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Temperature influence on the growing velocity and cellulolytic activities of Poria placenta strains from several locations
1986 - IRG/WP 2263
The differences observed on the FPRL 280 Poria Placenta strain at several Research European Laboratories for determining up the fungicide effectiveness of wood preservative has carry us to do a comparative study about the cellulolytic activity and growth velocity of each of this strains at different temperatures (22, 24 and 28°C). The results show significative differences when the temperature is changed.
A M Navarrete, M T De Troya

Research on the effects of wood preservatives on the physical and mechanical properties of Iranian beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky)
1985 - IRG/WP 3351
This research work was conducted with the aim of using preservatives such as Basilit and Wolman Salts with Iranian beech and to study any physical and mechanical changes these might have on the beech species of Iran. Samples were divided into three groups; one group were used as untreated controls, the second group was treated with Basilit and the third group was treated with Wolmanit. Results obtained according to the AFNOR French system of standards were: (1) After 140 days the moisture content of each group had reached 7.3%. (2) Samples with Wolmanit absorbed twice as much as those with Basilit and the two groups has some differences in specific gravity. (3) The volumetric shrinkage of wood preserved with Wolmanit was one fifth of that treated with Basilit. (4) In bending tests the samples treated with Wolmanit had more strength up to point of rupture than those preserved with Basilit. (5) The modulus of elasticity was more in samples preserved with Basilit than in those preserved with Wolmanit. (6) In compression parallel to the grain the samples impregnated with Basilit had more resistance than in those impregnated with Wolmanit. (7) In tension tests, the samples preserved with Basilit were stronger than those treated with Wolmanit. (8) In impact bending tests, the Basilit samples were stronger than the the Wolmanit ones. (9) In hardness tests, the resistance to indentation was less with the samples treated with Basilit than with those treated with Wolmanit; the Basilit seems to make the wood softer and from this result this type of treated wood could be recommended for use by carpenters and in woodworking shops.
P Niloufari

Report on the status of collaborative experiments within the Sub-group on Basidiomycete tests
1983 - IRG/WP 2194
This report summarises the results of co-operative work carried out within the Sub-Group on Basidiomycete tests up to December 1982. The principle findings are recorded in the Conclusions Section. Work intended between IRG-13 in Turkey and IRG-14 in Australia is cited under Future Programme. An Annex provides a response sheet for existing and new participants to notify their contributions.
A F Bravery

Molecular studies on isolates of Serpula lacrymans
1989 - IRG/WP 1421
The major protein species present in detergent extracts of 14 different Serpula lacrymans isolates have been compared, by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), with a standard strain, viz. Serpula lacrymans FPRL 12C. Following silver staining of SDS gels the major protein species identified in 12 isolates were similar to those found in the standard strain. However differences were found when the final two isolates were compared with FPRL 12C, both isolates had extra molecular species not present in 12C and both were lacking some present in the standard strain. Comparison of the protein species identified in Serpula lacrymans isolates with those identified in extracts of other fungal organisms, viz. brown and white rot causing basidiomycetes and non-basidiomycetes indicated that the Serpula isolates were more similar to each other than to other organisms. Some molecular differences could be identified when individual isolates were cultured on different media, i.e. liquid culture or agar, only minor differences were seen when individual isolates were subcultured. These results indicate that whilst care must be taken to ensure as near identical conditions as possible for culture of organisms if their molecular species are to be compared by SDS-PAGE and silver staining, consistent results can be obtained using this technique. The technique may therefore offer a method of distinguishing between isolates, strains and species of wood decay basidiomycetes, and identifying new isolates.
A Vigrow, D Button, J W Palfreyman, B King, B M Hegarty

The effect of didecyldimethylammonium chloride on growth of different strains of mould fungus Gliocladium roseum
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10105
The tolerance and degrading ability of different strains of Gliocladium roseum towards didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) were studied. All four of the strains of Gliocladium roseum were tolerant to DDAC and after their growth on amended malt agar, the retention of DDAC in the medium was reduced.
Yu Zheng, J N R Ruddick

A new laboratory technique devised with the intention of determining whether, related to practical conditions, there should be a relationship between growth rate and decay capacity (of different strains) of Serpula lacrymans
1989 - IRG/WP 1384
Most laboratory techniques for the determination of growth rate not only use a medium (agar) unrelated to practice, but also yield values that are often far less than those found in practice. Also, most laboratory techniques for the determination of decay capacity ensure that the whole of a small test block becomes fully surface-colonised within the first few days; whereas in Australian practice Serpula lacrymans most often grows in one direction, from the walls across floorboards, with resulting collapse first evident near the ends of boards adjacent to that wall. This paper reports on a new, medium-scale, laboratory technique enabling growth rate measurements and (subsequently) a decay capacity measurement, all using the same piece of timber. Eight strains of Serpula lacrymans have been used in the three evaluation experiments carried out to date. Mean values for growth rate on wood have been suitably high, probably as high as for the most favourable practical situations. Resulting mass losses have, as was intended, been reduced in comparison with values previously obtained in small-scale techniques. This direct technique has confirmed the conclusions that others have made based on their comparisons; that it seems unlikely that the pattern of differences between growth rates of different strains has any consistent similarity with their corresponding decay capacities.
J D Thornton

Effect of mineral wools on growth and decay capacities of Serpula lacrymans and some other brown-rot fungi
1991 - IRG/WP 1481
The influence of stone wool and glass wool on growth and decay capacities of Serpula lacrymans and some other brown-rot fungi was studied. Mass losses of pine wood caused by Serpula lacrymans and Gloeophyllum trabeum were increased when stone wool was present. Glass wool had no influence on mass losses. Coniophora puteana, Serpula lacrymans and Gloeophyllum trabeum grew into stone wool and destroyed it easily to powder. Poria placenta did not even grow into stone wool to a noticeable degree compared to the other.
L Paajanen, A-C Ritschkoff

An initial evaluation of the environmental impact of potential marine biocides
1978 - IRG/WP 441
Pilings and other structures in the marine environment are protected primarily by impregnation with creosote alone, or in combination with coal tar or waterborne preservatives such as copper-chrome-arsenate. Some of these materials are considered as possible ecological hazards and face an uncertain future; perhaps newly developed treatments to replace these conventional ones will pose different problems. Today, for a toxic substance to be approved by cognizant government regulatory agencies it must undergo an extensive evaluation to determine its impact upon the environment. Consequently an initial assessment of the potential environmental impact must be determined for all compounds which have shown promise against marine borers and fungi in our investigations. This has been accomplished by determining their toxicity to marine algae which are the primary producers in the food chain. The principal organism used for this purpose has been Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin, but Cyclotella nana and Chaetoceros galvestonensis have also been used.
J D Bultman, P J Hannan

Variation in natural durability of British grown Douglas fir ((Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco). Part I. Effect of density and growth rate
2002 - IRG/WP 02-10445
Seed origin trials of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) in Britain have provided important information on growth differences between origins (Lines, 1987), but the variation in wood properties between origins has not been reported. The present paper describes a study of the variation in natural durability against two brown rot fungi (Coniophora puteana and Postia (Poria) placenta) and in a fungal cellar test between four seed origins of Douglas fir. In addition to natural durability, tree diameter, heart-, sap- and total cross-sectional areas, density, bending properties, extractive content and composition were determined to examine their effect on natural durability. The effects of extractive content and composition on durability are discussed in a second paper (Part II: Effect of extractive content and composition). The proportion of the total variation in natural durability explained by differences between seed origins and differences between trees within origins were estimated to indicate the potential of tree breeding programmes for modifying this wood property. (Poria) placenta) and in a fungal cellar test between four seed origins of Douglas fir. In addition to natural durability, tree diameter, heart-, sap- and total cross-sectional areas, density, bending properties, extractive content and composition were determined to examine their effect on natural durability. The effects of extractive content and composition on durability are discussed in a second paper (Part II: Effect of extractive content and composition).
S Akhter, M D C Hale

Respiration measurement of dry-rot
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10095
Methods for measuring the production of carbondioxide from wood infected with the dry-rot fungus were evaluated. By enclosing whole wood blocks and measuring the concentration of gas in the headspace by gas chromatography, an exponential increase in the concentration of CO2 was observed for at least 2 months. This technique could therefore present a method for evaluating various treatments of dry-rot in the laboratory. Collecting headspace gas from GC-vials inserted in drilled holes in infected wood showed an increase in CO2 concentration for 2 weeks, whereafter it decreased. This method will be evaluated for use in naturally infected timber in buildings to measure the activity of attacks where the viability of the fungus is in doubt. A specific growth rate of 0.037 days-1 for dry-rot in infected wood was calculated. It was also shown that the growth of dry-rot was inhibited by either CO2 partial pressures higher than 100 mbar or O2 partial pressures lower than 100 mbar.
L Toft

Blue stain in service on wood surface coatings. Part 1: The nutritional requirements of Aureobasidium pullulans
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1556
The nutritional requirements of Aureobasidium pullulans was examined with regard to nutrient sources that are potentially available in fresh and weathered wood. The study was designed to determine how far wood cell wall components need to be broken down during weathering before they provide a useful nutrient source for Aureobasidium pullulans. Various carbon sources were tested, with eight different isolates of Aureobasidium pullulans. It was found that the organism could utilise the simple sugars well, but not the oligosaccharides. The organism was also able to utilise well several lignin precursor compounds.
P R Sharpe, D J Dickinson

Variations in the virulence of test strains of Coniophora puteana (Schum ex Fr) Karst
1982 - IRG/WP 2185
In laboratory experiments using petri-dishes and small wood blocks (30 x 10 x 5 mm³) 6 different isolates of Coniophora puteana strain BAM 15 were compared with strain FPRL 11E for growth rate and decay capability. Only the recently received strain from EMPA was suitably active giving 24% weight loss after 6 weeks compared with 38.1% for 11E. Collation of data from standard test records revealed all weight losses for 11E as exceeding 20% whereas only 11 of 21 results for BAM 15 exceeded 20 per cent.
A F Bravery, J K Carey, W Worley

Characterization of Poria indoor brown-rot fungi
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10094
The heterogeneous group of "Poria" fungi causing brown rot in buildings and also of wood in ground contact comprises Antrodia vaillantii, Antrodia serialis, Antrodia sinuosa, Antrodia xantha and Tyromyces placenta. These fungi have similar morphological appearance and biology. Their nomenclature has a confusing history and is still not uniform. As a consequence, misinterpretations may occur. SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed a species-specific protein pattern for different cultures of Antrodia vaillantii separating the species from the other pore fungi as well as from Coniophora puteana and Serpula lacrymans. Electrophoresis also detected misidentifications. Investigations on growth rate, response to temperature, copper tolerance and wood decay revealed: Radial growth extension reached from 4 to 9 mm/d. Temperature optimum was 25 to 31°C. All withstood 1 hour at 60°C and some even 3 h at 65°C. Antrodia vaillantii was copper tolerant up to 0.05 M Cu. Wood weight loss after 20 weeks was higher by Tyromyces placenta (35%) and Antrodia sinuosa (33%) than by Antrodia xantha (21%), Antrodia serialis (16%) and Antrodia vaillantii (14%). Dual cultures revealed various inter- and intraspecific interactions and detected identity of differently coded cultures of a species. The former Poria vaporaria sensu Liese 'Normstamm II' for testing wood preservatives and the recent Poria placenta EN 113 strain FPRL 280 were shown to be either identical or at least sister monokaryons originating from the same individual.
O Schmidt

The effect of added nutrients on growth rate and decay capacity of Serpula lacrymans
1990 - IRG/WP 1427
At the previous meeting a new technique was presented that enables both fungal growth rate and wood decay rate to be measured using the same timber specimen. The technique (IRG/WP/1384) has previously been carried out with 1% malt as the sole nutrient within the small jar that provides the inoculum for this method. Results presented here relate to an additional level of 5% malt, with or without a nitrogen source in the form of ammonium sulphate at either 0.01 g or 1.0 g per litre. Two isolates of Serpula lacrymans (one of European and one of Australian origin) were used at a temperature setting of 20°C. The linear growth front was measured, on the 200 mm long specimens of Pinus radiata sapwood, between 10 and 21 days after the specimens were introduced to the inoculum. Mass loss values of these same specimens were determined after 12 weeks' exposure. Replication comprised three specimens, within each of three large jars, of each treatment. For both strains, increasing the malt level caused some reduction in growth rate, with the addition of nitrogen resulting in no further growth rate changes. In contrast, mass loss of timber was increased for both strains at the higher malt level. Furthermore, for each of the two malt levels tested, the mass loss due to both strains was further increased at the high nitrogen level.
J D Thornton, A McConalogue

A comparative analysis of Coniophora olivacea (Fr. ex Pers.) Karst. and Coniophora puteana (Schum. ex Fr.) Karst. test strains
1993 - IRG/WP 93-20004
Investigations were carried out to compare pure cultures of Coniophora olivacea (Fr. ex Pers.) Karst. used as a test fungus in Australia and other Pacific countries, and Coniophora puteana (Shum. ex Fr.) Karst. which is used in Europe. Comparisons included morphology, growth rate and dry mass of mycelium, decay capacity, influence of temperature, toxic value of CCA and quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) in both an agar-plate method (ED50, ED100, LD100), and a modified agar-block method. The fungi were found to be similar in many respects.
J Wazny, L J Cookson

A comparison of fungal strains used in the bioassay of wood preservatives
1984 - IRG/WP 2220
Previously published data are presented relating to a number of strains of wood-destroying basidiomycetes (Coniophora puteana, Coriolus versicolor, Gloeophyllum abietinum, Gloeophyllum sepiarium, Gloeophyllum trabeum, Lentinus lepideus, Poria placenta, Fibroporia vaillantii and Serpula lacrymans) commonly used as test fungi in the bioassay of wood preservatives. The data, which has not been statistically compared, consists of mycelial growth rates, decay capacities, and toxic values using agar, agar-block and soilblock methods based on data published over a period of almost 50-years. In many cases a large variation can be observed between strains originating from the same geographical region and between strains from different climatic-geographical zones. The differences between individual sub-cultures of the same strain, as used in various laboratories - or even in the same laboratories - are noted. Many of the published bioassay methods contain insufficient detail to make statistical assessments. Therefore, the authors have not attempted a definitive comparison of the numerous data. A proposal is presented to organize an international resource of pure cultural strains used as test organisms in bioassays of wood fungus may be dictated by local requirements.
J Wazny, H Greaves

Penetration of oil-borne preservatives in American elm
1975 - IRG/WP 355
Pressure treatment of elm posts and cants by Rueping schedules resulted in erratic penetration. Instead of the expected gradual decrease in retention from surface inward in posts, inner zones frequently contained more preservative than the surface quarter inch. Heartwood was found penetrated when sapwood was not. There were numerous skips in treated zones. The prevalence and possible causes were investigated in an effort to find a remedy. The things investigated were effects of: 1) uneven growth rate in the outer zone of posts, 2) growing site, 3) eccentricity and width of growth rings, 4) intermediate wood 5) moisture content, 6) use of initial air pressure or not in treatment, 7) wetwood, 8) tension wood, 9) grain direction of preservative penetration and 10) anatomy of wood. Of these, only intermediate wood, use of initial air, wetwood and wood anatomy seemed to have an effect. The influence of intermediate wood and wetwood is probably minimal but might have some effect.
E A Behr

A comparison analysis of eight strains of Serpula lacrymans (Schum. ex Fr.) S.F. Gray
1991 - IRG/WP 2362
Investigations were previously carried out to compare eight strains of Serpula lacrymans (Schum. ex Fr.) S.F. Gray (some used in various countries as standard test strains): FPRL 12C (England), FPRL 12E (Germany), Warsaw III (Poland), HFP 7802 (Japan), DFP 16508, 16509, 16521 and 16522 (Australia). Studies included growth rate and dry mass of mycelium, decay capacity, reduction of compression strength, toxic values of CCA and NaPCP tested with agar-plate method (ED50, ED100, LD100) and a modified agar-block method using mass-loss and reduction of compression strength criteria. All of the data obtained are presented here together for the first time, in both table and graphic formats. Further comparison between these results will be presented later (in the final part of the series in 'Holzforschung').
J Wazny, J D Thornton

Comparison of bluestain fungi growing in vitro and in vivo
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10149
Both moulds and bluestain fungi cause serious economic losses for forestry and timber processing industries and much research is aimed at finding environmentally and economically acceptable methods of control. It is especially important to study the growth of these fungi in freshly cut wood, which has been unaltered by drying or sterilisation, and which therefore resembles the substratum they would normally invade under natural field conditions. To meet this objective the growth of six sapstain fungi was compared at 20°C in freshly cut pine billets and on three types of artificial media (MEA, TWA and Pine Sapwood agar). The fungi comprised Ceratocystis coerulescens, Leptographium wingfieldii, Ophiostoma minus, Ophiostoma piceae, Potebniamyces coniferarum and Sphaeropsis sapinea. The six species varied markedly in their linear growth rate on agar media. In pine billets, they extended at different rates in longitudinal, radial and tangential directions, showing different pathogenic ability, patterns of colonisation and capacity to stain wood or kill bark. Some species appeared to be 'xylem preferring' while others appeared to colonise the phloem tissue more readily. Interestingly, the growth of Ceratocystis coerulescens in pine billets was more then two times faster than on MEA, suggesting it was strongly stimulated by the living pine tissue. In addition, there was an indication that the fungi grew more slowly in logs cut in January than in the summer.
A Uzunovic, J F Webber, D J Dickinson

Effect of growth rate and radial position on the natural durability of Douglas-fir
2012 - IRG/WP 12-10791
In terms of natural durability, Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) fame owns to the favourable characteristics of centuries-old trees harvested in old-growth North American forests. The properties of wood coming from plantations harvested between 50 and 100 years-old are likely to be different. In such stands, plantation density and thinning intensity may have a large impact on the trees growth rate. Since this parameter is known to affect some properties of the wood, it was decided to assess to what extent an increase in Douglas fir growth rate affects the natural durability of its wood. This issue is indeed poorly documented in the scientific literature. This parameter was evaluated on standardized heartwood specimens taken from 60 trees originating from 10 stands in Wallonia (Southern Belgium). In all these stands, the average girth of the trees ranged between 140 and 160cm, whilst their age (from plantation) ranged from 38 to 66 years old: These stands are thus representative of very contrasted silvicultural management practices. In terms of individual growth, the Mean Ring Width of the trees ranges between ca 3 and 7mm. Globally, 600 tests specimens were taken from two radial positions in the heartwood of each tree. Half of the specimens were taken in the heartwood at the border of the sapwood; the other half encloses the 20 years old ring, counting from the pith. The mass losses caused by the wood decaying fungus Poria placenta were assessed according to Cen/ts 15083-1 (2005).The natural durability of the wood is discussed as affected by sites, trees, radial positions in tree and tree growth rate.
C Pollet, J-M Henin, B Jourez, J Hébert

The effect of certain wood extractives on the growth of marine micro-organisms
1977 - IRG/WP 438
S E J Furtado, E B G Jones, J D Bultman

The restricted distribution of Serpula lacrymans in Australian buildings
1989 - IRG/WP 1382
Temperature data has been gathered over a number of years, not only for flooring regions of various buildings in Melbourne, but also within roof spaces and external to the buildings. Findings are discussed in relation to the distribution of Serpula lacrymans within Australia, its restriction to certain types of building construction and its restriction to flooring regions. The subfloor spaces of badly-ventilated, masonry buildings are highlighted as being better suited than are the subfloor spaces of, for example, Japanese buildings for the activity of this fungus. Hence Serpula lacrymans is very restricted in its distribution in Australia, yet where it is active it does grow rapidly and causes rapid flooring failures.
J D Thornton

The dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans. Examples of attack and remedial treatment
1988 - IRG/WP 1347
The film deals with several aspects of dry rot attack and eradication in buildings. The detailed biology and morphological charasteristics of the fungus are portrayed. The various forms of mycelial growth, the role of the strands in the nourishment and spread of the fungus, as well as the many types of fruitbody formation are outlined. Environmental and nutritional requirements of the fungus as well as the potential infection danger posed by the basidiospores are discussed. The second part of the film, outlining the main reasons for dry-rot attack and spread in building together with the significant damage caused, shows the full extent of the problem to expert and lay-person alike. The necessity of correct survey and inspection of decayed areas to determine the full range of attack is stressed. Examples of various remedial treatments and the present technological state of eradication techniques, e.g. pressure injection, in Germany are discussed.
G Buchwald, B M Hegarty, W Metzner, R Pospischil, H Siegmund, P Grabow

Influence of moisture content of rubber wood on the growth of Botryodiplodia theobromae
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10029
Botryodiplodia theobromae is the main fungus causing sapstain on rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis). The entry and establishment of the stain fungus is nighly influenced by the moisture content of the wood. To determine the optimum moisture content of wood required for maximum growth of Botryodiplodia theobromae wood blocks at different moisture contents were inoculated with the test fungus and incubated for a period of two weeks. The study showed if the moisture content of the wood was reduced to less than 24%, the wood can be protected from fungal sapstain.
E J M Florence, R Gnanaharan, J K Sharma

Blue-stain fungi (Ceratocystis spp.) found in Spain on pine woods
1989 - IRG/WP 1410
So far, there is only a very limited reported description of the different Ceratocystis spp. present on fresh wood in Spain. So, the main goal of this work has been the identification of species of this genus causing blue-stain on Pinus pinaster A. Ait. and Pinus sylvestris L. woods. We have also investigated the relationship between the species found and their propagation vectors (insects and wind). Finally, we have determined the growing velocity of two of the most representative species found and the presence or absence of degradative enzymatic activities.
M T De Troya, A M Navarrete

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