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Inhibitory effects of leachates from Scots pine wood on germination of some wood rotting fungi
1986 - IRG/WP 1282
Leachates from sapwood of Pinus sylvestris inhibited or reduced the germination of basidiospores of the wood decay fungi tested. The fungi were selected among those preferentially colonizing hardwood or softwood, representatives for brown rot and white rot fungi, early basidiomycete colonizers and late basidiomycete colonizers in above-ground parts of pine as well as fungi found in high frequencie...
J Bjurman


Field performance of wood preservative systems in secondary timber species
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30152
The objective of this ongoing study is to evaluate the performance of new, potential, and standard wood preservative systems in secondary North American timber species. Eleven preservative systems were evaluated in this study - ACQ Type B, Copper Citrate 2: l, CDDC, chlorothalonil/chlorpyrifos, copper-8-quinolinolate, tebuconazole/chlorpyrifos, RH287, propiconazole/chlorpyrifos, copper naphthenate...
P E Laks, K W Gutting, R C De Groot


Effectiveness of "Gang-Nail" plates in preventing splitting of Eucalyptus poles and Brazilian hardwood sleepers
1984 - IRG/WP 3262
This paper presents the results of some tests carried out with an anti-splitting device, placed on the end surfaces of Eucalyptus spp utility poles and Brazilian hardwood sleepers at the beginning of an air-drying period. The type of device used, a "Gang-Nail" plate, reduces significantly the splits at the end-surface of poles, but reduces only a little the splits occurring in sleepers....
A M F Oliveira, J A C Sodré, O B Neto


Progress towards controlling soft rot of treated hardwood poles in Australia
1977 - IRG/WP 289
H Greaves


Rational weight per weight (w/w) qualifying retention from a pole bank in Bangladesh
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40187
Weight per weight (w/w) vs weight per volume (w/v) retention study revealed that the w/w % retention is found to be appropriate and uniform for all timber species in respect of its real effectiveness. The pole species having density below 512 kg/m3 (32pcf.) showing w/v retention below 20kg/m3 (1.25pcf.) have equal w/w retention of 4%. The apparently reduced w/v retention of low density poles will ...
A K Lahiry


Resistance to soft rot of hardwood plywood treated with CCA salt
1983 - IRG/WP 3258
Plywood made from indigenous hardwoods was treated at an average loading of 34 kg Celcure A per m³ and was installed in a field test. After 20 years the samples were only slightly attacked by soft rot and the glue bonds were still intact....
R S Johnstone


Adequate preservative treatment of tropical and subtropical hardwoods for electric anchor logs
1997 - IRG/WP 97-40101
Most available 27 different hardwood species grown in Bangladesh was investigated regarding suitability as CCA-C (chromated copper arsenate type-C) impregnated anchor logs for rural electrification programme. The kiln-drying properties, sapwood thicknesses, CCA treatability grades of sapwood and heartwood, natural durability of heartwood and CCA retainability at specific assay zone separated 27 ha...
A K Lahiry


Inspection of tropical hardwood window frames in Nigeria for decay presence
1987 - IRG/WP 2294
A method of in situ inspection of hardwood window frames for expression of decay is discussed in this paper. The results show that about 6% of the frames inspected or 23% of the volume of wood in all the frames sampled in buildings erected between 1920 and 1984, exhibited evidence of advanced decay. Protection by the length of the eaves, species of the framing timber used, length of exposure to se...
M A Odeyinde, M A Amakiri, E B Lucas, J O Eyenike, S Akanni


Positive dosage response of CCA in hardwood power poles to soft rot indicated from New South Wales soft rot survey dat
1983 - IRG/WP 3233
Experience and observation have shown that retentions of less than 16 kg/m³ in the sapwood of individual hardwood poles are unlikely to delay its deterioration sufficiently to ensure an economic performance in some instances. The higher retentions of current practice should do so subject to adequate inspection and maintenance. Increases in retentions requirements up to 35 kg/m³ more or less, dep...
A J Witheridge


Susceptibility testing protocol for powderpost beetles in Australia
2002 - IRG/WP 02-20242
Several species of lyctine (powderpost) beetle are able to attack a range of hardwood timbers in Australia. Powderpost beetles infest only the starch-containing sapwood of certain hardwoods and do not infest softwoods. Attack by powderpost beetles on susceptible timber in Australia is almost inevitable and may continue until the food resource is completely utilised. Prevention of powderpost beetl...
B C Peters, J W Creffield, R H Eldridge


The natural durability assessment of secondary hardwood species - laboratory tests
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10295
Laboratory tests have been undertaken to assess the natural durability of 16 species of lesser known hardwoods, or hardwoods from non-traditional sources, including teak from three different plantations. Resistance to decay by both basidiomycetes and soil-inhabiting micro-fungi has been established. ´The data indicated that published information on the durability of these timbers should be treat...
J K Carey, S J Hendry


Fungal Stain Development in Canadian Hardwood Logs
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10505
In most sawmills around the world, trees are harvested into logs and stored in the forest or in a log yard for a period of time before being sawn into lumber. These logs may be attacked by various pigmented fungi, which results in staining of the wood. Since hardwood species are used to a great extent in furniture manufacturing and in the making of other valuable wood products, the reduction of wo...
Dian-Qing Yang, M-C Bisson


Fixation and leaching of selected Malaysian tropical hardwood after treated with CCA
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40207
The objective of this study is to investigate the fixation and leaching properties of selected Malaysian tropical hardwood (sentang wood (sapwood and heartwood) and rubberwood) after being treated with copper chrome arsenate (CCA) type-C preservative. The samples were treated with retention level of 0.5%, 2.0% and 5.0%. The samples were leached and the leachate were analyzed by AAS and the amount ...
R Hashim, O Sulaiman, Tan Siew Ching, K Yamamoto


Hardwood field experiment - 10 year report
1989 - IRG/WP 3560
The international hardwood field experiment was planned in 1976 and set up in some 34 different sites around the world. The test stakes include 4 reference species common to each site and in most cases at least 2 species of local importance (supplementary species). It was hoped that a picture of performance of a range of economically important timber species would be built up and at the same time ...
D J Dickinson, S M Gray


Hardwood field experiment: Progress report 1977-82
1982 - IRG/WP 3200
The international hardwood field experiment was planned in 1976 and set up in some 30 different sites around the world. The test stakes include 4 reference species common to each site and in most cases at least 2 species of local importance. It was hoped that a picture of performance of a range of economically important species would be built up and at the same time provide vital background inform...
D J Dickinson, J F Levy


Qualifying ecotoxicity research on tropical hardwood leachates
1997 - IRG/WP 97-50096
Almost as a rule, quantification and identification of various types of environmental contamination is grounded on chemical evaluation principles. Yet for monitoring surface water pollution, aquatic bio-assays may provide a more direct way to assess the potential hazard of environmental samples. A battery of such tests is experienced onto leachates of tropical hardwoods used in ground and water co...
G M F Van Eetvelde, P Marchal, M Stevens


Performance trials of treated hardwood fences
2002 - IRG/WP 02-30281
This paper examines the performance of the traditional hardwood paling fence used in Australia, after preservative treatment. Unseasoned rails, palings and plinths of the low natural durability species Eucalyptus regnans (mountain ash) and E. obliqua (messmate) were treated with PEC (pigment emulsified creosote) or PROCCA (an oil emulsion of CCA). Treated posts of these species were also compared ...
L J Cookson D Scown, B Iskra


Soft Rot Decay of Cengal (Neobalanocarpus heimii) Heartwood in Ground Contact in Relation to Extractive Microdistribution
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10501
The heartwood of cengal (Neobalanocarpus heimii, fam. Dipterocarpaceae) is naturally durable. A square-sawn utility pole specimen of cengal heartwood, after 30 years in ground contact, showed 10-15 mm surface decay all around the ground line position, accompanied with isolated surface termite attack at the decayed region. Light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the decayed regions prov...
A P Singh, A H H Wong, Yoon Soo Kim, Seung-Gon Wi, Kwang Ho Lee


An environmental aspect relating to leachability of CCA from hardwood and softwood poles in Bangladesh
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50167
Leachability of CCA and the service performance of 8 softwood and 5 heartwood poles in service after 5 to 17 years in Bangladesh have been studied. The study included determination of retention of CCA-C in outer 6 mm zones at groundline (GL) and above groundline (AGL) along with the observation of decay and conditions of soils. The mean leaching of CCA-C derived from retention differential at GL a...
A K Lahiry


Über Hausbock Hylotrupes bajulus (L.), (Col., Cerambycidae), in Laubholz: Versuche mit Laubholzarten, Prüfung der Wirkung von Ligninstoffen und von Ginkgo biloba, Beobachtungen an Hesperophanes. [On House-longhorn Beetle Hylotrupes bajulus (L.), (Col., Cerambycidae) in hardwood: Investigations with several hardwood-species, tests on activity of lignin components and Ginkgo biloba, observations on Hesperophanes]
1982 - IRG/WP 1144
Hylotrupes bajulus-larvae feed and develop in softwoods, hardwood acts as a feeding poison. The reason for this is still little known. According to literature some observations contradict this established opinion and the question was raised, whether the colour-strain scutifer (= lividus) is able to live in hardwood. Testing ten European and tropical hardwood-species (following the DIN-EN test proc...
S Cymorek


Microbial decay in an extremely durable Malaysian hardwood Belian (Eusideroxylon zwageri) - an overview
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10216
The heartwood of Belian (Eusideroxylon zwageri) is highly regarded among the naturally durable Malaysian hardwoods, and is therefore a choice timber for soilcontact use in the humid tropics such as untreated telecommunication poles, fence posts and railway sleepers. The high microbial resistance of the wood is evidenced by the mere superficial degradation observed in some pole samples after 20 yea...
A H H Wong, A P Singh


An observation of seasoning, preservative treatment and storing of CCA treated 30 bangladeshi hardwood species for crossarms
1995 - IRG/WP 95-40058
Observed kiln seasoning, preservative pressure treatment and storing of CCA treated 30 Bangladeshi hardwood species for crossarms. It revealed that it was very difficult to kiln season and preservative pressure treatment of thirty species together in a single charge and found that when species of different specific gravity kiln season together there occur some objectionable seasoning degrades, and...
G N M Ilias, M D Rokib-ul-Hafiz


The high decay resistance in the sapwood of the naturally durable Malaysian hardwood Belian (Eusideroxylon zwageri)
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10410
It has long been assumed that the observed natural durability of the heartwood in certain timbers is perhaps associated with a relatively lower decay susceptibility also of the sapwood of these species. While the heartwood of Belian is reputedly highly decay resistant among the tropical hardwoods of Southeast Asia, laboratory decay tests reported in this paper have also confirmed the high decay re...
A A H Wong, A P Singh


Microwave modification of wood properties - Improvements in wood permeability
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40181
A new method of microwave (MW) wood modification is described. Microwave irradiation of timber provides an improvement in wood permeability mainly in the radial and longitudinal directions. This is achieved by physically modifying ray cells and forming a large number of cavities in the radial - longitudinal planes. More extensive MW irradiation of different species transforms the wood into a new m...
G Torgovnikov, P Vinden


Soft rot fungi found in copper/chrome/arsenic treated hardwood power transmission poles in Queensland
1978 - IRG/WP 185
In Queensland the effective service life of copper/chrome/arsenic (CCA) treated hardwood telegraph and power transmission poles is being dramatically shortened due to attack by soft rot decay fungi. The Australian Wood Preservation and Pole Industries are funding research into this serious soft rot problem involving C.S.I.R.O. and the University of Queensland. The C.S.I.R.O. is actively engaged wi...
L E Leightley


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