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The chemical wood preservation in the former GDR - an overview
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50057
For the disposal of chemically treated wood waste and for the remedial treatment of contaminated soils in facility yards a profound knowledge is required concerning the kind of preservatives used and the degree of pollution. In order to record the production of wood preservatives and the location of impregnation plants in the former GDR, documents of the Office for Standardisation Measuring Affairs, and Products Testing (Amt für Standardisierung, Meßwesen und Warenprüfung, ASMW) were evaluated. During the period of 1970-1988 annually ca 15,200 to of wood preservatives were produced, thereof 1/3 water soluble salts and 2/3 oilbased products and biocides in LOS, and annually about 1.5 mil m³ of wood were impregnated. The records revealed that environmental relevant substances such as arsenate, pentachlorophenol (PCP) and DDT were used in the former GDR. The present situation of impregnation plants involves special problems, as the majority of the up to now recorded vacuum pressure- and dipping devices showed a desolate condition since in the time of GDR. These plants run over a longer period, therefore soil contamination is to be expected at many of the locations. Corresponding investigations at the different locations will show to what extent redevelopment measures are necessary.
E Melcher, R-D Peek

IRG - wood preservation - annual report 1999; wood preservation in Slovak Republic
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40192
This report gives basic information about wood preservation in Slovak Republic, related to the wood preservation research and education, to the most important wood-destroying organisms, to the wood preserving industry, and also to the problems of standards, market and environment.
L Reinprecht

Exemptions from harmonization measures under Article 100a(4): The second authorization of the German ban on PCP
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-28
R D Sloan

Quality assurance approach of the German TMT manufacturers
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40513
Due to an increasing number of TMT manufacturers in central Europe, an organisation of TMT manufacturers was founded in Germany in the beginning of 2010. Since the current level of product testing and property declaration is not satisfying, one of the first activities is the establishment of a quality assurance system. In this paper a concept for quality assurance (QA) will be outlined.
W Scheiding, C R Welzbacher, A O Rapp

Wood Preservation in the Federal Republic of Germany
1981 - IRG/WP 3157
The report gives some statistics about the forest products industries in the Federal Republic and a general review of the wood preservation industry. The trend in the use of wooden railway sleepers is decreasing, as is the use of poles. The sale of other pre-treated timber, mainly fence posts, palisades and domestic fences, is however slightly increasing. Apart from the use of pressure treatments for poles and sleepers, dipping, deluging and spraying are the most common methods of treatment used. For constructional timbers the treatment given is often only of a poor quality. A glossary of the treatments used is given and a list of the firms supplying approved preservatives. Information is given for applicants who wish to have preservatives approved for use in the Federal Republic. All wood preservatives have to be registered for the treatment of any constructional timber which relates to the strength of a building. New types of biocides will obtain approval only after special tests have been carried out to ensure their long term effectiveness. The approved State Laboratories which can issue test certificates and organizations which can give useful advice to users of treated wood are listed, together with the addresses of some other organizations. The report lists all the relevant German standards.
R Cockcroft, H Willeitner

The true dry rot fungus (Serpula lacrymans) as a wound parasite of living Norway spruce (Picea abies) in the Czech Republic
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10389
Some late 19th century Central European mycologist reported finds of the true dry rot fungus (Serpula lacrymans) from nature. They even suggested that it could be a parasite of living trees. However examination of herbarium material has shown that the species they found was thin-fleshed dry rot (Serpula himantioides) rather than Serpula lacrymans. In 1992 the Czech mycologist Kotlaba reported finds of Serpula lacrymans from twelve localities in the Czech Republic. In most finds fruitbodies were growing at the base of living Norway spruce (Picea abies), and he therefore suspected it to be parasitic. In September 1998 some of these localities were visited by Hussvamp Laboratoriet but in vain. In October 2000 four of the localities were revisited by the authors from Hussvamp Laboratoriet. In the first locality a forest west of Plzen the search was succesfull. About a dozen well-developed fruitbodies were found on the exposed roots of a spruce stump. The living tree had evidently been infected by dry rot through its roots, and later tipped over during a storm, and finally the trunk had been cut off leaving the stump. Such a log is a potential source of infection into houses. An other still standing and live spruce a few metres away was apparently infected in a wound near the ground. Soil, wood and mycelium samples taken from the find are currently being analysed for their content of calcium, iron and other minerals. The meteorological data, especially temperature and snowcover are also being analysed. These data will be compared with the previous finds of Serpula lacrymans from nature in the Himalayas and Northern California. Cultures from the find are being analysed for molecular data and Trichoderma species are isolated from the soil samples as potential agents of biological control of dry rot attack in houses.
J Bech-Andersen, S A Elborne, J Andreasson, J Ch Sterler

Biodeterioration of cultural monuments in the Republic of Macedonia
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10640
Research on the biodeterioration of the cultural heritage in the Republic of Macedonia was conducted from 2004 to 2006, one month per year. The expertise was focused on the biodeterioration caused by wood-inhabiting fungi and moulds. A total of 38 cultural monuments, including 37 monasteries and churches and one fortress, were inspected in the areas of the towns of Skopje, Ohrid, Demir Hisar, Debar, Strumica, Stip, Kicevo, Kriva Palanka, Kumanovo, Prilep, Struga, the region of the Lake Prespa, the Mariovo area and Kratovo. Most of the monasteries are under state protection. 15 of the inspected monuments had fungal damage. 32 macromycetes and micromycetes were identified on the constructive and decorative materials of the monuments. Wood-inhabiting fungi were found both on the indoor wood (bathroom, ceiling, stairs, roof inner portions) and external woodwork (gateway, bridge, outer door, roofs, stairs). Decay fungi dominated in the roof constructions of the inspected buildings. The majority of the identified Basidiomycetes in Macedonian cultural heritage sites belonged to white-rotters (81%), and the remaining 19% to brown-rotters. In several cases, mould contamination was noted on wall paintings, mainly Cladosporium sp., Aspergillus sp., and Fusarium sp. Fresh fungal damages found in monasteries and churches are dangerous for wood constructions and frescoes, and they must be eliminated.
I Irbe, M Karadelev, I Andersone, B Andersons

Qualitative - Quantitative Analysis of Wood-Inhabiting Fungi in External Wooden Structures of the Latvian Cultural Heritage
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10728
The frequency and diversity of wood inhabiting fungi in the exterior wood were established in the Araishi lake fortress, the Lielvarde wooden castle, the Latvian Ethnographic Open-Air Museum, Riga, and twelve wooden heritage objects in the Eastern part of Latvia (Latgale). The inspected wooden structures of the external woodwork included windows, stairs, walls, floorings, roofs, fences, and benches. Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H.Karst.) were the primary construction materials used in the inspected objects. Roofs, walls and fences were the most commonly decayed outdoor structures. The fungi from the phyla Basidiomycota, Ascomycota and Protozoa (Myxomycota) were identified. Common fungal genera were Antrodia, Gloeophyllum, Athelia, Hyphoderma, Hyphodontia, Pharenochaete, Postia and Botryobasidium. Mainly corticoid and poroid species were recorded in the outdoor structures. The predominance of white-rot, represented by corticoids, in the external woodwork is explained by the location of objects in woody areas, where the source of infection and a favourable microclimate were ensured. The accelerating factors for severe wood biodeterioration in outdoor structures were (i) the presence of vegetation around the objects and (ii) the surrounding lake water, which ensured extra moisture for fungal development. The fungal diversity and frequency in the constructions were affected by the substrate (softwood/hardwood) and decay location (outdoors/indoors).
I Irbe, M Karadelev, B Andersons

Ambient-temperature borate dip-diffusion treatment of green railroad crossties
2011 - IRG/WP 11-40556
In the USA, borates are increasingly being applied prior to air seasoning and creosote treatment of railroad ties (railway sleepers). Borates are typically applied to green ties by vacuum pressure application at 1 to 10% disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT) concentration or by traditional dip-diffusion treatments at elevated temperatures. Higher temperatures are used to maintain the 30 to 50% solution concentrations needed to deliver appropriate cross-sectional retentions with only a topical application. In our study, a thickened borate system similar to that developed in New Zealand in the 1970s for the treatment of framing lumber was investigated as a possible method for the treatment of the larger timbers used for rail ties. This paper reports on the penetration and retentions achieved with three wood species dip-treated green in DOT at ambient temperature in a high-concentration borate emulsion. In an initial test, freshly-sawn crosstie sections of three common wood species (sweet gum, red oak and white oak) were dipped for three minutes in one of five different concentrations (25-50%) of borate emulsion at approximately 10oC. It was found that dipping in a 30% concentration liquid provided weight retentions that approximated to American Wood Protection Association (AWPA) standard retentions (2.7 kg•m-3). In the subsequent study, tie sections dipped in 30% DOT liquid were stacked and stored outside, with moisture-barrier wraps or roof covers. Moisture content and boron retention and penetration were monitored over time. During 3 months of monitoring, 10-20% reduction occurred from the 65-75% initial moisture content. White oak samples had the lowest borate retention of the three species and gum had the highest. Penetration also varied according to wood species. The data suggest that an ambient temperature dip-diffusion treatment of green railroad ties with DOT could provide cost-effective creosote pretreatment with the additional benefit of protecting the wood during the air seasoning period.
Jae-Woo Kim, A M Taylor, C Köse

Best handling practices for wood crossties (sleepers)
2015 - IRG/WP 15-40714
Wooden crossties (sleepers) dominate the rail industry in the USA. Most ties are hardwood treated with oil-borne preservatives using pressure treatment. Incipient decay (called ‘stack burn’) commonly develops during the pre-treatment drying process and reduces tie performance and longevity. Practices to minimize stack burn and enhance wooden tie performance are discussed as an aid to non-wood scientists working with wood crossties. The document may also be of interest to wood scientist unfamiliar with commercial practices within the rail industry.
N Irby, J Lloyd, A Taylor, J Watt