherein eight naturally durable wood species were exposed concurrently at two sites in North America. Surface samples were taken at regular intervals from non-durable controls and compared to their more durable counterparts. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism was performed to characterize the microbial (bacteria, fungi, and basidiomycetes) communities present. Differences were noted among wood species and seasonal shifts in microbial diversity were noted at both sites. Attempts to correlate diversity indices with decay ratings were unsuccessful, but differences in species richness were noted for several of the naturally durable species. Western red cedar had significantly fewer bacterial species compared to other wood species. Fungal and basidiomycete species richness differed due to site and fungal species richness increased with increased exposure. Clustering of fungal and basidiomycete communities suggests seasonal patterns of colonization at both sites, but was more defined in the more southern site; Saucier, MS (MS). Future analyses will focus on comparison of years to model successional patterns of bacteria, fungi, and basidiomycetes.
G T Kirker, S V Diehl, P K Lebow


Oak maturation casks at the Rodenbach brewery, an industrial heritage of the Flemish Community requiring protective measures
2017 - IRG/WP 17-10898
Brewery Rodenbach has world-renowned cask halls with close to 300 oak casks, some of these big maturation casks are 150 years old and this is protected as part of the industrial heritage of the Flemish Community. Since some of these maturation casks or “foeders” were the last decades no longer fully in use some parameters of their physical condition might have increased incidence of fungal decay and have shortened considerably the service life of some of these oak casks. Most probably several basisiomycetes fundi can be linked to the fungal decay present but most probable most of the infections and serious decay are linked to Donkioporia expansa. Different conservation techniques have been considered but considering the use in contact with food and the regular access of visitors to the casks halls has put focus on monitoring and eventually replacing on a regular basis maturation casks attacked by decay fungi by new ones.
J Van Acker, I De Windt, R Ghequire


Monitoring Diversity and Colonization Patterns of Wood-Inhabiting Fungi Using Field Stake Tests
2017 - IRG/WP 17-20614
Advances in molecular identification of microbial communities enabling rapid microorganism determination have allowed ecological data to be increasingly incorporated into standardized wood performance tests. Combining standard field tests with molecular methods to study wood-associated microflora can help to better understand fungal colonization and decay processes of wood in service. The potential for using DNA-based identification techniques to examine changes in diversity and community composition of wood-inhabiting fungi was assessed in ground-contact field stake tests at the Starker Post Farm research site located near Corvallis, Oregon, USA. Field stakes of red alder (Alnus rubra), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) sapwood and western red cedar heartwood (Thuja plicata) were installed and a subsample collected every 3-months (long-term exposure; LTE) or installed and replaced every 6-months (short-term exposure; STE) over a two-year period. Isolated, pure-culture fungi were sequenced and identified by comparison to the GenBank database using BLAST. A total of 384 fungal isolates were recovered and identified from 54 stakes. Eleven basidiomycete isolates were identified, with Peniophora limitata and Phanerochaete livescens occurring most frequently. The most common ascomycetes were Phialophora mustea and Cadophora sp. Species richness differed between the LTE and STE tests, while fungal diversity in both exposure tests remained constant. In contrast, diversity decreased with longer exposures. Short term variations in temperature and precipitation were the most significant environmental gradients influencing fungal community composition of stakes in ground contact. The results will be used to better understand fungal ecology and microbial colonization processes.
P Torres-Andrade, J Cappellazzi, J J Morrell


Response of the symbiotic flagellate protists community of subterranean termites to sublethal amounts of biocides
2018 - IRG/WP 18-10911
Subterranean termites are quite efficient at extracting nutrients from lignocellulose. Their ability relies not only on the digestive tract physiology but also on symbiotic relationships established with flagellate protists and bacteria. This work aimed to screen the response of the flagellate protists community of the subterranean termite Reticulitermes grassei Clément to the ingestion of different biocides. The substances chosen were applied at sublethal doses and included antibiotics (amoxicillin), an antiprotozoal (metronidazole), a termite intestine pH alteration agent and respiration inhibitor (boric acid), an essential oil (cloves) and its main constituent (eugenol), together with the solvent (water) and a positive control of pine wood. Termites were captured in three different zones of the same pine forest, sufficiently distant to be considered as different colonies; three replicate samples from each colony were selected for testing. Immediately after termite capture the initial flagellate protists community was evaluated for all samples (initial controls). Groups of termite workers were then fed on diet disks impregnated with the substances and, after the trials the diversity and abundance of the flagellate protist community was evaluated. Twelve morphotypes were present in the controls. The naturally less abundant morphotypes were positively associated with the termites screened before the trials and the ones fed on water treated diet disks or original wood. Metronidazole showed to affect negatively most morphotypes, however, two morphotypes’ abundance increased; these two morphotypes abundances decreased when termites fed on amoxicillin treated diet disks. For eugenol and boric acid significant negative impact was found for one morphotype with parallel increase in abundance of two others. Overall, the results suggest a possible maintenance of hindgut equilibrium or minimum functioning relying both on: changes on abundances of two or three morphotypes; and presence and abundance of the less common morphotypes. Three morphotypes exhibit differentiated response to changes in hindgut conditions, triggered by the addition of substances to the termite diet. This dynamic nutritional symbiosis equilibrium seems to provide a wide range of defences of the termite to exposure to substances potentially harmful and general dietary changes.
S Duarte, T Nobre, P Borges, L Nunes


Identifying the fungal community on western redcedar (Thuja plicata) wood in field tests above and in ground contact exposure: preliminary results
2019 - IRG/WP 19-10939
Western redcedar (Thuja plicata) is a high value species in the Canadian forest industry due in large part to the natural durability of its heartwood. Western redcedar heartwood contains extractives that are inhibitory to the growth of many fungi responsible for decay. In order to gain insights into which extractives are important in long term durability, and which fungi are important to decay of western redcedar in service, we conducted a study looking at the fungal community on wood that has been in field tests and monitored for decay for many years. We sampled old growth and second growth western redcedar fence posts that have been in ground contact for 17 years, and deck boards that have been in an above ground test for 14 years. We performed DNA metabarcoding using Illumina sequencing and traditional culturing techniques to characterize the fungal community from samples. Preliminary results from both culture studies and DNA metabarcoding show a predominance of ascomycetes on decks. Basidiomycetes were more frequent on fence posts in the DNA metabarcoding data. The most widespread species detected from decks using DNA metabarcoding was a Hyaloscypha species and from the fence posts was the brown rot species Gloeophyllum sepiarium. The most common species isolated into culture and identified by DNA from the deck samples was the basidiomycete Pachnocybe ferruginea and from the post samples was the zygomycete Mortierella parvispora. Improving our understanding of fungal communities and the role they play in western redcedar decay as well as how they are affected by inhibitory extractives can help in the improvement or development of new wood protection systems, as well as to inform breeding programs aiming to develop seedling stock with enhanced natural durability
A Dale, S Kus, R Stirling