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Management of the wood and additives wastes in the wood processing industries: Problematics and technical answers review
1996 - IRG/WP 96-50073
Management pathways for pure wood subproducts are well known and used; but as soon as additives like preservatives, glues, varnishes or coatings are present within the wood wastes, their disposal or valorization becomes more tricky. The different kinds of mixed wood wastes of the wood processing industries, from the sawmill to the furniture manufacture, are identified herewith and their diversity is examined. These wastes can be classified according to their danger characteristics, taking into account the type of additives, their concentration, their availability for the environment, the physical state of the waste. Different disposal pathways are then considered. Combustion, with the possibility of energetic valorization seems the best answer for a major part of these wastes. But this is only possible if good combustion conditions are defined, so that no harmful products are emitted. Moreover, these conditions must be affordable on the technical and economical point of view. Then, some wastes cannot be burned in such a simple way, and need a larger approach, which is presented in this document.
S Mouras, G Labat, G Deroubaix


Wood preservation in the Australian beekeeping industry
1988 - IRG/WP 3473
This paper reports the results of a survey of Australian commercial beekeepers working 200 or more hives in June/July 1985. Nine hundred and forty seven apiarists were asked to participate and to provide information on their wood preservation methods, painting procedures and maintenance of bee boxes. Three hundred and eighty-four apiarists returned completed questionnaires (41%). The main wood preservatives used are copper naphthenate solutions (45%), linseed oil (8%), copper chromated arsenate (3%), hot wax (9%), copper naphthenate solution in linseed oil (3%), linseed oil/wax mixtures (3%) and paint (23%). The majority of apiarists (96%) paint treated bee hives, but there is considerable variation in wood preservative treatment procedures and paint application. Most wood preservative treatments (95%) are of the 'do-it-yourself' variety, radiata pine being the most utilized timber. The bottom boards of bee hives are considered the most susceptible to wood decay and subterranean termite damage, as are cleats, stands or any wood in ground contact.
P J Robinson, J R J French


Bibliography: Interactions of wood preservatives with wood, metals, glues, paints and concretes
1983 - IRG/WP 3271
H Becker


Glue-line additives for protecting plywood. A review
1978 - IRG/WP 2102
The conclusions of this review are: 1) Insecticidal glue-line additives can be used satisfactorily to protect plywood against insect attack. 2) It is uncertain, in spite of some claims, wether fungicidal glue-line additives can be similarly used to protect plywood against fungi under damp conditiones. There is a need for further work to validate the mycological tests that may be used to investigate this claims. 3) In addition, there is a need to gain experience on the in situ behaviour of glue-line additives and it is proposed that field trials be initiated to determine their ability to protect plywood over a long period.
R Cockcroft


Stability of bifenthrin in a commercial phenol-formaldehyde plywood glue
2003 - IRG/WP 03-30311
Liquid phenol formaldehyde (PF) glue mixes used for plywood manufacture are strongly alkaline. At this pH insecticidal additives may not be stable for long periods. In order to establish practical working life of the synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, bifenthrin, in liquid PF glues the concentration of bifenthrin in the glue mix was measured under laboratory conditions over a 24 hour period. Glue batches were prepared in a laboratory mixer set up on an electronic balance with two dose rates of bifenthrin. The glue was stirred continuously, with a cover in place to reduce evaporation. Four replicate portions of glue were removed from the mixer and applied to fluoropolymer-coated rubber discs at fixed periods. The discs were cured immediately in an oven, during which time the film set and became detached from the surface. These discs were extracted with toluene-formic acid (90:10) mixture and the extracts analysed using capillary column GC with electron capture detection. Bifenthrin was found to be exceptionally stable in alkaline PF glue. When the glue was mixed under conditions preventing premature polymerisation, no measurable bifenthrin degradation occurred during the 24 hours.
M J Kennedy, P A Collins, R D Vella


Risk of extension of Hylotrupes bajulus attack in glued laminated timber
1977 - IRG/WP 278
Although efficient work-methods and maintenance procedures, which prevent the wood from becoming damp and are therefore successful in considerably reducing and even in excluding the risks of decay, such methods are ineffective in eliminating the risks of infestation and destruction of timber by the House Longhorn Beetle, Hylotrupes bajulus, the chief enemy of softwood timber structures. The possible treatment of glue-laminated timber frames has only been systematically studied for the last few years and is generally limited to the surface application of organic solvent type preservatives. In most cases, this treatment is carried out at the factory before final warnishing takes place. The aim of this paper is not to discuss this type of treatment, which would require certain reservations. As many untreated timber frames have been erected and since in the majority of those which are currently being erected, cracks - ideal sites for the House Longhorn Beetle to lay its eggs are discovered chiefly during the first year, its seems pertinent to examine the dangers of increased infestation in this type of structure and the need for eradicant treatment; in other words, to examine wether successive laminates or ultimately the entire beam will be affected if one infested laminate is incorporated into a particular structure or whether infestation will remain confined to the initial laminate. We shall need to determine whether the larvae of Hylotrupes bajulus are capable of penetrating the various types of glued- laminated timber. By gluing together thin layers of wood of limited length, the technique of glued laminates aims at manufacturing wood products which are both thick and of great bearing, but which proportionally have only slightly less mechanical strength than the same piece of solid wood. There are two types of assembly: 1) by gluing together laminates lengthwise, so as to produce beams of given thickness, and 2) by gluing together end-grain surfaces of laminates so as to produce beams of a given length. Both types of assembly are included in the diagrams accompanying this paper. The possible penetration by larvae of the House Longhorn Beetle have been studied in the case of each type of assembly. It is also known that the larvae of this species are capable of penetrating various kinds of relatively hard substances. In this respect, larvae at various stages of development can behave in different ways for tunnelling capacities. Hence the experiments described below have been carried out with two types of larvae: newly hatched larvae and larvae of medium size.
M-M Serment