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Wood furfurylation process and properties of furfurylated wood
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40289
The first processes for “furfurylation” of wood (wood modification with furfuryl alcohol) were developed several decades ago. Furfuryl alcohol is a renewable chemical since it is derived from furfural, which is produced from hydrolysed biomass waste. Over the last decade modernised processes for furfurylation of wood have been developed. These new processes are based on new catalytic systems a...
M Westin, S Lande, M Schneider

Durability of pine modified by 9 different methods
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40288
The decay resistance was studied for pine modified by nine methods of wood modification: 1) Acetylation, 2) Treatment with methylated melamine resin (MMF), 3) Acetylation followed by post-treatment with MMF-resin, 4) Thermal modification, 5) Furfurylation, 6) Maleoylation (using water solution of MG or ethanol solution of maleic anhydride), 7) Succinylation, 8) NMA-modification and 9) modification...
M Westin, A O Rapp, T Nilsson

Novel wood modification processes for window and cladding products
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40285
Because of the low natural durability and low dimensional stability of European wood species, the usage of wood for window frames has decreased dramatically during the last decade. In a joint project of several German research institutes and the window industry, following wood modification systems were compared. heat treatment (3 different materials from 2 companies) acetylation (pine sapwood an...
A Krause, C Hof, H Militz

Improving the weather resistance of glue-laminated jarrah and karri
1994 - IRG/WP 94-40017
Surface modification and dimensional stabilisation significantly increased the dry and wet shear strength of karri and jarrah lap-shear specimens (laminates) bonded with resorcinol formaldehyde. The combination of surface modification (sanding/sodium hydroxide treatment), and furfurylation produced the highest dry and wet shear strengths. Acetylated laminates had the lowest dry bond strength, but ...
J Balfas, P D Evans

Chemical reactions involved in furfurylation of solid wood - An investigation by ATR-IR spectroscopy
2006 - IRG/WP 06-40347
Wood modification with furfuryl alcohol (FA) has gained renewed interest during the last five to ten years because of advances in process technology and because of increased focus on the environmental hazards of traditional wood impregnation. The reaction mechanisms involved in the furfurylation process are not yet understood in detail. In the work presented here, the chemical reactions and their ...
T Mark Venås, L Garbrecht Thygesen, S Barsberg

Furfurylated wood - An alternative to Preservative-treated wood
2006 - IRG/WP 06-40349
Chemically modified wood is currently being marketed as a non-toxic alternative to traditional preservative treated wood (wood impregnated with biocides). Over the last decade the authors have developed modernised processes for wood modified by furfurylation. These new systems do not add metals or halogens to the product, which is important for an environmentally acceptable product. This presentat...
S Lande, M H Schneider, M Westin, J Phillips

Wood furfurylation process development. Part 1: Oscillating Pressure Method
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40376
Furfurylated wood (wood modified by furfuryl alcohol) has over the last years gained marked shares from both tropical wood and conventional preservative treated wood and this has, in turn, generated several research projects concerning process development. The impregnation of spruce is well known from literature to be a difficult task. Furthermore, the sapwood of Scandinavian-grown Scots pine is a...
E Larnøy, M Westin, B Källander, S Lande

Wood furfurylation process development. Part 2: Lowry impregnation trials
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40377
The objective was to evaluate whether Lowry-impregnation of Scots pine with FA100-mix, instead of the FA40-mix, would lead to similar or slightly higher WPGs and to investigate any potential changes in penetration pattern. The results indicate that the penetration was better, also penetrating the outer zone of the heartwood. Furthermore, it was possible to reduce the WPG-levels for pine down to 50...
M Westin, E Larnøy, S Lande

A step towards a better understanding of fungal colonization of modified wood - QRT-PCR studies
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10653
The area of wood protection is in a period of change. New wood protection systems have been developed while their mode of action remains insufficiently understood. The development of molecular methods provides potential tools to investigate the interaction between modified wood and decay fungi. One small step to tackle some of the unsolved questions about the mode of action of modified wood is tak...
G Alfredsen, A Pilgård, A Hietala

Feasibility study on three furfurylated non-durable tropical wood species evaluated for resistance to brown, white and soft rot fungi
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40395
Furfurylation can protect non-durable wood species against biological degradation, but the method used today cannot fully protect the heartwood of Scots pine due to insufficient penetration. In order to test alternative wood substrates for furfurylation, three Malaysian grown wood species (Kelempayan, Rubberwood and Sena) were furfurylated and subjected to soil block decay testing. Their performan...
T Mark Venås, A H H Wong

Postia placenta gene expression of oxidative and carbohydrate metabolism related genes during growth in furfurylated wood
2009 - IRG/WP 09-10701
A range of studies the last decade have shown that modified wood can provide excellent protection against a range of wood deteriorating organisms, including decay fungi. However, we still lack information about why the modified wood is protected from microbial attack. Several hypotheses have been put forward e.g. inhibition of action of specific enzymes, but they still need testing. An understandi...
G Alfredsen, C G Fossdal

Termite resistance of some modified wood species
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40449
During the last few decades, researchers worldwide have investigated and developed new treatment techniques to improve intrinsic wood properties. Some of these techniques were introduced to the market recently and are gaining in importance.. Various wood properties of these new materials have been studied intensively. These include physical-mechanical properties (dimensional stability, moisture ...
H Militz, B C Peters, C J Fitzgerald

Microscopy evaluation of microbial decay patterns in wood stakes after 6 years in soil contact
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10715
Most studies on wood modification have so far been concerned with service life predictions rather than investigating the decay protection mechanism. Very little is known about the mode of action of these new treatments and about the strategies used by wood degraders in order to utilize the wood material despite a treatment. Access to such knowledge would allow further modification and improvement ...
A Pilgård, C G Björdal

Durability of Furfurylated Wood – Results from Laboratory and Field Tests in the Ecobinders project
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40602
Within the EU project Ecobinders, laboratory tests were performed with furfurylated wood produced in semi-industrial scale in the factory of Kebony ASA. Field trials in Horizontal double layer decks and in-ground of transmission poles were also started. Four wood species, Southern yellow pine (SYP), maple, beech and aspen were treated to two treatment levels by using two impregnating liquids with ...
M Westin

The impact of catalyst on the properties of furfurylated beech wood
2016 - IRG/WP 16-40748
European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) is a major tree species of European forest that is underexploited because of its low dimensional stability and durability. Similarly to what has been developed with radiata pine, furfurylation might be the answer to optimize the utilization of local beech wood. Beech wood furfurylation process was studied using five different catalysts: maleic anhydride, maleic ...
P S Sejati, A Imbert, C Gérardin, S Dumarçay, E Fredon, E Masson, D Nandika, T Priadi, P Gérardin

Effect of Furfurylation on Shear Strength of Bond Line and Screw Withdrawal Resistance of Beech and Fir Wood
2016 - IRG/WP 16-40757
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of furfurylation on shear strength of bond line and screw withdrawal resistance of beech (Fagus orientalis) and fir (Abies alba) species. In this regard, specimens with two different values of furfurylation i.e. low (fir 14% and beech 20%) and high (fir 38% and beech 65%) levels were prepared and evaluated in comparison with untreated specimens....
A Talaei, H Abdolzadeh, M Saleh Zare

Effect of different concentration of furfurylation on physical properties and decay resistance of Paulownia wood
2016 - IRG/WP 16-40762
The furfurylation process is an extensively investigated wood modification process. Penetration of Furfuryl alcohol molecules into the wood cell wall results in a permanent swelling. In the present study, different concentrations effect of furfuryl alcohol monomer on physico-biological properties such as water uptake, dimensional stability and decay resistance of wood polymer made by fast-growing ...
M Ghorbani, H Asghari

Corrosion of fasteners in furfurylated wood – final report after 9 years exposure outdoors
2017 - IRG/WP 17-40810
The corrosion of some common fastener materials – mild steel, stainless steel, zinc-coated steel, brass and Sanbond Z (nickel, zinc and chromate) coated steel – has been evaluated after nine years exposure outdoors in untreated Scots pine and furfurylated beech and southern yellow pine (SYP). The furfurylation was carried out according to a process that resulted in approximately 40 % WPG (We...
J Jermer, B-L Andersson, J Schalnat

Effect of furfurylation treatment on the performance of three Canadian wood species
2022 - IRG/WP 22-40925
The demand for exterior wood siding is stagnating in North America, partly due to the perception of consumers, architects and contractors regarding their durability and maintenance. Improving attributes such as the dimensional stability of wood is therefore necessary to make it more attractive to consumers. This project aims to assess the performance of Canadian species; white spruce (Picea glauca...
G Boivin, D Schorr

Molecular dynamics investigation of wood modification with furfuryl alcohol
2022 - IRG/WP 22-40931
Molecular dynamics (MD) was applied to investigate and understand the structural characteristics and the interaction of cellulose and lignin with furfuryl alcohol for explaining the wood modification process. A single chain of cellulose polymer model and a softwood lignin model was considered to represent cellulose and lignin polymers. The obtained radial distribution function results revealed tha...
V Ponnuchamy, J Sandak, A Sandak

Assessing changes in hardness of furfurylated wood on a nano-scale to mimic levels experienced by the marine wood-boring crustacean, Limnoria
2023 - IRG/WP 23-11016
Wood-boring crustaceans and bivalves can cause severe damage to wooden structures in the marine environment, warranting the need for novel protection systems, such as chemical modifications. Furfurylation increases mechanical properties and resistance of timber species that would usually be susceptible to biodegradation by these borers, such as pine. In rapid laboratory and field testing, furfuryl...
L Martin, J Zekonyte, S Lande, M Westin, S Cragg

Reducing successful settlement by shipworm larvae on wood that has been modified using furfurylation
2023 - IRG/WP 23-11017
Shipworms are Teredinid bivalves that have a highly modified shell for boring into wood and an elongated, vermiform shape. Teredinids are marine wood-borers, utilising timber as both shelter and as a source of food. Wooden structures in the sea, such as piers and sea defences, are subject to severe damage by these borers, costing billions per year for maintenance and replacement. Traditionally, br...
L Martin, I Guarneri, S Lande, M Westin, S Cragg