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Field trials of groundline remedial treatments on soft rot attacked CCA treated Eucalyptus poles
1983 - IRG/WP 3222
A total of 17 CCA treated Eucalyptus poles, which were found to contain 2-5 mm of soft rot in October, 1980, were reinspected in October, 1982. In 1980, 11 of the poles were given a supplemental groundline bandage treatment of either Osmoplastic or Patox, while 6 of the poles were designated as untreated controls. Two years after remedial treatment, samples were removed from the poles for microscopic observations and for chemical retention analysis. It was found that the remedial bandage treatments were effective in preventing any further advance of soft rot. Based on the positive results of this study, a treatment efficacy of five years or longer is predicted.
W S McNamara, R J Ziobro, J F Triana

Performance of groundline bandage remedial treatments in western US species transmission poles
1993 - IRG/WP 93-30019
Groundline bandages are an important element in remedial treatment strategies for utility poles in the United States. Several bandages containing new or reformulated components have recently been developed but have not been adequately tested. This paper reports on the degree of diffusion of copper naphthenate, boron, and sodium fluoride from groundline bandages into pressuretreated Douglas-fir, ponderosa pine, and western redcedar transmission poles that have been in service for several years. All components diffused well into the wood over the 2 year test period, although the degree of diffusion varied between components. Amine-based copper naphthenate diffused to a higher degree than did oil-based copper naphthenate. Boron and sodium fluoride moved to the greatest extent and continued to increase in concentration during the second year. The results were comparable to similar tests in untreated pole stubs and indicated that these new bandages should perform well in most Western United States pole species which had received a primary preservative treatment.
P G Forsyth, J J Morrell

Soft rot penetration - Effect of groundline maintenance treatment on poles in sevice
1983 - IRG/WP 3263
R S Johnstone

Progress towards controlling soft rot of treated hardwood poles in Australia
1977 - IRG/WP 289
H Greaves

Fungi associated with groundline soft rot decay in copper/chrome/arsenic treated heartwood utility poles of Malaysian hardwoods
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1567
Copper-chrome-arsenic treated heartwood from Malaysian hardwood utility poles in service for 8-23 y at two localities in the wet tropical Peninsula Malaysia were surveyed for soft rot in the ground-contact region. Soft rot decay was detected in all the poles. Isolation studies indicated the ability of a variety of microfungi and basidiomycetes to colonize treated heartwood. Most isolates exhibited variable soft rot ability based on a combination of soft rot tests. A few of the isolates formed soft rot cavities (decay types 1 & 2) and belonged to genera previously found associated with soft rot decay. In particular, isolates of Chaetomium globosum and Phialophora occurred frequently on the surface of sampled poles, while Paecilomyces variotii occurred at all sampling depths from the wood surface. It appeared that soft rotting ability of selected isolates (determined from both mass loss and dilute alkali solubility of degraded native cellulose) was affected by the choice of incubation temperatures.
A H H Wong, R B Pearce, S C Watkinson

Groundline treatments for poles - Wedding Bells S.F. test site layout
1983 - IRG/WP 3259
R S Johnstone

Ten year field test with a copper-borate ground line treatment for poles
1993 - IRG/WP 93-30017
A wood preservative paste consisting of borax and copper naphthenate has been tested to determine its efficiency in protecting wood from decay fungi and insects. The paste was applied to polyethylene-backed wraps that were fastened to the below-ground portions of unseasoned southern pine pole stubs. After 4 years of exposure in Mississippi, the untreated control stubs were completely deteriorated. The below-grade portions of the treated stubs remained sound after nearly 6 years of exposure due to movement of copper and diffusion of the borate throughout the cross section. Borate and copper also moved vertically in the stubs and was present in sufficient amounts to protect sections of the stubs as high as 3 feet above grade. After 9 years of exposure, the below-grade portions of the treated stubs had limited areas of decay and no termite damage; the majority of the cross section remained sound. Wood analysis indicated that concentrations of borate in the sound areas were about 1/10 the estimated toxic threshold. A visual examination and push test indicated that the treated stubs continued to be protected at groundline after 10 years of exposure. It is hypothesized that the continued protection of the below-grade portions of the stubs against both decay fungi and subterranean termites is the result of copper-borate complexes that have formed in the wood.
T L Amburgey, M H Freeman

Fully impregnated poles for a minimum environmental impact: Eucalyptus poles
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-24
The classical processes for preservation of wooden poles (vacuum-pressure and Boucherie processes) allow the impregnation of the sapwood only. The new radial-axial injection process has been applied to Eucalyptus poles, and has led to impregnation of both sapwood and heartwood. Further more; preserving product is injected both through the groundline area and through the bott end. This allows the two entrances to benefit from a very high retention of antiseptic.
L Nitunga

Diffusion of chromium and fluoride in Rentex treated creosoted pole sections
1991 - IRG/WP 3659
A chromated fluoride preservative was applied by injection to the groundline regions of creosoted distribution pole sections and these were erected at a filed site in Scotland. Wood samples were recovered for chemical analysis at one week, two, five and twelve months after treatment. Small sample mass and destructive nature of the analysis necessitated modification of an alkali fusion technique to allow a single analysis for both fluroide and chromium. This paper details the methodology employed and reports on the extent to which diffusion of chromium and fluoride has occurred. The implications on the efficacy of the preservative formulation for use in distribution poles is discussed.
D C R Sinclair, G M Smith, A Bruce, B King, H J Staines

Failure of overhead power transmission and telecommunication poles in Tanzania: Causes, preventive and remedial measures
1988 - IRG/WP 3465
Unless measures are considered urgently to combat massive pole failures occuring in service, it is likely that wooden poles may soon become unpopular. Consequently, pole users may be forced to use costlier alternatives such as underground cables and concrete or steel poles. In trying to countercheck this trend, this paper names the main agents of pole failure, discusses different models of pole failure and suggests possible control measures for each.
K K Murira

The economics of saving standing wood poles. Labour saving system for pole groundline retreatment
1980 - IRG/WP 3160
This paper consists of 3 contributions First: There are still people who consider wood poles a disposable commodity much the same as paper cups and toilet paper. The idea of conservation is still new in this field, but soon conservation will be a necessity. Only two percent of the forest recources of North America are being replaced. What does it mean? We will run out of poles a lot sooner than oil. Wood poles are a renewable resource, but not in our lifetime. It takes more than 50 years for a tree to grow to pole size. Second: A new high speed labour saving system has been developed for applying, without excavation, pentachlorophenol preservative grease from 4 inches above to 14 inches below the groundline of standing wood poles. This equipment utilizes preservative grease under pressures of up to 3,000 psi as the hydraulic medium to drive, with a 7,000-pound force, a perforated spade into the soil surrounding a pole and deposit preservative in contact with the pole. Ontario Hydro experience with 47 of these machines over six years is detailed. Third: Current groundline treatment techniques employed by Ontario Hydro using a 10 percent pentachlorophenol gel will produce in creosoted or PCP-oil treated pine poles, pentachlorophenol retentions which exceed the toximetric threshold by 2-5 times after 8 years exposure. There is no significant difference in the results obtained by either the spade or bandage procedures.
W V Inkis

Electricity pole treatments - Wedding Bells State Forest. Inspection September 1983
1985 - IRG/WP 3334
A survey to study the extent of soft rot in hardwood poles in N.S.W. was commenced in 1975. The results of the survey, published in 1982, indicated that a number of factors contributed towards soft rot attack on poles in service. A detailed rest on pole treatments and maintenance procedures was established in 1976, at a site in Wedding Bells State Forest near Coffs Harbour. The site selected was known to have a high fungal and termite hazard. The layout of the pole stubs and treatments given at this and subsequent installations is shown in Appendix 1. Inspections of the poles are being carried out on a regular basis, the last inspection being in September, 1983. A representative number of poles were also examined from those installed and treated in March and October, 1979, and November, 1980. Interest stimulated by these tests has resulted in an increasing number of local and overseas suppliers of protective applications to poleswanting to test their products at this site, the last new installation being in October, 1983.
R S Johnstone, R H Eldridge

Effects of chemicals used for ground-line protection of hardwood poles on termite attack
1988 - IRG/WP 1356
The majority of chemicals formulatet to protect the groundline of hardwood poles in Australia have been fungicides. Nine products were tested against Coptotermes lacteus attack to determine their value in preventing attack by subterranean termites. Results indicated that Busan, high temperature creosote, pigment emulsified creosote, copper naphthenate gel and "Blue 7" had a repellent effect on Coptotermes lacteus, while "Blue 7" had toxic consequences.
R S Johnstone, R H Eldridge