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International comparison of three field methods for assessing the in-ground termite resistance of materials - highlights after two years
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20157
First-year results of a comparative study, evaluating the in-ground termite resistance of a range of materials, including CCA and ACQ-treated timbers, using the below-ground exposure, ground contact and graveyard methods against diverse termite faunas were provided in IRG/WP/98-20132. Further annual inspections have confirmed early trends and identified notable differences between sites and methods. Termites have contacted specimens more frequently at tropical sites, irrespective of the method, and in below-ground exposure trials, irrespective of site. Overall, levels of fungal decay have been low. Fungal decay was more prevalent in specimens using the ground-contact and graveyard methods. Notable levels of termite attack have been recorded for some CCA- and ACQ-treated Pinus radiata specimens at the retention of 2kg/m3, after two years or only one year (Phuket, Thailand). Some specimens of the durable timber bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) have sustained significant levels of termite attack and fungal decay.
M Lenz, J W Creffield, A F Preston, B M Kard, C Vongkaluang, Y Sornnuwat
Comparison of three methods for assessing the in-ground termite resistance of treated timber, durable timber and plastics at sites in Australia, USA and Thailand - First results
1998 - IRG/WP 98-20132
The in-ground resistance of materials to attack by subterranean termites is most commonly assessed with one form or another of the conventional graveyard method, despite the significant shortcomings of this method. In Australia, an alternative method, in which all samples of test materials are placed below-ground, has been in use for more than 10 years. The method provides reliable exposure of samples to prolonged contact by termites and offers a number of other advantages, notably ease of removal and re-installation of specimens, and protection from fires or damage caused by animals and vandalism. We describe a study in which assessments of materials with the below-ground exposure method were compared with the graveyard procedure and a modification of the South African ground contact method. Sites encompassed a range of climatic conditions and termite faunas, subtropics with species of Reticulitermes in Mississippi, USA; humid tropics with a diverse termite fauna dominated by Macrotermitinae (fungus-culturing termites) in SW Thailand; wet and dry tropics with separate trials for the two economically important species, Mastotermes darwiniensis and the mound-building form of Coptotermes acinaciformis, in Northern Australia; and at a semi-arid inland site with a temperate climate in Eastern Australia where the tree-nesting form of Coptotermes acinaciformis is the dominant species. Materials included in the investigation were: CCA- and ACQ-treated Pinus radiata (each at two retentions), a durable timber (bald cypress, Taxodium distichum) and two plastic cable sheathings (nylon and low density polyethylene). This paper provides details of the trial and gives first observations from inspections at three sites after one year of exposure of the materials to termites.
M Lenz, A F Preston, J W Creffield, K J Archer, B M Kard, C Vongkaluang, Y Sornnuwat
International comparison of three field methods for assessing the in-ground resistance of preservative-treated and untreated wood to termites and fungal decay – Summary of observations after five years
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20261
Results are presented from a five-year study conducted in five locations in Australia, Thailand and the USA. Three methods of exposure were assessed (below-ground, graveyard and ground contact) for evaluating the in-ground termite and decay resistance of Pinus radiata D. Don sapwood stakes that had been vacuum pressure impregnated with CCA (Type C) and ACQ (Type D) each at two nominal retentions (2 and 4 kg/m3), and of outer heartwood stakes from five trees of the durable North American Baldcypress, Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich. The termite attack and fungal decay ratings, based on the loss of cross section of the stakes, declined more rapidly at the three tropical sites in southern Thailand (Phuket) and in northern Australia (Darwin) compared to the two more temperate sites in southern USA (Gulfport, Mississippi) and southern Australia (Griffith, New South Wales). Depending on the type of preservative treatment (detailed for termites only) the three different assessment methods yielded either similar trends (ACQ 2 kg/m3; baldcypress) or outcomes varied with site and method (CCA 2 kg/m3; CCA 4 kg/m3) or the three assessment methods could be ranked from most to least effective in the same sequence across all sites (ACQ 4 kg/m3). Treatments or type of timber elicited different responses from the local termite fauna (from readily contacted by termites to avoidance). These responses can be modified by the way specimens are presented to termites. Average [n = 15] termite attack ratings (1st value Australian, 2nd value ASTM rating) after 5 years in the tropics (T) and non-tropics (NT) were: CCA 2 kg/m3 T = 4.3/6, NT = 6.7/8; CCA 4 kg/m3 T =5.5/7, NT = 7.4/9; ACQ 2 kg/m3 T = 4.4/6 , NT = 6.9/9; ACQ 4 kg/m3 T = 5.4/7, NT = 7.1/9. Baldcypress was more durable in the USA and Thailand (slight attack) and least durable against Mastotermes darwiniensis Froggatt in Australia (moderate attack). Fungus decay ratings (1st value Australian, 2nd value ASTM rating) after 5 years were: CCA 2 kg/ m3 T = 5.1/7, NT = 7.9/9; CCA 4 kg/m3 T = 6.1/8. NT = 7.8/9; ACQ 2 kg/m3 T = 5.2/7, NT = 6.7/9; ACQ 4 kg/m3 T = 5.6/8, NT = 7.7/9. Baldcypress results varied with source tree and test method.
M Lenz, J W Creffield, T A Evans, B M Kard, C Vongkaluang, Y Sornnuwat, A F Preston
Proposed method for out-of-ground contact trials of exterior joinery protection systems
1981 - IRG/WP 2157
Methods for testing the efficacy of preservative treatments for exterior joinery are described using the format of a European Standard. Commercially used treatments applied to jointed test units (L-joints) which are then protected by conventional finishes are exposed to normal outdoor hazards out of ground contact. Assessment is made a) by determining eventual failure through decay and b) by destructive examination of replicate treated and untreated units, after increasing time intervals, rating comparative performance in terms of wood permeability increase and the progress of microbial colonisation.
J K Carey, D F Purslow, J G Savory
JWPA method for testing effectiveness of surface coatings with preservatives against decay fungi
1981 - IRG/WP 2164
In 1979 JWPA established a new method for testing effectiveness of surface coatings in accordance with practical use of preservative-treated lumber. Comparing the new testing method with JIS A 9302, a few new trials - size of wood specimen, weathering procedure, and decay-test procedure - are incorporated.
A suggested method to test the toxicity of wood preservatives towards the house longhorn beetle
1977 - IRG/WP 275
This method was developed in the Institute for Wood Technology in Sarajevo, Yugoslavia and is used to get quick information on the toxicity of wood preservatives against house longhorn beetle (Hylotrupes bajulus). The method can be used for superficially treated or deeply impregnated wood blocks, and by using small or normal size test material it can be used as a laboratory or field test, and also for accelerated infestation of test material out of ground contact. The paper is given to the International Research Group on Wood Preservation as a suggested method which could possibly be used as a standard. Only the laboratory test method is described.
An evaluation method for less termite attack execution on thermal insulation for fundation walls
2002 - IRG/WP 02-20245
According to the results by the real scale Japanese building tests, the termite installation was observed at very little spaces between foundation and insulation. The termite penetration spaces between foundation and insulation on foundation systems in Japanese wooden houses were checked by the way of streaming speed of colored water. Because of difficulty for its execution, the parts of outside angles and reentrant angles in continuous foundation were more sensitive for the termite penetration. Special accessories of thermal insulation for these angles can be effective for lesser termite installation.
K Suzuki, Y Tanaka
A practical method to evaluate the dimensional stability of wood and wood products
1990 - IRG/WP 2342
This paper presents a new simple method to evaluate wood and wood products for their resistance to swelling and to assess wood preservatives for their ability to dimensionally stabilize treated wood exposed to water. Permeable wood of various dimensions and treated with different preserving chemicals have been measured for swelling in the radial and tangential direction during immersion in liquid water. The results indicate that a simple exponential function describing the dimension of the samples during immersion can be used to evaluate both the water-repellency and anti-swelling effectiveness of wood preserving chemicals. The results can be achieved in reasonable time, and the parameters of the function can be determined by a commercial desk-top computer program.
J P Hösli
Testing of wood preservatives against marine borers (Part 1). Method of testing wood preservatives against marine borers (Part 2)
1971 - IRG/WP 37
P C Trussell, C C Walden
Collaborative soft rot tests: PRL tests of Cu/Cr/As preservative using method of Document No: IRG/WP/208
1973 - IRG/WP 223
These tests were undertaken as a preliminary to the next series of collaborative soft rot tests. An interim report has already been presented at Berlin in 1972 as Document No: IRG/WP/211
J K Carey, J G Savory
Comparison of the agar-block and soil-block methods used for evaluation of fungitoxic value of QAC and CCA wood preservatives
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20039
The modyfied agar-block and soil-block methods were used for comparing the fungitoxic value of QAC and CCA type preservatives against Coniophora puteana and Coniophora olivacea The mass loss and moisture contents of wood were analysed.
J Wazny, L J Cookson
The proposal for the method of testing the phytotoxic effect of wood preservatives
2000 - IRG/WP 00-50163
Four methods of testing the phytotoxic effect of wood preservatives are proposed as the unified test by: - direct application of the preservatives to the test plants by spraying; - direct application of the preservative to the soil substrate; - indication plants growing in the vicinity of treated wood; - seed germination rate on the treated substrate.
J Wazny, P Witomski
A method of isolating actinomycetes from decayed wood
1974 - IRG/WP 126
This paper deals with a tentative method of isolating Actinomycetes from dacayed wood.
CEN Draft (38 N 460E) Standard: Test method for determining the protective effectiveness of a preservative in the marine environment
1986 - IRG/WP 4132
This European Standard describes a marine test method which provides a basis for asseasing the effectiveness of a wood preservative used to prevent attack of timber in sea-water by marine borers. The method is only suitable for testing preservatives which are intended to prevent attack by marine wood boring organisms of treated timber for use in more or less permanent contact with sea-water. It is not suitable for assessing the effectiveness of preservatives against micro-organisms. The main objective of the method described is to evaluate the relative effectiveness of a wood preservative applied by vacuum/pressure impregnation. For this reason permeable timbers are used throughout so that the protective efficacy of various retentions of the preservative can be determined. However, it is recognized that modifications of the method may be used for other purposes, e.g. to determine the relative efficacy of a preservative treatment or to determine the natural durability of the heartwood and sapwood of a selected timber species. The method is primarily intended for testing in temperate waters where Teredine and Limnoria borers dominate. However, it is also capable of being used in tropics where attack by Pholads and specific Crustacean borers may be very destructive. It has to be considered that the test has to be run for a minimum period (usually for 5 years or until the point of failure) before any interpretation of the results can be made. Variations in the test conditions can be expected from one test site to another depending on temperature, salinity, population density of the various borer species etc. This will inevitably influence the general rate of attack. However, by comparing the results obtained for samples treated with the test product with those obtained with a reference preservative and those obtained with untreated control samples, the relative protective effectiveness of the product tested can be evaluated.
Proposed standard laboratory method for testing fungicides for controlling sapstain and mould on unseasoned lumber
1977 - IRG/WP 292
This laboratory method is for determining the effective concentration, or concentration for zero growth (CGo), for fungicides or preparations of fungicides which are potentially useful in protecting packaged or unseasoned lumber in storage and shipment from biodeterioration by sapstain fungi and moulds. The test is rapid and may be completed in three weeks and gives a good indication of the toxicity of a chemical against sapstain fungi and moulds.
A J Cserjesi
Determination of the preventive efficacy against wood destroying basidiomycetes fungi, EN V 839 - CEN/TC 38 WG 9
1993 - IRG/WP 93-20015
The WG 9 of CEN TC/38 has presented to EC a mycological test to assess efficacy of preservatives applied by surface process. This method is now an experimental standard (EN V 839) which has to be approved by the different european delegations. The following paper is not the standard as it has been proposed but is a presentation of the principle of the method. The experimental standard specifies a laboratory method of test which gives a basis of the assessment of the preventive action of a wood preservative when applied as a surface treatment against Basidiomycetes fungi. This method is applicable to formulations of preservatives in a ready to use form (organic formulations, organic water-dispersible formulations, water-soluble materials). Series of susceptible wood species specimens are treated on longitudinal faces whith the preservative in test using brushing as surface procedure. Test specimens are then exposed by an intermediate mesh to feeder blocks infestedby pure culture of Basidiomycetes fungi in sterile conditions and penetration of fungi is assessed on cross section sawn in the samples at the end of the test.
A direct method for testing plywood and particle boards against fungal decay
1984 - IRG/WP 2214
A method directly inspired from the French standard testing method of the resistance of particle boards against fungal decay (AFNOR N° 51.295 May 1980) is described. But in that experimentation, the infestation is localized and realized in non sterile conditions. Small blocks of Fagus sylvatica (60 x 20 x 10 mm³) used as " inoculates " are infested with basidiomycetes, in Kolle flask for 4 to 6 weeks, then tightly pressed against the middle part of the test specimens (190 x 15 x 15 mm³). The lower part of the inoculates is plunged in vermiculite kept constantly humid by water containing a selective fungicide. After twelve weeks of exposure in non sterile conditions, in a green house with constant temperature around 20°C, the test specimens are then submitted to a static bending test until fracture. The comparison of the fracture-stress between control test specimens and the specimens exposed to wood rotting basidiomycetes permits to evaluate the resistance of the studied materials against fungal decay.
L N Trong
A novel method for delivering fluids into bolted wooden components.
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40280
The paper describes the development of a washer that enables fluids such as wood preservatives and adhesive resins to be delivered to bolted wooden components in-situ. The system was developed to meet the criteria of low cost and the ability to tolerate inaccurate drilling of holes in the wooden members.
G S Sawyer, B Tole
Treatment of fresh green round bamboos culms (Dendrocalamus strictus) by sap-displacement (wick) method
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40311
Sap displacement method has great potential for treating short length bamboos as it does not require any technical equipment. The process is simple and large nos. of bamboos can be simultaneously treated in relatively short period. There is no wastage of chemicals as the remnant solution reused. Bottom ends and middle portion had better treatment in compared to lop end portion. With increasing length of the flow of preservatives is impaired. The method culms can conveniently 3m length.
R Lal, C N Vani
Water-based wood preservatives for curative treatement of insect-infested spruce constructions
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30171
On laying down sanitation measures for wooden constructions infested by wood boring insects, we must take into account static risks for the construction - and, thus, for the security of the user - as well as risks for humans and environment due to the chemical preservative compounds of the treated wood. Analyses on many roof constructions made with spruce (Picea abies L.) have revealed that Hylotrupes bajulus L. and Anobium punctatum De Geer have not the significance given to them for decennies. That often allows to replace solvant-based with water-based wood preservatives in old buildings, for the protection of humans and environment. Therefore, a method has been developed in Switzerland for testing wood preservatives with delayed curative efficacy against the house longhorn beetle. Like the European Anobium Standard EN 370 this method intends to prevent the emergence of Hylotrupes beetles. Laboratory tests with diverse water-based wood preservatives available on the market in Switzerland have shown that particularly boron and benzoylphenylurea derivatives containing products get a sufficient penetration in the wood and prevent the emergence of the beetles.
E Graf, P Manser, B Lanz
Short-term field test method with accelerated infection of Basidiomycetes in wood
1981 - IRG/WP 2155
In the ŠIPAD - IRC Wood Protection Laboratory an attempt has been made to develop a simple short-term method for field testing out-of-ground contact wood using accelerated infections with Basidiomycetes. This method makes it possible to obtain a preliminary assessment of a preservative's quality and to estimate the possibility of achieving promising results in more expensive long-term tests. The idea was to use water traps (reservoirs) and 50 x 25 x 15 mm³ laboratory infected pine blocks as the substrate to improve the possibility of inoculation of L-joints.
Preservative treatment of Eucalyptus saligna fence posts by the double-diffusion method
1982 - IRG/WP 3196
Eucalyptus saligna fence posts treated by the double-diffusion method with two chemical combinations showed average lives of 11.2 years (copper sulphate and potassium dichromate at 10.5 kg/m³ retention)and of 14.3 years (copper sulphate and sodium mono-H arsenate at 7.1 kg/m³ retention), as determined in five test sites in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The exponential model was the best fit when expressing average life by the Decay Index (DI) as a function of time.
E S Lepage, A R De Freitas
A laboratory method for assessing the effectiveness of fungicides in preventing the spread of decay fungi within packages of unseasoned lumber
1983 - IRG/WP 2202
To study the deterioration caused by decay fungi in the laboratory, a method for testing fungicides for their effectiveness in preventing spread of decay was devised. Some experiments using this method are reported here.
A J Cserjesi, E L Johnson, A Byrne
Screening-method for the examination of the resistance against contact-insecticides of Lyctus brunneus Steph. beetles
1981 - IRG/WP 2148
A serie of filter-paper rondelles is treated with different concentrations of an organic insecticide dissolved in aceton. Beetles of Lyctus brunneus are put onto the dry surfaces. During the impact of the poison the knock-down is observed and after a following poisonfree holding, the knock-down and mortality are registred.
E Graf, B Lanz
Establishment of a laboratory method to characterise the ecotoxicity of a polluted soil
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-23
This method consists in using the underground grub of the Oxythyrea funesta beetle as a bioindicator of the soils pollution. Due to the significant tolerance of the organism, a large type of substrate of different nature and grain size could have been studied. We have tested substances and preparations such as wood preservation products even under powder or liquid form but also some wastes of different nature as well as samples of polluted soils. Quick ten days lasting and decisive test, the lecture criteria are from one hand acute, based on death rate but, on another hand subacute. The grubs, when they are used, are in a phase of high development since their weight can increase five times during the test period. The answer to the toxic substances is a drift of the weight variation which enable to obtain more precise results, with much lower doses than acute criteria allow. Taking into account the results already obtained as well as sensitivity, repetability and reproductibility terms, we consider the future of this method with optimism.