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The growth and behaviour of Australian isolates of dry rot fungi, mainly Serpula lacrymans (Schum. ex Fr.) S.F. Gray. A comparision with the world literature
1983 - IRG/WP 1190
In Australia Serpula lacrymans occupies a rather unique environment, being restricted to growth within basal regions of buildings containing masonry. Its rate of timber attack in these situations appears to be far faster than that experienced in other parts of the world. Therefore the question arises as to how Australian isolates (particularly 16508 which has become a "standard" test fungus for soil jar tests carried out in recent years in this laboratory) compared with other isolates. This paper reports data on growth rates, decay rates and wood moisture contents. Though one isolate shows temperature effects on growth which are inconsistent with Serpula lacrymans, the others do conform to Serpula lacrymans in terms of the effect of different growth media, optimal growth temperatures, rates of growth, haploid versus diploid decay rates, moisture contents of decaying wood and survival after exposure to unfavourable conditions.
J D Thornton, O Collett


Growth of the copper tolerant brown rot fungus Antrodia vaillantii on different substrates
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10121
In recent years the copper tolerant brown rot fungus Antrodia vaillantii caused severe damages on impregnated wood in ground contact. The pattern of decay gave the impression that impregnated wood was even more severely attacked than unimpregnated. To investigate this question more closely laboratory tests were carried out. In a "choice test" Antrodia vaillantii grew preferably towards CC-impregnated wood. Furthermore, when adding nutrients to the specimens, the mass loss of impregnated wood significantly increased, while the nutrients did not affect the mass loss of the unimpregnated wood. In addition, the temperature tolerance of the fungi increased slightly when growing on impregnated wood. It could also be shown that Antrodia vaillantii reacts with an increased production of oxalic acid to the presence of a CC preservative.
H Leithoff, I Stephan, M-T Lenz, R-D Peek


The effect of certain wood extractives on the growth of marine micro-organisms
1977 - IRG/WP 438
S E J Furtado, E B G Jones, J D Bultman


The restricted distribution of Serpula lacrymans in Australian buildings
1989 - IRG/WP 1382
Temperature data has been gathered over a number of years, not only for flooring regions of various buildings in Melbourne, but also within roof spaces and external to the buildings. Findings are discussed in relation to the distribution of Serpula lacrymans within Australia, its restriction to certain types of building construction and its restriction to flooring regions. The subfloor spaces of badly-ventilated, masonry buildings are highlighted as being better suited than are the subfloor spaces of, for example, Japanese buildings for the activity of this fungus. Hence Serpula lacrymans is very restricted in its distribution in Australia, yet where it is active it does grow rapidly and causes rapid flooring failures.
J D Thornton


Influence of different fixation and ageing procedures on the leaching behaviour of copper from selected wood preservatives in laboratory trials
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20264
The paper focuses on the role of different parameters, such as fixation, sample size, wood species, and leaching in internationally standardized ageing procedures for wood preservatives from Europe, Japan and the United States. The leaching protocols used were EN 84, JIS K 1571 and AWPA E11 protocols. The wood species were Scots pine, Sugi and Southern Yellow Pine respectively. Three types of commercially important copper-based wood preservatives were used as model formulations, namely copper/copper-HDO, ammoniacal copper/quat and CCA. The most important factors determining the extent of copper leaching in the different lab trials were the sample size (volume/surface ratio) and the fixation conditions prior to leaching. On the other hand, the wood species and the leaching protocol itself were found to have only minor influence on the copper leaching rate in the test methods included in this study.
J Habicht, D Häntzschel, J Wittenzellner


The dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans. Examples of attack and remedial treatment
1988 - IRG/WP 1347
The film deals with several aspects of dry rot attack and eradication in buildings. The detailed biology and morphological charasteristics of the fungus are portrayed. The various forms of mycelial growth, the role of the strands in the nourishment and spread of the fungus, as well as the many types of fruitbody formation are outlined. Environmental and nutritional requirements of the fungus as well as the potential infection danger posed by the basidiospores are discussed. The second part of the film, outlining the main reasons for dry-rot attack and spread in building together with the significant damage caused, shows the full extent of the problem to expert and lay-person alike. The necessity of correct survey and inspection of decayed areas to determine the full range of attack is stressed. Examples of various remedial treatments and the present technological state of eradication techniques, e.g. pressure injection, in Germany are discussed.
G Buchwald, B M Hegarty, W Metzner, R Pospischil, H Siegmund, P Grabow


Detection of feeding behaviour of termites using AE monitoring
1991 - IRG/WP 1514
Using acoustic emission (AE) monitoring, the feeding activity of the termite inhabiting a wood specimen was investigated. The amplitude and the rate of AE from the specimen of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki was larger than that of Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe. The AE event rate was higher in the specimen with soldiers than without soldiers. The AE event rate decreased according to the resistance of wood specimens against termite attack.
Y Imamura, M Tokoro, M Owada, Y Fujii, M Noguchi


Monographic cards for wood-destroying fungi. [Fiches monographiques pour les champignons lignivores]
1970 - IRG/WP I 5B
C Jacquiot


Acoustic communication between Microcerotermes crassus Snyder
1982 - IRG/WP 1158
An unusual acoustic communication within a nest of Microcerotermes crassus SNYDER is reported. The signals produced by the termites are described and possible reasons for this behavior are considered.
U Kny


Temperature influence on the growing velocity and cellulolytic activities of Poria placenta strains from several locations
1986 - IRG/WP 2263
The differences observed on the FPRL 280 Poria Placenta strain at several Research European Laboratories for determining up the fungicide effectiveness of wood preservative has carry us to do a comparative study about the cellulolytic activity and growth velocity of each of this strains at different temperatures (22, 24 and 28°C). The results show significative differences when the temperature is changed.
A M Navarrete, M T De Troya


Studies on the infestation behaviour of the powder-post beetle Lyctus brunneus (Steph.) and its physical control in the wood yards of the Caspian forests of Iran
1985 - IRG/WP 1271
Lyctus brunneus (Steph.) is a pest which has not been previously thoroughly studied in Iran. It severely attacks Iranian hardwoods, especially those used in wooden houses and that have not been treated. Research work was necessary to determine the natural resistance of the most important timber species in Iran against this insect.
P Niloufari


Über den Nagekäfer Oligomerus ptilinoides (Wollaston), Col., Anobiidae: Verbreitung und Einschleppung, Bestimmung, Lebens- beziehungen und Befallsmerkmale mit Vergleichen zu Nicobium
1980 - IRG/WP 1102
Oligomerus ptilinoides occurs in the Mediterranian and Black-sea area, in North-Africa and Asia minor as an important pest causing severe damage to dry wood. By travelling, by the immigration of people from south to north, and by accidental introductions the species tends to establish itself north of the Alps. Severe damage has recently been observed in two museums. An account is given of aspects of taxonomy, the pattern of attack compared with that of Nicobium hirtum and Nicobium castaneum, of the anatomy of the larvae, on symbiosis, and on behavioural features of the beetles.
S Cymorek


Influence of moisture content of rubber wood on the growth of Botryodiplodia theobromae
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10029
Botryodiplodia theobromae is the main fungus causing sapstain on rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis). The entry and establishment of the stain fungus is nighly influenced by the moisture content of the wood. To determine the optimum moisture content of wood required for maximum growth of Botryodiplodia theobromae wood blocks at different moisture contents were inoculated with the test fungus and incubated for a period of two weeks. The study showed if the moisture content of the wood was reduced to less than 24%, the wood can be protected from fungal sapstain.
E J M Florence, R Gnanaharan, J K Sharma


Feeding preference behaviour of Crytopermes cynocephalus Light and Coptotermes curvignathus Holmgren on twenty-eight tropical timbers
1985 - IRG/WP 1251
A study on the feeding preference behaviour of a dry-wood termite Cryptotermes cynocephalus Light and a subterranean termite Coptotermes curvignathus Holmgren on 28 species of tropical timbers has been conducted. The weight-loss of individual timber and the mortality of termite was·recorded after 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 days of exposure. The results reveal that there are only five species among 28 species of wood which are completely repellent to both the dry-wood termite Cryptotermes cynocephalus and the subterranean termite Coptotermes curvignathus. These five wood species are Dalbergia latifolia, Eusideroxylon zwageri, Intsia bijuga, Lagerstromia speciosa and Tectona grandis. There are eight wood species which are repellent to Cryptotermes cynocephalus and seven wood species which are repellent to Coptotermes curvignathus. There are also only seven wood species which are completely arrestant or highly arrestant to both species of termite. Agathis alba and Mangifera indica are classified as highly arrestant to both the dry-wood and the subterranean termites. Other species are classified between moderately repellent to highly arrestant.
Nana Supriana


Treatment behaviour of fresh and inservice catamaran logs
2001 - IRG/WP 01-30255
Catamaran is a conventional fishing craft fabricated by lashing 4 - 6 shaped logs of soft timber together. Over 73,000 of these craft fabricated out of 165,000 m3 of wood are in use along the vast east coast of India. Each craft lasts for 5-7 years. Over 15,000 m3 of timber is required annually for repairs and replacements of the craft. Such huge demand exerts enormous pressure on the resources. It is apt, therefore, to extend the practice of wood preservation to the catamaran sector and conserve the precious raw material. In order to achieve this objective, our Institute took up technology demonstrations way back in 1968. However, because of illiteracy and socio-economic constraints of the traditional fishermen, the efforts did not catch up well. Under these circumstances, as a renewed measure of propagation, treatment of 3 each of fresh as well as inservice catamarans was taken up some time ago. The results of pressure impregnation of these six catamarans made of Albizia falcataria timber with copper-chrome- arsenic (CCA) preservative were analyzed to understand the preservative absorption of the constituent logs. The study revealed that there was no significant variation in the total quantity of chemical absorbed among the fresh as well as inservice catamarans that served for three different periods prior to treatment . However, significant difference was noticed between all the fresh catamarans clubbed as one group and the inservice craft as another group. The CCA absorption ranged from 13.52 to 15.30 kg.m-3 averaging at 14.60 kg.m-3 in the fresh craft and 18.65 to 22.10 kg.m-3 averaging at 20.42 kg.m-3 in the inservice catamarans. Also, each constituent log of the six catamarans differed in its chemical content from the other. The analysis proved that it is possible to treat the inservice catamarans and achieve good preservative retentions.
V Kuppusamy, M V Rao, M Balaji, K S Rao


Influence of storage on mould susceptibility of wood at relative humidity values lower than 100%
1989 - IRG/WP 1413
It is well known that wood material changes with time because of different environmental influences. The effects of such changes on the subsequent mould susceptibility are less known. In this paper we report on increased mould susceptibility of pine wood after storage. Mould growth was detected by indirect methods.
J Bjurman


Report on the status of collaborative experiments within the Sub-group on Basidiomycete tests
1983 - IRG/WP 2194
This report summarises the results of co-operative work carried out within the Sub-Group on Basidiomycete tests up to December 1982. The principle findings are recorded in the Conclusions Section. Work intended between IRG-13 in Turkey and IRG-14 in Australia is cited under Future Programme. An Annex provides a response sheet for existing and new participants to notify their contributions.
A F Bravery


Blue-stain fungi (Ceratocystis spp.) found in Spain on pine woods
1989 - IRG/WP 1410
So far, there is only a very limited reported description of the different Ceratocystis spp. present on fresh wood in Spain. So, the main goal of this work has been the identification of species of this genus causing blue-stain on Pinus pinaster A. Ait. and Pinus sylvestris L. woods. We have also investigated the relationship between the species found and their propagation vectors (insects and wind). Finally, we have determined the growing velocity of two of the most representative species found and the presence or absence of degradative enzymatic activities.
M T De Troya, A M Navarrete


Research on the effects of wood preservatives on the physical and mechanical properties of Iranian beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky)
1985 - IRG/WP 3351
This research work was conducted with the aim of using preservatives such as Basilit and Wolman Salts with Iranian beech and to study any physical and mechanical changes these might have on the beech species of Iran. Samples were divided into three groups; one group were used as untreated controls, the second group was treated with Basilit and the third group was treated with Wolmanit. Results obtained according to the AFNOR French system of standards were: (1) After 140 days the moisture content of each group had reached 7.3%. (2) Samples with Wolmanit absorbed twice as much as those with Basilit and the two groups has some differences in specific gravity. (3) The volumetric shrinkage of wood preserved with Wolmanit was one fifth of that treated with Basilit. (4) In bending tests the samples treated with Wolmanit had more strength up to point of rupture than those preserved with Basilit. (5) The modulus of elasticity was more in samples preserved with Basilit than in those preserved with Wolmanit. (6) In compression parallel to the grain the samples impregnated with Basilit had more resistance than in those impregnated with Wolmanit. (7) In tension tests, the samples preserved with Basilit were stronger than those treated with Wolmanit. (8) In impact bending tests, the Basilit samples were stronger than the the Wolmanit ones. (9) In hardness tests, the resistance to indentation was less with the samples treated with Basilit than with those treated with Wolmanit; the Basilit seems to make the wood softer and from this result this type of treated wood could be recommended for use by carpenters and in woodworking shops.
P Niloufari


Characterisation of growth and stain of different groups of sapstain fungi on lodgepole pine
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10326
Canada is the world's largest exporter of softwood lumber. These softwood shipments are susceptible to a variety of wood-inhabiting fungi that can lead to sapstain discolouration, which in turn decrease the product value. Furthermore, the presence of these microorganisms may be unacceptable to the importing countries. The objective of this work is to assess the sapstaining capability and basic nutrition of thirty-four fungi isolates representing nine species that were isolated from sawmills across western Canada. The isolates were infected onto fresh lodgepole pine billets and assessed for staining ability, longitudinal growth, host-nutrient consumption, and host viability. The results indicated that the most aggressive saptain species on fresh logs was Ceratocystis coerulescens, followed consecutively by Leptographium spp, Ophiostoma minus, O. piliferum, O. piceae, Ophiostoma spp (D and E) and Aureobasidium pullulans. Preliminary HPLC analysis of soluble sugars indicated that mannose was the free monomer carbohydrate of choice for most of the staining fungi, followed by glucose. Arabinose and galactose were not well utilised. Gas chromatography of infected wood extracts that Leptographium sp. and C. coerulescens significantly reduced the triglyceride fraction.
C Fleet, C Breuil, A Uzunovic, A Byrne


Molecular studies on isolates of Serpula lacrymans
1989 - IRG/WP 1421
The major protein species present in detergent extracts of 14 different Serpula lacrymans isolates have been compared, by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), with a standard strain, viz. Serpula lacrymans FPRL 12C. Following silver staining of SDS gels the major protein species identified in 12 isolates were similar to those found in the standard strain. However differences were found when the final two isolates were compared with FPRL 12C, both isolates had extra molecular species not present in 12C and both were lacking some present in the standard strain. Comparison of the protein species identified in Serpula lacrymans isolates with those identified in extracts of other fungal organisms, viz. brown and white rot causing basidiomycetes and non-basidiomycetes indicated that the Serpula isolates were more similar to each other than to other organisms. Some molecular differences could be identified when individual isolates were cultured on different media, i.e. liquid culture or agar, only minor differences were seen when individual isolates were subcultured. These results indicate that whilst care must be taken to ensure as near identical conditions as possible for culture of organisms if their molecular species are to be compared by SDS-PAGE and silver staining, consistent results can be obtained using this technique. The technique may therefore offer a method of distinguishing between isolates, strains and species of wood decay basidiomycetes, and identifying new isolates.
A Vigrow, D Button, J W Palfreyman, B King, B M Hegarty


The effect of didecyldimethylammonium chloride on growth of different strains of mould fungus Gliocladium roseum
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10105
The tolerance and degrading ability of different strains of Gliocladium roseum towards didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) were studied. All four of the strains of Gliocladium roseum were tolerant to DDAC and after their growth on amended malt agar, the retention of DDAC in the medium was reduced.
Yu Zheng, J N R Ruddick


Theoretical and practical experiments with eradication of the dry rot fungus by means of microwaves
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1577
Engineer Claus Andersen constructed a device in 1986 for microwave treatment of fungal infested timber. The device was tested on ampullae with live fungal mycelium of the dry rot fungus. A 10 minutes treatment at 37°C gave satisfactory eradicating effect. The method has since been used in practice in approximately 100 instances. A spot-test control has shown satisfactory results.
J Bech-Andersen, C Andersen


Sex pheromone of the male house longhorn beetle Hylotrupes bajulus (L.) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10100
Since 1990 studies have been conducted with respect to the chemical communication of the house longhorn beetle Hylotrupes bajulus (L.) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). The structure of glands located in the prothorax of the beetles was examined with light and scanning electron microscopy. The analyses of different extracts from beetles resulted in the finding and identification (GC-, GC/MS-, and HR-GC/MS-studies) of specific substances derived from the prothoracal glands: (3R)-3-hydroxy-2-hexanone, (2R,3S)-2,3-hexanediol and (2R,3R)-2,3hexanediol. In wind tunnel experiments, unmated female beetles were attracted over a distance of 1m by males, headspace extracts of males, the 3 major components of the glands as well as by the synthetic blends of the components. Thus, the bioassays revealed the initiation of premating behaviour by emission of a long-range sex pheromone from the male prothoracal glands. The pheromone functions as activator, attractant and possibly aphrodisiac for unmated females. Further studies are conducted with respect to disturbance and prevention of mating behaviour of Hylotrupes bajulus in the attics of houses by using pheromone traps.
U Noldt, R Fettköther, F Schröder, H Meyer, K Dettner, W Francke, W A König


Effects of some essential oils on wood destroying organisms
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10047
Three wood destroying fungi: Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat. (stain), Gloeophyllum sepiarium (brown rot), and Pycnoporus sanguineus (white rot) were exposed to six plant essential oils: the peppermint, kaffir lime or leech lime, lavender, tarragon, holy basil, and the eucalyptus. The peppermint oil showed most effective to inhibit fungal growth, while eucalypus oil was the least effective. The other oils inhibition rate varied according to the species of fungi. In the experiment of the powder post beetles Heterobostrychus aequalis Waterh., the insects were killed within three days in the oil of tarragon, eucalyptus and holy basil, while in lavender oil they could live to ten days the same as controls. But on the contrary in the oil of peppermint and kaffir lime, some of them could even lived longer than the controls.
K Atisongkroh, C Anantachoke, P Lekuthai, S Pensook, T Kittirattrakarn


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