IRG Documents Database and Compendium

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A simple field apparatus for measuring relative gaff penetration and assessing the effect of additives for improving pole climbability
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20187
A simple apparatus for measuring and comparing the relative "hardness" of utility poles is described. This "slide-hammer" gaff penetration apparatus was designed as a field testing unit to measure the depth of gaff penetration into test poles after application of a uniform and reproducible force to the gaff. The apparatus is simple to use in both the laboratory and field. Data is provided for results from post sections treated with CCA with and without additives designed to improving pole climbability characteristics. Results from these preliminary studies suggest that this apparatus can detect differences similar to that observed with a universal testing machine and a pilodyn, but with usually lower variability between replicate measurements than the other techniques.
A R Zahora

Solvent drying and preservation of timber
1977 - IRG/WP 381
Processes which combine drying and preservation are first reviewed. Some preliminary experiments are then described in which blocks of green Sitka spruce sapwood were immersed, in a solution of tributyltin oxide (TBTO) in methanol at 60°C. Satisfactory penetration of the preservative and exchange of methanol and water occurred in a few hours. The methanol was removed rapidly from the wood by evaporation. Satisfactory penetration of TBTO into initially methanol-saturated samples occurred in a similar period. The factors influencing. such treatments are discussed. High initial moisture content of the wood and a high operating temperature are particularly desirable. Some aspects of the possible commercial operation of the process are discussed.
J A Petty

Wood preservatives: Field tests out of ground contact. Brief survey of principles and methodology
1976 - IRG/WP 269
This paper contains the following spots: 1.: The general need for field tests. 2.: Interests and limits of field tests in ground contact. 3.: Various methods in use for out-of-ground contact field tests. 4.: Fungal cellar tests are they an alternative to above-ground decay exposure tests? 5.: Conclusions.
M Fougerousse

Utilization of curcumin for detection of presence of boron in wood
1982 - IRG/WP 3191
It has been shown that curcumin is not a reliable reagent for detecting boron in wood that has been attacked by fungi
M-L Edlund

An evaluation method for less termite attack execution on thermal insulation for fundation walls
2002 - IRG/WP 02-20245
According to the results by the real scale Japanese building tests, the termite installation was observed at very little spaces between foundation and insulation. The termite penetration spaces between foundation and insulation on foundation systems in Japanese wooden houses were checked by the way of streaming speed of colored water. Because of difficulty for its execution, the parts of outside angles and reentrant angles in continuous foundation were more sensitive for the termite penetration. Special accessories of thermal insulation for these angles can be effective for lesser termite installation.
K Suzuki, Y Tanaka

Soft rot penetration - Effect of groundline maintenance treatment on poles in sevice
1983 - IRG/WP 3263
R S Johnstone

Natural durability transfer from sawmill residues of white cypress (Callitris glaucophylla). - Part 3: Full penetration of the refractory sapwood of white cypress
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40167
The heartwood of white cypress, Callitris glaucophylla, is renowned for its termite resistance and durability against decay. The sapwood, which can represent up to 30% of log volume, is non-durable and refractory to conventional preservative treatment. Previous work ascribes the lack of permeability to oily deposits within tracheids and ray cells. Environmental scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate ultrastructural aspects of sapwood permeability. Several pre-treatment processes to improve permeability were tested with limited success. Solvent drying allowed preservative penetration but damaged the structure of the timber. Neither, long term water soaking nor an oscillating pressure/vacuum cycle had any effect on porosity to water-borne treatments. Through extensive modifications to a standard VPI process we can now repeatedly achieve full penetration with organic solvent-based wood preservative solutions into white cypress sapwood. Effects of this process on the strength of the timber are being evaluated. Work is continuing as to the most effective and efficient treatment schedule and the latest results will be presented at IRG 31.
M J Kennedy, L M Stephens, M A Powell

The use of pressure cycling to improve heartwood penetration in Pinus radiata (D. Don)
1995 - IRG/WP 95-40050
This study investigates the effect of cycling pressure on the treatability of radiata pine heartwood. The results indicate that liquid penetration into the heartwood is affected by the preconditioning method used and pressure treatment time. There is no significant improvement in the penetration of Pinus radiata (D. Don) heartwood when a cycling or pulsation process is used.
P R S Cobham, P Vinden

Effect of medium-term degradation of beech wood by erosive (Phanerochaete chrysosporium) and lignin-selective (Ceriporiopsis subvermispora) strains of white rot fungi on its selected physical properties
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40292
At the Faculty of Wood Sciences and Technology a fungal delignification of normal and tension beech wood by erosive and lignin-selective strains white-rot fungi has been studied. The pre-treatment of both kind of wood samples was accompanied by partial delignification and apparent changes of their physical properties influencing the polar liquids penetration.
R Solár, S Kurjatko, M Mamonová, J Hudec

A case study on quality control on telephone poles as a cost saving tool in Tanzania
1987 - IRG/WP 3418
A sample of 28 CCA treated Eucalyptus poles from a lot of 2,000 poles awaiting delivery to the field, was studied to reveal the quality of treatment. Results showed a product of very poor quality. Average figures for penetration and retention were 8.4 mm and 2.2 kg/m³; these results are 66% and 91% below the required standards, respectively. Consequences of such results are estimated to amount to losses of billion of shillings.
K K Murira

A proposal for an international wood preservation standard
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20031
Two factors are driving the need for an international wood preservation standard. First, the global need to use our natural resources more wisely and second, the movement towards free trade exemplified by the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. The International Research Group on Wood Preservation is the ideal organisation to undertake the task of developing such a standard. This paper is intended to start this process. It attempts to bring together the best points of a number of national and international standards into a uniform format. Preservative penetrations and retentions for each commodity would be based on the hazard class/use category, the climate zone, the biological area, the natural durability of the heartwood of the species used, the service life required and the consequences of failure. The outline standard presented borrows heavily from the new European Standard and is presented as a possible starting point for the development of an international standard.
P I Morris

Principles and procedure of the planeing test
1981 - IRG/WP 2162
Small end-sealed samples of pine-sapwood (1.5 x 2.5 x 5 cm³) are treated by brushing and afterwards different parts of the treated surface are removed. The remaining part of the sample is tested against either insects or fungi. If no attack occurs sufficient amounts of biocides have been penetrated at least beyond the zone which has been removed. In spite of some problems the test seems the only suitable method, to evaluate organic solvent preservatives, mainly those containing resins, for simple treating methods.
H Willeitner, M Gersonde

Some characteristics of Pinus radiata wood from trees subjected to resin extraction
1987 - IRG/WP 3403
35 year old Pinus radiata trees growing in La Puntilla (lat. 37° south, long. 72,4° west), Chile, were subjected to resin extraction 5 years ago. After harvesting them simultaneously with control trees of the same place and age, probes were taken from the bottom of each pole, at 3.4 m, 7.8 m and 11.4 m height. Analysis of ethanol/benzene extract, CCA salt penetration tests and sapstain and brown-rot development rate were performed. The extract content differed in both groups. In the ascendent sense it decreases in unextracted trees and increases in extracted. CCA salt penetration was deeper in treated trees than in untreated. Wood subjectect to resin extraction was less susceptible to sapstain development. No significant difference was detected in both groups in relation to the development of brown-rot.
M C Rose, J Navarrete, G Sandoval, A Bedoya, L Ortega, R Zurita

Spruce lumber treatments with ammoniacal solutions of inorganic preservatives
1977 - IRG/WP 391
As a part of our work in the Wood Preservation group at the Eastern Forest Products Laboratory in Ottawa to facilitate exploitation of spruce, which is a large timber resource in Canada, we have been studying the treatability of spruce roundwood. A report on this subject was presented to this group last year. More recently, another commodity - spruce timber - has been rapidly gaining the interest of wood treaters, mainly because of its potential use in permanent wooden foundations. We identified this trend and extended our research work to the treatability of spruce lumber.
R Rak

Water-based wood preservatives for curative treatement of insect-infested spruce constructions
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30171
On laying down sanitation measures for wooden constructions infested by wood boring insects, we must take into account static risks for the construction - and, thus, for the security of the user - as well as risks for humans and environment due to the chemical preservative compounds of the treated wood. Analyses on many roof constructions made with spruce (Picea abies L.) have revealed that Hylotrupes bajulus L. and Anobium punctatum De Geer have not the significance given to them for decennies. That often allows to replace solvant-based with water-based wood preservatives in old buildings, for the protection of humans and environment. Therefore, a method has been developed in Switzerland for testing wood preservatives with delayed curative efficacy against the house longhorn beetle. Like the European Anobium Standard EN 370 this method intends to prevent the emergence of Hylotrupes beetles. Laboratory tests with diverse water-based wood preservatives available on the market in Switzerland have shown that particularly boron and benzoylphenylurea derivatives containing products get a sufficient penetration in the wood and prevent the emergence of the beetles.
E Graf, P Manser, B Lanz

An investigation of the effects of pre-steaming on the treatment of sawn spruce timber with Celcure A, a copper-chrome-arsenic preservative
1981 - IRG/WP 3150
Difficulties in the treatment of spruce using standard vacuum/pressure techniques with both water-borne and organic solvent preservatives are well known. We have evaluated the influence of steaming on treatability with a waterborne CCA preservative.
C R Coggins

The utilisation and preservation of Eucalyptus globulus agricultural stakes from Portugal
1989 - IRG/WP 3520
This paper reviews the development and utilisation of Tanalith C treated Eucalyptus globulus stakes: particular reference is made to their use in vineyards. The treatment characteristics of commercially available stakes will be described and penetration patterns evaluated.
A Milne e Carmo, D A Lewis, A Lyman

Blue stain in service on wood surface coatings. Part 2: The ability of Aureobasidium pullulans to penetrate wood surface coatings
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1557
The ability of Aureobasidium pullulans to penetrate seven different wood surface coatings was examined. Eight isolates of Aureobasidium pullulans were used. Following penetration, light microscopy was used to examine the effect of the fungus upon the coating, and growth at the wood-film interface. The fungus showed different growth capabilities with different types of surface coatings. Some isolates were able to penetrate alkyd based coatings, but were unable to grow in the film. In contrast, after penetration through latex based coatings several isolates were able to produce growth in the films themselves.
P R Sharpe, D J Dickinson

Untersuchungen über die Imprägnierbarkeit verschiedener türkischer Holzarten mit wirtschaftlicher Bedeutung
1976 - IRG/WP 370
Holzarten mit einer geringen natürlichen Dauerhaftigkeit können nur dann wirtschaftlich verwendet werden, wenn ihre Gebrauchsdauer durch einen zusätzlichen chemischen Schutz verlängert wird. Holzschutzmaßnahmen können nur regelmäßig geplant werden, wenn die Tränkbarkeit der verwendeten Holzarten bekannt ist. Aufgabe dieser Versuche war es daher, festzustellen, wieweit die Holzarten hinreichend getränkt werden können. In Rahmen der zur Zeit in der Türkei laufenden Entwicklungsvorhaben entstand die Frage nach den tränk-technischen Eigenschaften türkischer Holzarten, um ihre Verwendungsmöglichkeiten besser beurteilen zu können.
R Ilhan

Rational weight per weight (w/w) qualifying retention from a pole bank in Bangladesh
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40187
Weight per weight (w/w) vs weight per volume (w/v) retention study revealed that the w/w % retention is found to be appropriate and uniform for all timber species in respect of its real effectiveness. The pole species having density below 512 kg/m3 (32pcf.) showing w/v retention below 20kg/m3 (1.25pcf.) have equal w/w retention of 4%. The apparently reduced w/v retention of low density poles will be compensated/adjusted by total additional preservative required for higher dimension of poles compared to standard US origin southem pine poles (Pinus elliotti, P. echinata, P. taeda, P. palustris) required to satisfy desired bending load. The pole species having density higher than 512 kg/m3 (32 pcf.) will also give real equal w/w retention of 4% by showing higher w/v retention. About double w/v retention will be required for Bangladesh orgin sundri (Heritiera fomes) or equivalent pole species which is very essential for higher service life compared to softwood poles. In softwoods cell wall can be completely penetrated with CCA to protect soft rot fungi but such function in dense hardwoods may be carried out by additional retention. Remedial treatment is found to be the vital issue for hardwood pole for long term satisfactory use in contact with ground even with possible higher retention of w/w 4% or above. Dual treatment (CCA-C + creosote) is another solution for adequate service life of hardwood poles.
A K Lahiry

Penetration analysis of two common bamboo species - borak and jawa of Bangladesh
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40247
Preservative treatment of two bamboo species, namely borak (Bambusa balcooa Roxb.) and jawa (Bambusa salarkhanii Alam) was carried out with chromated copper boron (CCB) preservative by dipping method. The variation in preservative penetration between the two different species was determined. It was found that preservative penetrates into borak quicker than into jawa and easier into air-dried bamboo than into green one.
M O Hannan, A K Lahiry, N M Islam

Creosoted radiata pine by non-pressure methods
1988 - IRG/WP 3486
Posts of Pinus radiata have been impregnated with creosote by immersion for 1, 3, and 7 days, and by hot-and-cold open tank with hot bath temperatures at 40°C and 60°C. On the basis of the retention rates obtained, suitable procedures are described for wood elements that are going to be in ground contact, and an analysis is made of the way in which the variables tested affect the results.
M V Baonza Merino, C De Arana Moncada

Performance results of wood treated with CCA-PEG
1986 - IRG/WP 3363
The addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to the CCA system has been shown to reduce the surface hardness of poles and ease spur penetration during climbing. This paper addresses the results of tests dealing with preservative retention and penetration, permanence of CCA and PEG, strength, drying rate, and checking characteristics.
W P Trumble, E E Messina

Report of the meetings of the Refractory Timbers Sub-group, Rotorua, New Zealand, 15 & 17 May 1990
1990 - IRG/WP 3637
R J Murphy

Rapport sur l'activité du CNE/TC 38 'Méthodes d'essais des produits de préservation du bois'
1977 - IRG/WP 288
G Castan

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