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Evaluation of the Virulence of the Termite Species Occurring in the French Tropical Overseas Territories
2018 - IRG/WP 18-10913
The French tropical overseas territories are strongly affected by termites’ activity, which is especially devastating because the species encountered there are among the most virulent in the world. That is why in these regions it is particularly important that producers and users of wood-based products are provided with materials and preservative products whose durability and efficacy has been thoroughly tested and can be relied on. Specifically, the biocide actives used in wood preservatives and manufactured termite barriers available on the construction market need to demonstrate efficacy against the termite species in question and adequate performance in real-life situations of long-term use. Past studies have demonstrated that differences exist between particular species – especially between European and tropical termites – in terms of their sensitivity to biocidal treatment. These studies highlight the importance of testing preservative products and construction materials against the termite species which occur in the areas for which the products are intended. European and French standards have been initially developed for performing efficacy assessments on the Reticulitermes subterranean termites and so they cannot be used as such for testing against tropical subterranean termites and other groups of termites (drywood and tree termites). In view of this, clearly there is a need to amend the existing protocols and develop new, more suitable ones which will make possible effective testing of the resistance of various wood or non-wood based building materials to the tropical termites species present in the French overseas territories. The Viterdom project has two aims. One is to identify, for each territory concerned, the reference termite species that should be used in testing the relevant efficacy of wood preservatives and termite barriers and the durability of native wood species and wood-based materials. The other is to develop new test protocols that will allow us to determine the performance of both treated and untreated material in use.
M Kutnik, I Paulmier, J Vuillemin


Granitgard used as a partial and perimeter barrier in the protection of buildings against subterranean termites
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10114
The graded granite subterranean termite physical barrier, commercially marketed as Granitgard, has a Certificate of National Accreditation issued by the Australian Building Codes Board, and is included in Australian Standards. After several years in developing the specifications and installation techniques for Granitgard, it may be used to protect almost all footing designs. Granitgard can be simply placed around slab penetrations and buildings perimeters to provide a durable, long-life subterranean termite barrier. This paper discusses the development of partial and perimeter applications of Granitgard around buildings, and the advantages of using a termite barrier that removes the need for costly and dangerous chemical retreatments.
D M Ewart, J R J French


International collaborative laboratory comparison of two wood preservatives against subterranean termites: Third update and first report
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10174
At the 24th annual meeting of IRG in Orlando, USA, in May 1993 an international subterranean termite laboratory bioassay to compare the various preferred termite protocols used by IRG termitologists was initiated. The author was nominated to co-ordinate this comparative laboratory evaluation of two wood preservatives, copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA) and copper naphthenate (Cu-Na) against the subterranean termites used as test termites in Australia, France, Japan, Thailand, United Kingdom and the Unites States of America. Solutions of these two wood preservatives were prepared and impregnated into Pinus radiata wood blocks to obtain loading of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 kg/m³ respectively. All preservative treatments were carried out at the Division of Forestry and Forest Products in Melbourne. The treated specimens were dispatched to the participating researchers who subjected these specimens to attack by their test termite species, and have now returned the specimens to Melbourne. This paper reports the amount of wood consumed and the mean mass loss (%) on both treated and untreated wood blocks by the termites in the various laboratory bioassays.
J R J French


Physical barriers and bait toxicants: The Romeo and Juliet of future termite control
1991 - IRG/WP 1503
Soil chemical barriers are considered by some to be the most important technique for protecting buildings against subterranean termites in Australia (and elsewhere), providing a barrier against termite penetration. However, there is no such thing as a barrier that is 100 per cent +protective. And given the worldwide problems of using organochlorine termiticides, public awareness of chemical pollution and contamination to the environment, emphasis on physical barriers has been refocussed. In the event of such barriers being penetrated, the use of suitable bait systems and toxicants is considered a fruitful "back-up" strategy in future termite control measures. Such a system is environmentally friendly, has wide public acceptance, and readily marketable.
J R J French


Report and recommendations of the National Termite Workshop held in Melbourne on the 17 April 2002.
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10478
There are two parts to this Report. Part One summaries the outcomes of an industry workshop organised to better scope the subterranean termite problem, identify knowledge gaps including R&D gaps and identifying strategies including cost-effective co-ordination mechanisms for addressing the issue. Part Two is a brief review of the current state of knowledge on subterranean termites of economic importance to the wood products industry in Australia.
B M Ahmed, J R J French


Successive collections of Basidiospores from wood decay fungi (in vitro) show variation in germination levels on common media
1978 - IRG/WP 191
In the course of various preliminary experiments in which spore germination levels of 6 decay fungi on malt and water agar were recorded as controls, it was noted that one could not reliably obtain an expected level of spore germination for any particular fungus. Inconsistent 'control' spore germination levels of a fungus greatly complicates large scale experiments in which comparisons of data based on germination levels are attempted upon replication of the study over time. This study was done to determine if, in fact, spores collected at different times from specific hymenial areas of wood decay fungi sporulating in vitro differed significantly in germination level on common media under standardized conditions.
E L Schmidt, D W French


Termite standards questionnaire survey. Second Report
1989 - IRG/WP 1395
Information contained in replies received from IRG members responding to the survey continue to be summarised. Again, highlighted in this second report are the major termite species in the various zoogeographical regions, their damage ranking to timber-in-service, the chemicals used in control methods, and the status of the termite standards in the respondent countries.
J R J French, J P La Fage


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 10 from Naos Island, Panama
1980 - IRG/WP 462
Blocks of 3 wood species, Beech (Fagus sylvatica), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Alstonia (Alstonia scholaris) were exposed at site number 12 at Naos Island, Panama on March 8, 1978 by John R. DePalma. The arrangement of the panels in the exposure site is as shown in Figure 1.
D W French


A method for screening termite baits using Coptotermes lacteus mounds
1984 - IRG/WP 1237
A method with several variations designed to rapidly screen potential bait substrates using Coptotermes lacteus mounds is described. The equipment used in this method is relatively inexpensive, readily prepared in the laboratory, and easily installed into active mounds in the field. Bait substrates are in continuous contact with a 'high termite hazard', and may be monitored with minimum interference to the termites.
J R J French, P J Robinson


Controlling Coptotermes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) infestations in buildings with bait boxes
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10372
This paper describes the results of a commercial pest control operators use of the CSIRO bait box procedure in controlling infestations within buildings of subterranean termites ('termites') of the genus Coptotermes. Polystyrene bait boxes (480 x 330 x 210 mm3) were filled with alternate layers of corrugated cardboard and kiln-dried hardwood strips of Eucalyptus regnans F. Meull. (mountain ash). A viewing port at one end of each box allowed for the operator, or the clients, to check the presence of termites in the bait box. On discovering termite activity in the box, a dust toxicant (arsenic trioxide) was applied to the aggregated individuals, and the dusted termites returned to the box, thus spreading the toxin to other members of the nest colony, leading to it's collapse. On average, the time from installation to aggregating termites was about 4-6 weeks. Of the seventy-four boxes installed since 1994, sixty-six boxes were placed inside buildings, while eight boxes were positioned around buildings. Most were placed within buildings in the sub-floor areas, and alongside termite-infested skirting boards and architraves within slab-on-ground constructions. Other boxes were placed in cupboards, on top of termite-infested flooring, roof areas and on floors in garages. Eighty-five percent of the boxes lured termites, while 13% failed to lure any termites. Of those boxes with termites, there was a 82% success rate using arsenic trioxide as the dust toxicant. Eradication of termite colonies was recorded when no further termite activity was found after 6-12 months. These results are discussed in relation to present and future termite control.
J R J French, T Boschma


Spore germination of Gloeophyllum trabeum on wood is related to the mass of the wood sample
1978 - IRG/WP 2118
E L Schmidt, D W French


Wood preservation in the Australian beekeeping industry
1988 - IRG/WP 3473
This paper reports the results of a survey of Australian commercial beekeepers working 200 or more hives in June/July 1985. Nine hundred and forty seven apiarists were asked to participate and to provide information on their wood preservation methods, painting procedures and maintenance of bee boxes. Three hundred and eighty-four apiarists returned completed questionnaires (41%). The main wood preservatives used are copper naphthenate solutions (45%), linseed oil (8%), copper chromated arsenate (3%), hot wax (9%), copper naphthenate solution in linseed oil (3%), linseed oil/wax mixtures (3%) and paint (23%). The majority of apiarists (96%) paint treated bee hives, but there is considerable variation in wood preservative treatment procedures and paint application. Most wood preservative treatments (95%) are of the 'do-it-yourself' variety, radiata pine being the most utilized timber. The bottom boards of bee hives are considered the most susceptible to wood decay and subterranean termite damage, as are cleats, stands or any wood in ground contact.
P J Robinson, J R J French


Effect of sterilization method on germination of spores of wood decay fungi observed by contact agar block method
1978 - IRG/WP 2117
Previous studies of germination of spores of wood decay fungi on wood have generally concluded that method of wood sterilization has little significant effect on germination response. This study expands the numbers of test fungi as well as number of sterilization methods employed to determine the influence of sterilization method on spore germination response of decay fungi. Germination was assessed on agar discs fused by aqueous diffusion path to 1 cm³ samples of aspen and white spruce sapwood.
E L Schmidt, D W French


Termite standards questionnaire survey
1987 - IRG/WP 1324
J R J French, J P La Fage


Natural resistance of twenty-six Guianese wood species against marine borers
1988 - IRG/WP 4144
This note is a contribution on the study of the natural resistance of some wood species from French Guiana, some of which could be found too in the neighbourhood. Here are presented the results after one year exposure in the marine environment.
L N Trong


Baiting techniques for subterranean termite control
1983 - IRG/WP 1205
The use of artificial baits, with and without toxins, have proved effective in attracting large numbers of non-mound and mound building subterranean termites in both urban and rural areas. An outline is presented of a termite baiting program which emphasises concurrent laboratory and field investigations on termite ecology, behaviour and physiology
J R J French, J P Robinson


Performance of untreated French Guianan piling in marine exposure
1992 - IRG/WP 92-4173
Round piling of seven French Guianan species, greenheart, and preservativ-treated Southern Pine were installed as fender piling in Key West, FL. After 12½ years, none of the tropical hardwoods performed as well as dual-treated Southern Pine. Of the hardwoods, kouata patou and maho noir were the most resistant to decay and marine borers.
B R Johnson


Screening potential termiticides: Some thoughts and suggestions on methodology
1988 - IRG/WP 1363
While laboratory bioassays on the efficacy of potential termiticides against subterranean termites continues both to dominate and influence research efforts, suggestions are presented for the need to develop laboratory bioassays that more closely simulate "natural conditions". Not only is this considered desirable, but it will offer more confidence in laboratory and field evaluations and their analyses.
J R J French


Laboratory and field evaluation of Plasmite Reticulation System using bifenthrin as a chemical barrier within wall cavities against subterranean termites.
2005 - IRG/WP 05-20307
Laboratory and field bioassays undertaken to demonstrate Plasmite Reticulation system effectively delivers the termiticide (bifenthrin) within a simulated wall cavity at the required concentration. The chemical assay indicated that the amount of bifenthrin sampled at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25m along the simulated reticulation system tested (30m) exceeded the manufacturer’s minimum recommendation of 0.0044%m/m. Results of the laboratory bioassay, using Coptotermes acinaciformis, indicated that the concentrations of bifenthrin present in the soil core samples at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25m were extremely toxic and prevented termite penetration of bifenthrin treated soil in laboratory bioassays immediately after field soil treatment. No penetration of any soil core samples was observed in the field test against Coptotermes lacteus.
J R J French, B M Ahmed, J Thorpe, A Anderson


Justification for use of mirex in termite control
1988 - IRG/WP 1346
In August 1987, organochlorines were withdrawn in North America from use in termite control. This has left the industry and the community with reduced options in long term protection of wood and wood products. A case is presented to justify the use of the slow-acting stomach termiticide, mirex, under special permit, for use only in the bait-block method of termite control. This method, while not acting like the organochlorines as a chemical barrier around newly constructed and existing buildings will, however, offer an alternative control measure in eradicating subterranean termites when buildings become infested by these insects. Health and safety aspects are discussed.
J R J French


A case for adopting a standardised protocol of field and laboratory bioassays to evaluate a potential soil termiticide
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20275
The rationale for adopting a new approach to the field testing of potential soil termiticides is advocated on the grounds that current testing methods are limited to termite bioassays and do not address quantitatively the persistence and bioavailability of soil termiticides to foraging subterranean termites over time and in different soil types. Furthermore, the present testing regimes assume field situations of uniform high termite hazard across field sites. Our testing procedures require the random sampling of soil cores from test soil pads (500 x 500 mm) at several geographically different locations. The soil cores from treated and untreated soil pads are returned to the laboratory and the soil residues in half of the samples examined for each year of test by gas chromatography. The bioavailability of termiticide residues in the remaining soil samples are evaluated by termite bioassays using the field collected subterranean termite, Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt). Both tunnelling distance and mortality are used as indicators of termiticide activity and availability. This paper compares the traditional soil test methods with our new approach, which addresses the problems of security with longevity of test, variability of termite hazard levels at different field sites, and a practical method for managing variables in assessing potential soil termiticides. Importantly, this technique prevents the direct destruction of natural populations of subterranean termites or the indirect contamination by contact from soil residues of termiticides applied in and around active termite colonies.
J R J French, B M Ahmed


Termite standards questionnaire survey - First Report
1988 - IRG/WP 1354
Information contained in replies received from IRG members responding to the termite standards questionnaire survey are summarised. Highlighted in the results of this first report are the major termite species in the various zoogeographical regions, their damage ranking to timber-in-service, the chemicals used in control methods, and the status of termite standards in the respondent countries.
J R J French, J P La Fage


List of Centre Technique du Bois translations in French
1985 - IRG/WP 1273
Anonymous


Laboratory evaluation of fipronil (a phenyl pyrazole) as a candidate termiticide in the protection of wood against the subterranean termite, Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt) Rhinotermitidae
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10225
In this laboratory evaluation, radiata pine wood blocks (50 x 25 x 15 mm3) were impregnated with fipronil (a phenyl pyrazole) at various concentrations (0, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, 100 and 200 ppm). Half the treated blocks underwent a leaching schedule for 5 days, while the remainder were unleached after treatment. Five replicates per treatment regime were presented to the test termite, Coptotermes acinaciformis, and the amount of wood consumed and termite mortality recorded over 8 weeks. Fipronil was toxic at all concentrations and deterred feeding by the foraging termites in both leached and unleached treatment regimes. After 8 weeks, 90 per cent of the termites at the 5 and 10 ppm treatments were dead. Mass loss of the treated specimens in laboratory bioassays is a most important criterion for the assessment of a potential wood preservative. Here, in both the leached and unleached treatments, no mass loss was recorded at retentions of 0.005 kg/m3 and above. At a retention of 0.002 kg/m3, mass losses were 1.18% and 3.5% for unleached and leached specimens respectively. The results indicated that fipronil has termiticidal action, and probably acts as a contact poison at the levels tested. Mould growth on the treated wood specimens was an indication that fipronil was not a mould inhibitor.
B M Ahmed, J R J French, P Kwint, G Webb


Methyl bromide eradication of the oak wilt fungus in logs. Laboratory and field fumigation
1981 - IRG/WP 3168
Concern over accidental introduction of the oak wilt fungus (Ceratocystis fagacearum) into oak-importing nations has prompted a study supported by the U.S. National Lumber Exporter's Assn. to assess the efficacy of methyl bromide fumigation to eradicate the fungus from logs and lumber. Laboratory and field fumigation trials to develop a reliable and realistic treatment were performed on red and white oaks at the University of Minnesota in 1980. Introduction of pure methyl bromide at a rate of 240 g/m³ of space under a polyethylene cover kept in place for 3 days eradicated the fungus from short log sections at temperatures down to 5°C in laboratory chamber fumigations. Outdoor trials using 2.4 m logs with intact bark reduced the fungus isolation frequency to a fractional percentage of untreated controls, but reducing the duration of fumigation to 2 days was not effective.
E L Schmidt, M M Ruetze, D W French


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