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Chemical compositions and anti-termite activities of essential oils from Gabonese Canarium schweinfurthii Engl, Dacryodes buettneri Engl and Aucoumea klaineana Pierre wood resins.
2017 - IRG/WP 17-10895
Essential oil extract from resins of Canarium schweinfurthii, Dacryodes buettneri and Aucoumea klaineana woods from Cap Esterias and Oyem areas, Gabon, were prepared by Clevenger - steam distillation. The chemical compositions of these respective essential oils were analyzed by a Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Although monoterpenes were the main constituents of the three essential oils, each wood resins had a various essential oil yield after steam distillation process [6,92% (A. klaineana), 4,20% (C. schweinfurthii) and 13,19% (D. buettneri)] and their respective chemical compositions were slightly different. It results that monoterpenes, as α –pinene, o-cymene, alpha-phellandrene and D-limonene form the major constituents of terpenoides and phenylpropanoïdes compounds which are the most active substances against termite activity. The anti-termite activities of the three essential oils were evaluated, performing no-choice tests. 70 μL of each essential oil diluted in acetone with mass ratios of 50:50 and 25:75 [essential oil: acetone] were impregnated on Whatman papers and exposed to termite (Reticulitermes flavipes). Essential oil from Canarium schweinfurthii resin showed the strongest inhibitory activity against the termite with 100% mortality after 1 day at 50:50 and 25:75 concentrations followed by Aucoumea klaineana resin with the 100% mortality after 3 days at 50:50 and 25:75 concentrations. Finally, essential oil from Dacryodes buettneri resin showed the lowest termite resistance with 48.34 % and 58.34% mortalities after 14 days at 50:50 and 25:75 concentrations, respectively. The number of chemical components from each essential oil and their respective quantity, determined by GC-MS, are related to their anti-termite activity level.
Chemical compositions and anti-termite activities of essential oils from Gabonese Canarium schweinfurthii Engl, Dacryodes buettneri Engl and Aucoumea klaineana Pierre wood resins.

Improvement of some technological and biological properties of poplar wood by impregnation with aqueous macromolecular compounds
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3721
Poplars (Populus spp) belong to the most important tree species in afforestation programs of the Netherlands. Due to their rapid growth, the wood quality is usually low. Therefore, studies were performed to elucidate whether some technological properties and the resistance against fungal attack could be improved by impregnation with water-soluble resins. The results showed that swelling and shrinkage of poplar wood may considerably be reduced by a treatment with certain resins. The anti-shrink efficiency (ASE) strongly depends upon the resin type. An air-curing alkydresin based on polybutadiene and an air-curing acrylate modified alkydresin emulsion caused the best effects. Additions of wood preservatives to the resins further improved the ASE. Some disadvatages of the tested resins may be seen in their leachability with consequent loss of the dimension-stabilizing effects. The resins by themselves don't reveal fungistatic properties but an impregnation of poplar wood with these materials led in all cases to a better durability against Coniophora puteana and Coriolus versicolor. Leaching procedures influenced the durability in various ways. With resin/fungicide combinations, a good resistance against Coriolus versicolor could be reached even after leaching. SEM and EDXA methods were used to localize the resins in the cell walls and lumina and to detect the growth of mycelium in the specimens.
R D Peek, H Militz, J J Kettenis

Remedial treatments of glulam = diffusion of active ingredients through glue lines from solid wood diffusable preservatives
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30117
Diffusable preservatives are very suitable for use in remedial treatments of laminated beams in which too high moisture content involves the development of wood destroying fungi. The diffusion of active ingredients (boric acid, disodium octoborate, bifluoride) is well observed in solid wood but in a composite wood, the glue lines may appear not only as a barrier for the diffusion but also, may be mechanically affected by the diffused active ingredients. Shear tests were carried out on glulam specimens manufactured with different types of glues: resorcine (RF), ureaformaldehyde (UF), polyurethane (PUR) and polyvinylacetate (PVAc). Diffusion tests were also carried out in accelerated wetted glulam specimens with three diffusable solid preservatives differently exposed in the test samples. Results observed with boron compounds showed that their diffusion does not affect the mechanical resistance of the beams. In another hand, interesting results were obtained concerning the passage of boron and bifluoride through some types of glues. These results will contribute to the optimization of the remedial treatment of glulams.
D Dirol, S Mouras

Biological resistance of wood treated with waterbased resins and drying oils in a mini-block test
1998 - IRG/WP 98-40107
In recent years it was found that the resistance of wood against fungal degradation could be increased by impregnation with an etherificated melamine formaldehyde resin. Using this resin as a reference, a waterbased fatty acid modificated alkyd-resin and two drying-oils were assessed for their biological performance in a mini-block laboratory test. Although drying-oils, like linseed-oil, are often used as a binder in paints, little information is available about the resistance of wood impregnated with these oils against wood destroying basidiomycetes. The fungi used in this test were the brown rot fungi Coniophora puteana, Gloeophyllum trabeum and the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor. The results showed considerable less mass loss of the melamine resin and the drying oils treated wood compared to the untreated Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) controls. The mass loss of the oil treated specimens, however, was obviously depending on the fungus and the applied treatment and the wood species.
M Sailer, A O Rapp, R-D Peek

Influence of different resin treatments on the dimension stability of wood
1997 - IRG/WP 97-40090
The dimension stability of wood is considered to be an important contribution to its durability and its performance in practice. A number of different treatments have been developed to improve the dimension stability of wood. One applied method is the treatment of wood with monomers or resins. The application of appropriate impregnation conditions seemed to be essential to enhance the efficiency of the treatment with water based resins. Therefore, wood samples of the three wood species Pinus sylvestris L., Pinus radiata D. Don. and Fagus sylvatica L. were impregnated with four different resin systems to evaluate the influence of different parameters on the anti-swelling efficiency (ASE). Variation in diffusion time, initial moisture content and resin concentration revealed considerable differences in retention of the resins and the ASE.
M Sailer, A O Rapp

Improvement of intrinsic properties of wood by chemical wood densification - Hydrophobic aspects and durability aspects
1999 - IRG/WP 99-40149
To improve the intrinsic properties of Scot pine wood ((1) hydrophobic surface and (2) durability), two ways of chemical modification have been tested. The first one is the chemical modification of hydroxyl groups by active substances like diisocyanate compounds with a copolymerization step. The second way is a densification by an impregnation of resins and a gamma polymerisation. This second way is described and discussed in this paper The measured parameters are (1) the hydrophobic properties of the surface based on permeability measurements and (2) the biological durability against wood decaying fungi and (3) the weathering behaviour. Significant results are presented and discussed to promote another way of wood preservation based on densification by resins.
G Labat, Q K Tran, I Le Bayon

Effect of some resin treatments on fungal degradation reactions
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10318
The effect of impregnation of wood with vegetable oil, tall oil and two water soluble on fungal degradation reactions was assessed by hydrolysis and enzyme activity measurements. The experiments were carried out by using isolated enzyme preparations and a living brown-rot fungus Poria placenta. The results indicate that the inhibitory effect of treatments was clearly directec towards the enzymatic hydrolyzability of the hemicellulosic and cellulosic components of wood cell wall. The water soluble resins and tall oil treatments significantly decreased the ability of isolated enzyme preparation to hydrolyse treated wood substrate. The inhibitory effect of these treatments was focused on the degardation of arabinoxylan and cellulose components of the wood cell wall. The vegetable oil treatment did not significantly prevent the enzymatic hydrolysis of wood substrate. The resin and tall oil treatments seemed also to interfere the production and/or mode of action of hydrolytic degradation pathway of living brown-rot fungus P. placenta.
A-C Ritschkoff, M Rättö, A J Nurmi, H Kokko, A O Rapp, H Militz

New principles for the protection of wood: Impregnation with waterborne resins
1995 - IRG/WP 95-40047
The environmental impact of classical wood preservatives as well as the use of tropical wood species with high natural durability is regarded increasingly critically in the public. Therefore other partially new principles for the protection of wood, like chemical modification, or treatment with resins were examined especially in USA, Japan and in Europe with promising results predominantly in the lab scale. The work to be presented is focused on the feasibility to upgrade wood by a wide spectrum of water-borne resins under practical conditions of processing. The chemicals examined range from purely physically effective resins by hydrophobation and mechanical blockage up to such promising a chemical modification by their reactive groups. The behaviour of the resin solutions in a pressure process as well as the penetration parallel and orthogonal to the grain were investigated. Further, resin-uptake, improvement of hardness, and dimension stability, were examined. SEM studies are intended to show penetration pathways and linkage of the resins to the cell wall. Running tests on the investigation of the resistance against basidiomycetes and softrot fungi are not yet completed.
A O Rapp, R-D Peek

Preservatives stains as exterior wood finishes
1977 - IRG/WP 389
For many years wood preservatives and paints have been used as the only treatment for exposed wood surfaces. Because of the inherent color of the preservatives, such as creosote, the wood surface was stained as well as protected from attack by micro-organisms. Paints protect surfaces from weathering, but recently, with an increased interest in maintaining the more natural appearance of exterior wood surfaces, painting is being replaced by staining. Stains have the advantages, in addition to preserving the natural wood appearance, that they do not peel, blister or crack, can be applied easily and renewed with little difficulty. The cost is less than that of paint, initially and over the life of the building. One of the major attractions for homes is that stains blend in with the environment. If the home owner desires a white exterior or bright colors, paint rather than a preservative stain must be used. Paints are more effective in protecting the wood from damage by sunlight and will avoid discoloration of the exterior surface resulting from the natural extractives present in wood. Special aluminium or stainless steel nails are not needed with paints, but are needed with stains. Preservative stains can be classified in various ways. Wood preservatives, such as creosote and pentachlorophenol, have been used for many years primarily for preventing deterioration caused by fungi, including fungus species which discolor and those that decay the wood. These compounds provided some degree of water repellency, but this was not a major objective in their use. Later, water repellents were added to the preservatives to reduce the rapid uptake of moisture and thus provide some dimensional stability to the product. More recently water solutions of inorganic salts have demonstrated that they provide protection to the wood, add color and are beneficial primary treatments if the wood surface is to be painted. Some of the water soluble formulations may provide some fire retardant properties as well. A common system of classification today includes three general types of natural finishes as follows: 1. water-repellent preservatives; 2. pigmented penetrating stains; 3. inorganic water soluble salts. It is possible to obtain a satisfactory exterior surface if no treatment is applied. Such an approach, however, is satisfactory only where the weather is not favorable for micro-organisms. If the fungi and other micro-organisms are allowed to develop, the coloring will be very nonuniform, the wood surface will deteriorate, and warping and the like will occur to excessive degrees. Thus in most environments one of the above systems must be used.
D W French

Compatibility of deltamethrin with wood adhesives
1993 - IRG/WP 93-30031
This work presents the studies conducted on the compatibility of deltamethrin when mixed with wood adhesive to manufacture plywood in order to protect the wood against wood-borers insects and termites. The following types of adhesive were tested: PVA, Urea-formaldehyde, phenol-formaldehyde and a formulation based on tannin. The experiments were made in the adhesive manufacturers' laboratories, where the conditions to which the adhesives are submitted during the manufacturing process were simulated. To verify the effectiveness of the adhesive mixed with deltamethrin the block tests were exposed to subterranean termites, Coptotermes havilandi. The tests showed that the internal layers of the plywood made with adhesives based on PVA and Urea-formaldehyde were protected for 40 months.
A M F Oliveira

Bio-based thermoset resins for bonding and eco-friendly preservation in the wood industry
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40650
Yellow dextrins and tannins were used in wood adhesives formulation to substitute resins based on formaldehyde. Several formulations were carried out in alkaline aqueous media by varying the weight fraction of two compounds from 10% to 30%. The cross-linking was performed using epichlorohydrin as a reticulant agent. Rheological behaviours and initial adhesion of three liquid formulations, before reticulation, were carried out by probe tack test and Rheology to validate its process ability. The cross-linking of epichlorohydrin with yellow dextrins and tannins was highlighted in this study. The cross-linking was analyzed by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and by biodegradation of reticulated resins. Mechanical properties of resins were analyzed by shear strength test on plywood. Depending on formulations, results confirmed the high potential of yellow dextrins and tannins reticulated by epichlorhydrin, to glue wood. Moreover, the biodegradation tests of cross-linked samples showed that the network constituted by dextrins and tannins are resistant to fungal attack.
C Motillon, A Allal, A Visse, F Charrier, B Charrier, A Baldé

Decay resistance of beech wood and plywood treated with different type of phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resins
2016 - IRG/WP 16-40717
In this study treatment of beech and poplar wood veneers with (PF) resin industrial scale and screening tests of nine different phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resins were made. Specifically, the effect of different phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin types on the resistance of beech wood against brown- and white-rot fungi was evaluated. Criteria for selection of optimal (PF) resin were based on minimum WPG requirements to achieve equal durability class (1st durability class according to the EN 350 standard) against fungi. Therefore European beech (Fagus sylvatica) wood blocks (15x20x50 mm³) were vacuum impregnated to various weight percent gains (WPGs) with water-soluble PF resins. Different WPG levels were achieved by using aqueous resin solutions at concentrations of 9, 18 and 27 wt %. Treated wood blocks were exposed to brown-rot fungi (Gloeophyllum trabeum (G.t); Coniophora puteana (C.p)) and white-rot fungi (Trametes versicolor (T.v); Pleurotus ostreatus (P.o)) for 16 weeks. A WPG of approximately 8–14% was necessary for beech wood blocks for a treated with the resin C, D, I and E, but approximately 16% and 27% was necessary when using other resins as B, F, G, H, respectively. Irrespective from resin the required WPG for decay resistance against brown rot fungi was approximately 50-60% lower compared to decay resistance against white rot. No effect of resin on the resistance against (G.t) decay of wood blocks was observed, resulting in resin loadings of 7–8%, whereas the required WPG for (C.p) decay suppression slightly increased from 8 up to 11%, respectively. The results suggest that the magnitude of white fungal deterioration of treated wood is strongly affected by the resin used for treatment. Resin loadings from 7% to 17% against (T.v) and from 12% to 27% against (P.o) were required. This broad range in WPG may be due to varied fungal aggressiveness, filling of the cell wall micropores (bulking) and the stiffness (pliability) of the cell wall matrix. From aforementioned, two resins D and E were selected for treatment of beech and poplar veneers on industrial scale and resistance of treated plywood against white rot fungus (T.v) was evaluated according EN 12038 standard.
V Biziks, S Bicke, H Militz

Improvement of wood properties by impregnation with liquefied spruce bark based resins
2016 - IRG/WP 16-40761
In this paper, biobased phenolic thermosetting resins are designed to be used as wood stabilization treatment. The originality of the study stands in substituting part of phenol by spruce (picea abies) bark: this is achieved by a liquefaction process in phenol in the presence of sulfuric acid as catalyst. Next, thermosetting resins are synthetized from liquefied bark by condensation on formaldehyde and further used for impregnation in beech blocks and curing. Two kinds of spruce barks -unmodified and pretreated ones- are used as starting material and characterized. Concerning pretreatment, a hydrolysis has been applied to spruce bark in order to enhance phenolic part. Two liquefaction processes are compared: the first one a simple heating under reflux in presence of phenol. A second one consists in heating at 200°C in closed reactor in phenol/ethanol/water solvent (20/50/30). For the different systems attempted, liquefaction yields are determined and analyzed regarding FT-IR analysis. 91% yield was obtained for liquefied spruce bark under reflux, but the highest bark to solvent ratio (50%) was obtained for process lead in closed reactor. Reactivity of liquefied bark resins is found to be better than control phenolic-formaldehyde resin. Impregnations in beech (Fagus sylvatica) wood blocks are performed using different dried matter content (10%, 20% and 30%). After curing, weight percent gain (WPG), leaching rate, anti-swelling efficiency (ASE) and resistance to decay of different systems are compared. It is shown that liquefied bark based resins confers to wood significant dimensional stabilization and resistance to decay against brown rot and white rot fungi. Concerning the impact of the different processes attempted such as hydrolysis pretreatment or liquefaction at 200°C in closed reactor, final properties of treated wood are decreased compared to liquefied bark resins.
X Duret, E Fredon, E Masson, P Gérardin

Coula edulis baill an unknown wood species as an alternative to the main durable wood species used in Gabon
2019 - IRG/WP 19-10945
The Congo Basin hosts an exceptional biodiversity of trees, flora and fauna. However, the immense natural heritage of the forests in this area is increasingly threatened by many anthropogenic factors, due to selective exploitation of certain wood species. In Gabon, whose ecosystem is representative of this area, the forest represents nearly 80% of the national territory. Only a minority of wood species is exploited because of their high market value (Ageos, 2015). The direct consequences of this selective exploitation are the decrease of the disponibility and even the eventual disappearance of certain wood species associated to the fast-growing international tropical timber markets. This is the case for kevazingo, which is classified as an endangered species and therefore prohibited from exploitation. In addition to these main exploited species, several less known species are available in Gabon. This is the case of the Gabonese hazelnut tree (Coula edulis baill), whose wood is used by local populations for its longevity because of its resistance to fungi, insects and more particularly termites. It is used to make forge coal and is used in the construction of huts such as posts and lintels (Moupela C et al, 2010-2013). In this context, it seemed interesting to study more in detail this species, having for the moment been the subject of little scientific investigations. The aim of this study was to investigate the natural durability of Coula edulis and the reasons of this latter one based on wood chemical composition. For this purpose, durability tests were carried out in Petri dishes on native and extracted samples of heartwood towards brown rot (Poria placenta and Coniophora puteana) and white rot (Coriolus versicolor and Pycnoporus sanguineus) fungi showing that unextracted samples presented higher durability to fungi. Fungal growth inhibition tests carried out with different concentrations of extractives confirmed their important fungicidal effects. Percentage of the different wood polymers and chemical composition of wood extractives were evaluated to find correlation between durability and wood chemistry. Results indicated that natural durability of Coula edulis could be explained by several reasons like the high density and hydrophobicity of its wood as well as its high lignin and extractives contents. Chemical analysis performed on extractives by GC-MS indicated the presence of gallic acid, quercetin and tannins.
C S A Bopenga Bopenga, S Dumarçay, P Edou Engonga, P Gerardin

Biosourced hybrid phenolic resins as coatings for the protection of wood and wood composites
2019 - IRG/WP 19-30745
Biosourced phenolic resins, based on the phenol-formaldheyde (PF) type, were prepared for their application as coating for wood and wood composites protection, especially against fire. The resins were synthesized by combining an organic polymeric matrix with another inorganic phase. The organic phase was prepared substituting phenol by natural phenolic compounds such as lignin and tannins. The inorganic phase was composed of a nanoclay or a nanosilicate to improve the properties and performance of the resin. Different formulation were elaborated to evaluate the influence of the different components in the final properties and applications of the resins. A physical-chemical and thermal characterization (DSC and TGA analyses) of the resins was carried out prior to their application to determined their properties and thus assess their suitability as coating for wood protection. They showed promising properties especially regarding thermal degradation (the addition of the inorganic phase improved the resins performance). After their characterization, they were tested as coating in two different wood species (pine and beech) and the fireproofing properties were assessed. It was confirmed that the utilization of the resins containing inorganic phase as coating did increment the amount of wood remaining after fire exposure and delayed the time of ignition of the combustion.
P L de Hoyos-Martínez, R Herrera, J Labid, F Charrier El Bouhtoury

Promoting Commercially Available Epoxy Resins for Non-biocidal Wood Preservation
2019 - IRG/WP 19-40877
Commercially available epoxy and polyamine resins were evaluated with the aim of developing new non-biocidal wood preservation treatments. A simple method allowing the impregnation of wood by vacuum double impregnation followed by a curing process was developed for two reference species, beech Fagus sylvatica and Scots pine Pinus sylvestris. The tested products were evaluated for their ability to improve wood’s physico-mechanical properties, such as the anti-swelling efficiency (ASE) and resistance against biological agents (fungal decay, termites, marine borers). The weight percent gain (WPG) measured throughout the experimental steps was used to optimise the treatment parameters (such as dilution of the resins, curing temperatures, impregnation sequence). The best performing treatments demonstrated highly improved resistance against fungal decay, termites and marine borers, unusual patterns of attempted termite attacks being observed. Observations conduced on the termites’ and marine borers’ behavior suggest that the treatment applied to wood induces a starving effect and thus provides an indirect protection to the treated wooden samples. SEM analyses of the treated wood samples were also performed in order to determine if the polymers impregnated into wood tend to cure inside of the wood cell walls. These analyses demonstrated that wood polymers could be cured inside impregnated resin and then protected against water-related and biological damage. The last tests performed demonstrated that improving the penetration into wood cell walls of less concentrated products/polymers and optimizing the post-curing step are major issues for improving the resistance against fungal decay.
P Poveda, M Mubarok, S Dumarcay, M Montibus, I Le Bayon, M Kutnik, P Gerardin, F Simon

Danish wood preservatives approval system with special focus on assessment of the environmental risks associated with industrial wood preservatives
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-01
The following is a description of the procedure used by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency to assess the environmental risks associated with preservatives used in the pressure impregnation of wood. The risk assessment covers issues considered to be of significance for the environment and which are adequately documented so as to allow an assessment. Such issues are persistence and mobility in soils, bioaccumulation and the impact on aquatic and terrestrial organisms. Unless required in special circumstances, the assessment does not apply to birds and mammals as the normal use of preservative treated wood is not expected to involve any noteworthy exposure of these groups. Approval of wood preservatives will be based on a general assessment of the environmental risk associated with the normal use of wood treated with the preservative in a realistic worst case situation. The assessment may address other aspects such as disposal and total life cycle.
J Larsen

Data sheet on wood-boring insects. Apate monachus Fabricius. 2. Position systématique, nomenclature, identification et distribution - Espèces végétales attaquée
1981 - IRG/WP 1105
R L A Damoiseau

Confocal laser scanning microscopy of a novel decay in preservative treated radiata pine in wet acidic soils
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10215
Light microscopy of radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) field test stakes (20x20x500mm3) exposed in wet acidic (pH 3-4) soil for 12 - 24 months showed predominance of an unusual type of decay characte-rised by tunnelling attack of wood cell walls. After two years decay was moderate to severe in wood treated to ground contact CCA specifications and also equivalent retentions of creosote, and a number of new generation preservatives. Relative to other New Zealand temperate test sites and also an Australian tropical site, the New Zealand acidic soil test site was very aggressive. Correlative scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) were used to elucidate the micromorphology of this attack. Tunnels of diameter 0.2-5 µm were present throughout all layers of the cell wall, and their orientation was not related to cellulose microfibril orientation. They also showed no preference for particular cell wall layers, indicating a lignin degrading capability. CLSM images showed that living, connecting fungal hyphae were present in the cell lumina and tunnels. This type of attack was predominant in wood that was highly saturated with water whereas wood that was less moist was predominantly attacked by classical white rot. Ongoing isolation and incubation studies in conjunction with further microscopy should enable identification of the fungal species involved.
R N Wakeling, Ying Xiao, A P Singh

Effect of acetylation on decay resistance of wood against brown-rot, white-rot and soft-rot fungi
1989 - IRG/WP 3540
Effect of acetylation on decay resistance of wood was investigated using wood blocks of Cryptomeria japonica, Pinus densiflora, Albizia falcata and Fagus crenata. Blocks were treated with uncatalyzed acetic anhydride for different lengths of time and exposed to Tyromyces palustris, Serpula lacrymans, Coriolus versicolor and unsterilized soil. The action of OH-radical on acetylated wood was also examined using Fenton's reagent. The enhancement of decay resistance by acetylation was revealed clearly for all cases of exposures but varying with fungal and wood species used. For a brown-rot fungus Tyromyces palustris, the weight loss reached almost nil in all woods at 20 WPG (weight percent gain) of acetylation, after the striking decrease from 10 to 15 WPG. For a white-rot fungus Coriolus versicolor, it was counted until 12-15 WPG in the perishable hardwoods used, but not in a softwood Cryptomeria japonica, even at 6 WPG. In cases of another brown-rotter Serpula lacrymans and soil burial, effect of acetylation was intermediate between Tyromyces palustris and Coriolus versicolor. Anti-degradation mechanism by acetylation was discussed, from these weight loss - weight gain relationships, and the IR-and 13C-NMR spectral analyses of fungus-exposed wood.
M Takahashi, Y Imamura, M Tanahashi

The IRG..Chanelling information and ideas into the mainstream of wood preservation technology
1985 - IRG/WP 5241
IRG Secretariat

Wood preservation in Poland
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30362
Dynamic growth of market demand for wooden elements and articles, generated in Poland increase of interest in industrial preservation. Today, Poland is a substantial producer and exporter of wood made products. Majority of exported wood - approximately 70% - is scotch pine (Pinus silvestris L.), which, due to its natural durability, requires preservation.
A Kundzewicz

Wood preservatives: Field tests out of ground contact. Brief survey of principles and methodology
1976 - IRG/WP 269
This paper contains the following spots: 1.: The general need for field tests. 2.: Interests and limits of field tests in ground contact. 3.: Various methods in use for out-of-ground contact field tests. 4.: Fungal cellar tests are they an alternative to above-ground decay exposure tests? 5.: Conclusions.
M Fougerousse

The effect of certain wood extractives on the growth of marine micro-organisms
1977 - IRG/WP 438
S E J Furtado, E B G Jones, J D Bultman

Management of the wood and additives wastes in the wood processing industries: Problematics and technical answers review
1996 - IRG/WP 96-50073
Management pathways for pure wood subproducts are well known and used; but as soon as additives like preservatives, glues, varnishes or coatings are present within the wood wastes, their disposal or valorization becomes more tricky. The different kinds of mixed wood wastes of the wood processing industries, from the sawmill to the furniture manufacture, are identified herewith and their diversity is examined. These wastes can be classified according to their danger characteristics, taking into account the type of additives, their concentration, their availability for the environment, the physical state of the waste. Different disposal pathways are then considered. Combustion, with the possibility of energetic valorization seems the best answer for a major part of these wastes. But this is only possible if good combustion conditions are defined, so that no harmful products are emitted. Moreover, these conditions must be affordable on the technical and economical point of view. Then, some wastes cannot be burned in such a simple way, and need a larger approach, which is presented in this document.
S Mouras, G Labat, G Deroubaix

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