Your search resulted in 583 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
Proposed method for out-of-ground contact trials of exterior joinery protection systems
1981 - IRG/WP 2157
Methods for testing the efficacy of preservative treatments for exterior joinery are described using the format of a European Standard. Commercially used treatments applied to jointed test units (L-joints) which are then protected by conventional finishes are exposed to normal outdoor hazards out of ground contact. Assessment is made a) by determining eventual failure through decay and b) by destr...
J K Carey, D F Purslow, J G Savory
Performance of surface-treated hardwoods and softwoods out of ground contact
1990 - IRG/WP 3592
A number of fungicides were tested as brush treatments for protection of southern pine, Douglas-fir, maple, and red oak against decay above ground. Cross-brace and L-joint test units were treated just before assembly and exposed from 3-10 years. Untreated Douglas-fir cross-brace units were not decayed at either the Mississippi or Madison, WI, site. Untreated red oak cross-brace units were not deca...
T L Highley
Ground contact performance of wood treated by the MSU process
1990 - IRG/WP 3609
Environmental concerns have prompted a renewed interest in accelerated fixation schemes for CCA-treated wood. Results from stake tests of southern pine (Pinus sp.) treated using a conventional Bethell cycle are compared with matched stakes treated using the MSU Process. The effects of adding boric acid to the preservative formulation are also discussed. Differences among test plots are discussed....
H M Barnes, T L Amburgey, R W Landers
Performance of treated spruce in Canadian field test sites
1989 - IRG/WP 3506
Spruce material under test in Canadian field test sites is performing better than anticipated. From the comparison of the performance of spruce treated with various preservatives, it appears that penetration may be far more important on durability performance than the preservative itself or the retention of preservatives in the wood. However, there is still insufficient data on the influence of pe...
J P Hösli, E E Doyle
Long term performance of CCA preservatives in ground contact
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30223
Copper-chrome-arsenate (CCA) preservatives have been use extensively in New Zealand since the mid-1950s for a wide range of ground contact uses, radiata pine being the main species treated. They have been the subject of a comprehensive field testing programme in up to five sites in New Zealand, the earliest tests being established in 1955. Main factors affecting performance have been formulation t...
M E Hedley, D R Page, B E Patterson
Calculation of preformance index of Bardac 20 (an alkylammonium compound) evaluated in a field stake test
1982 - IRG/WP 3206
Bardac 20 treated stakes have been in test for three years at the Westham Island test site near Vancouver, B.C. The Performance Index for the preservative was calculated and found to be 0.009 which infers that, at the standard retention, Bardac 20 added 0.9 y to the life of the stake. It may be concluded that when tested using a standard field stake test using ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws)...
J N R Ruddick
The possible significance of the lignin content and lignin type on the performance of CCA-treated timber in ground contact
1988 - IRG/WP 1357
The lignin in wood samples of Alstonia scholaris, Octomeles sumatrana and a Simaruba species have been analysed. These timbers are characterised by a high lignin content and low syringyl:guaiacyl ratios. Decay tests with two soft rot fungi showed that the timbers were less susceptible than timbers with a low lignin content and higher syringyl:guaiacyl ratios. Numerous data for field performance of...
T Nilsson, J R Obst, G F Daniel
Performance of copper-based wood preservatives in above ground and ground contact tests
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30057
The relative performance of a range of copper-based wood preservatives was compared using above ground and ground contact procedures. The data, accumulated after several years' testing, show that on an equivalent active ingredient basis, differences in performance of the preservative systems tested can vary quite markedly. The contribution of co-biocides to the overall performance of thes...
A F Preston, K J Archer, L Jin, W Metzner, D Seepe
Fungus cellar testing as an evaluation method for performance of treated timber in ground contact
2001 - IRG/WP 01-20227
A fungus cellar method for the accelerated evaluation of performance of treated wood in ground contact is described. The test soil comprised of sandy loam, vermiculite and Japanese horticulture soil "Kanumatsuchi" in a ratio of 6:2:2 by volume. The soil was inoculated with the dominant test fungus isolated with selective medium from decayed wood samples. Pairs of treated and untreated wood specime...
Co-operative work on the performance of treated timber in ground contact
1975 - IRG/WP 344
At the 6th meeting of The International Research Group on Wood Preservation in Vienna, it was decided to approach all interested parties in order to: collate available information, set up collaborative work and to stimulate research on the performance of treated timber, especially hardwoods, in ground contact. In recent years, considerable concern has been expressed about the performance of preser...
D J Dickinson, J F Levy
Relative performance of copper/chrome/boron (CCB) and copper/chrome/arsenate (CCA) in ground contact
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3694
The performance of four retentions each of an oxide CCA formulation and a salt formulation of CCB in radiata pine and European beech was compared after 18 years' field exposure. In radiata pine CCA oxide was more effective (4 failures out of 40) than CCB (9 failures out of 40). However, in European beech CCB was substantially more effective (22 failures) than CCA oxide (all failed). Analy...
M E Hedley
L-joint trials: Part 2: The relationship between colonisation by decay fungi and long-term performance
2002 - IRG/WP 02-20251
Many of the L-joint trials conducted at BRE were assessed during the early stages to establish the rate of colonisation by fungi, principally basidiomycetes. At that time, a system of assessment incorporating colonisation studies was proposed for inclusion within the European Standard EN 330 but was rejected for the final version of the standard. The long-term trials associated with the colonisa...
J K Carey
L-joint trials: Part 3: Relative performance of a range of preservative products
2002 - IRG/WP 02-30292
Long-term trials using the L-joints described in BS EN 330 and AWPA Standard E9-97 have been in progress at BRE since 1982. This paper records the current assessments of decay of L-joints in trials started between 1982 and 1994 with treatments applied to both Scots pine sapwood (Pinus sylvestris) and spruce (Picea sp.). Data are provided on a range of active ingredients including TnBTO, PCP, a...
J K Carey
Alternatives to CCA for ground contact protection of timber: a perspective from UK on performance and service life expectations
2002 - IRG/WP 02-30289
The proposed amendment to the European Union's Marketing and Use Directive (1976/769/EEC) in respect of arsenic in CCA wood preservatives seeks to restrict the use of CCA across the European Union. CCA is an extremely important wood preservative in the UK from the manufacturing of the product to the extent of use of CCA-treated timber. Based on our experience and judgement on the use of ...
E D Suttie, A F Bravery, T B Dearling
A laboratory technique to measure the performance of preservative treated hardwoods in ground contact
1982 - IRG/WP 2172
A laboratory technique to measure the performance of preservative treated timber in ground contact is described. It uses partially sealed blocks of timber which are treated, leached and sawn into small stakelets for soil exposure in a fungal cellar. Performance is monitored by the loss of static bending strength with time, and a simple apparatus for measuring the deflection of a stakelet under a l...
E F Baines
The field performance of CCA-C treated sawn refractory softwoods from North America
1997 - IRG/WP 97-40085
Approximately 15% of the total volume of wood treated in the United States consists of difficult to treat softwoods known as "refractory softwoods". The long term positive performance record of CCA treated sawn material is based upon the testing of yellow pine sapwood stakes with only limited field data available for sawn refractory softwoods. As a result, the existing North American wood preserva...
M J Richards, W S McNamara
L-joint trials: Part 1: Observations on the process of colonisation and decay
2002 - IRG/WP 02-20250
The first trials using the small L-joint, later adopted for use in BS EN 330 and AWPA Standard E9-97 were exposed at BRE in 1975 but all were assessed destructively during the early stages of exposure. The longest running trial which included replicates for long-term exposure will have been exposed for 20 years in July 2002. This paper provides an overview of the results of testing during that p...
J K Carey
Performance of different treatments and finishes on wood out of ground contact. Preliminary results
1984 - IRG/WP 2221
Pinus and Eucalyptus L-joints treated with CCA, a water dispersable PCP and untreated ones were painted according to seven different finish's schedules and exposed at two sites in State of Sao Paulo. After ten months of exposure, it was possible to verify that preservative treatment improve the performance of both wood and finish. It was also possible to observe that wood substrate, prese...
Performance of preservative-treated wood not in ground contact
1975 - IRG/WP 254
Experimental sash units of Pinus strobus L. and Pinus resinosa Ait. wood were removed from a test fence at Ottawa, Canada after outdoor exposure of over 20 years. The units were superficially treated, prior to painting, with preservatives containing either copper naphthenate, pentachlorophenol or a combination of zinc naphthenate and pentachlorophenol. Results indicated that all treatments were ef...
J K Shields, J Krzyzewski
Pentachlorophenol and tributyltin oxide - the performance of treated Pinus radiata after 12 years' exposure
1986 - IRG/WP 3361
Pinus radiata samples were impregnated with a range of light organic solvent preservatives and copper/chrome/arsenic salt and exposed with no surface coating both in and above ground for 12 years. Inspection of the test samples revealed that some formulations of light organic solvent preservatives will give good fungal protection and reduce splitting in Pinus radiata exposed externally without a s...
R S Johnstone
Performance of copper-chrome formulations in ground contact in five test sites in New Zealand
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30113
Copper-chrome-arsenate (CCA), copper-chrome-boron (CCB), copper-chrome-fluoride (CCF) and copper-chrome-phosphate (CCP) have been tested at four retentions each in ground contact (25 x 50 x 500 mm³ radiata pine sapwood stakes) for 16 years in five test sites in New Zealand. Results to date show that test site characteristics have a marked effect on relative performance. In a warm and wet site (an...
M E Hedley, R N Wakeling, J Foster, B E Patterson
In ground performance of wood treated with a substituted isothiazolone
1990 - IRG/WP 3612
Isothiazolones (I.T.A.'s) are a class of biocides that have potential for use as wood preservatives. The substituted ITA, RH-287, (4,5,dichloro-2-n-octyl-isothiazolone-3-one) is being evaluated as a broad spectrum wood preservative. The evaluation program includes in ground stake tests which were established at two test sites in Mississippi, USA The tests used southern yellow pine treated...
L E Leightley, D D Nicholas
Performance criteria for approving new wood preservatives for ground contact
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20021
Protocols for testing novel formulations prior to approval or registration as wood preservatives are being developed in a number of countries, e.g. Australia, New Zealand, USA. One aspect which must be addressed is the effectiveness in tests relative to that of currently approved formulations which would be acceptable to approving authorities. It is assumed that natural exposure testing is a prere...
M E Hedley
Performance of preservative-treated timber commodities in above-ground service tests
1995 - IRG/WP 95-20064
Service tests established by NZ FRI are of commodities where treatment has been undertaken in commercial plants and although such data as preservative uptake of individual items is recorded and sample analysis undertaken, material is usually "run-of-mill" for the commodity being treated. The NZ FRI Service Test database includes a wide range of preservative/species combinations in virtually all ab...
M E Hedley, D R Page
Benzalkonium chloride (an AAC preservative): Criteria for approval, performance in service, and implications for the future
1985 - IRG/WP 3328
The data base generated for benzalkonium chloride was considered adequate for commercial approvals, particularly after revision in late 1982. Field trials, although not part of the approval criteria, generally supported commercial use; decay observed in one test (post and rails) after 6 years' exposure would have resulted in some caution in setting retentions. No laboratory trial, nor fie...
J A Butcher