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Possible regulatory status of treated wood waste and implications
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-07
In relation to the European Community or the French regulations, treated wood waste can get two different regulatory status: <<recycled product or fuel>> or <<waste>>. Then, into the waste status, two categories are possible for these residues: <<domestic waste and assimilated>> or <<hazardous waste>>. These different status and categories are important for the environmental issue of treated wood waste management. But they also can have strong economical implications, linked to the waste management cost on one hand and on the materials image on the other hand. On the basis of the EC regulations, up to now, no treated wood waste is namely quoted as <<hazardous waste>>. However, through the classification criteria defined by different EC directives, creosote or heavy metals treated wood waste could be to considered that way. The technical arguments for such a classification and the practical implications are discussed.
G Deroubaix

Characteristics and quantity of impregnated wood waste in Germany
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50041
The disposal of wood waste in Germany is one of the main problems not only for the wood preservation industry but also for all concerned with wood waste. Data on characteristics and quantity of wood waste are still needed. Based on criterions given in a previous paper (IRG/WP 93-50006), several assortments have been characterized with regard to their hazardous potential and their logistical aspects. Results show that mixed assortments are those with the highest quantities. Each year about 2 Mio t of wood from demolition of buildings and from building sites have to be disposed. This accounts much more than the whole field of timber from landscape (ca. 220.000 t/a), crossties (ca. 6085.000 t/a) and poles (ca. 25.000 t/a). Timber from landscape, however, has a high hazardous potential and is hard to collect because of its broad distribution (e.g. private households). For assortments with small annual quantities (e.g. cooling towers, wooden silos) specific disposal structures are not realistic. At present most of the assortments cannot be reused or recycled either due to their hazardous potential or to their unfavourable disposal structures. For timber from landscape as well as for timber from demolition of buildings incineration in specific plants should be preferred.
A Voss, H Willeitner

Possibility and problems of characterizing treated wood after service with regard to disposal
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50006
For the disposal of wood waste under ecological conditions, information about its hazardous potential and the logistic aspects for its handling is needed. The main criterion to evaluate the hazardous potential besides the determination of the type and quantity of active ingredients in the wood will be the degree of mixture with different treated or untreated timber. Assortments can be homogeneous (e.g. creosoted ties), partial homogeneous (e.g. poles with various chromium containing types) and mixed (e.g. wood from demolition of buildings). To improve the possibilites of re-using, recycling or disposal, a comprehensive survey on the structure of ownership, the kind of accumulation and the quantities of waste wood will provide with basical information. The evaluation of these logistical aspects can help for example to avoid mixed assortments, to decide whether separation as well as concentration may be useful and possible and to choose a suitable disposal method. As conclusions unsolved problems are identified.
A Voss, H Willeitner

Treatment and recycle of CCA hazardous waste
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50007
Chromated copper arsenate containing hazardous materials is generated from the manufacture, treatment of the wood, and from the wood itself, after its life cycle. Laboratory treating of these wastes has resulted in materials suitable for recycle or disposal as non-hazardous residues. The extraction, by both acidic and ammoniacal routes, of CCA production and treating plant waste materials has been done. Complete extraction of the CCA components is found for strongly acidic reagents. For the ammoniacal systems with various chelating compounds, a variety of results are obtained, ranging from no extraction to nearly complete. Fixative techniques for residues generated from the production of arsenic acid were developed such that the treated wastes pass the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency&apos;s Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The burning of CCA treated wood was also investigated. The laboratory experiments show no copper and chromium loss. Experiments with low air flows indicate conditions for which arsenic volatilization approaches zero, i.e., in excess of 1100°C. The resulting ash made of chromium, copper and arsenic compounds offers a feed stream for obtaining these materials.
E A Pasek, C R McIntyre

Management of the wood and additives wastes in the wood processing industries: Problematics and technical answers review
1996 - IRG/WP 96-50073
Management pathways for pure wood subproducts are well known and used; but as soon as additives like preservatives, glues, varnishes or coatings are present within the wood wastes, their disposal or valorization becomes more tricky. The different kinds of mixed wood wastes of the wood processing industries, from the sawmill to the furniture manufacture, are identified herewith and their diversity is examined. These wastes can be classified according to their danger characteristics, taking into account the type of additives, their concentration, their availability for the environment, the physical state of the waste. Different disposal pathways are then considered. Combustion, with the possibility of energetic valorization seems the best answer for a major part of these wastes. But this is only possible if good combustion conditions are defined, so that no harmful products are emitted. Moreover, these conditions must be affordable on the technical and economical point of view. Then, some wastes cannot be burned in such a simple way, and need a larger approach, which is presented in this document.
S Mouras, G Labat, G Deroubaix

Electrodialytic remediation of creosote and CCA treated timber wastes
2002 - IRG/WP 02-50190
There is a growing concern about the environmental issue of impregnated timber waste management, since an increase in the amount of waste of treated wood is expected over the next decades. Presently, no well-documented treatment technique is yet available for this type of waste. Alternative options concerning the disposal of treated wood are becoming more attractive to study, especially the ones that may promote its re-use. Inside this approach, the electrodialytic process (ED) seems a promising technique for removal of preservative chemicals from treated wood waste. The method uses a direct electric current and its effects in the matrix as the “cleaning agent”, combining the electrokinetic movement (mainly due to electromigration, but also electro-osmosis and electrophoresis), with the principle of electrodialysis. This work reports results from the application of the electrodialytic process to an out-of-service Portuguese creosote and CCA-treated Pinus pinaster Ait. railway sleeper and pole. The behaviour of the process is described and the main results discussed. The average removal rate, estimated in accordance with prEN 12490, for creosote from treated timber waste was around 40 %.. For CCA treated timber waste, experimental conditions that could optimise the process efficiency (e.g. current density, time) were studied. The highest removal rates obtained until now, in our studies, were 93 % of Cu, 95 % of Cr and 99 % of As for sawdust using 2.5 % oxalic acid (w/w) as the assisting agent. For CCA treated wood waste in the form of chips, the best removal rates obtained until now were 84 % of Cu, 91 % of Cr and 97 % of As.
E P Mateus, A B Ribeiro, L Ottosen

Supplement to Document No: IRG/WP/56. Health and safety aspects of the use of wood preservatives
1975 - IRG/WP 356
H Willeitner

The use, approval and waste management of industrial wood preservatives. A preliminary report
1994 - IRG/WP 94-50033
The structure on the wood preservation through the world is heterogenous. Environmental legislation, approval policy and application practices differ in each geographical region and in individual countries. This preliminary report gives a rough estimation of the production of treated timber, the use of wood preservatives and a bief summary of environmental status of wood impregnation in selected countries.
A J Nurmi

Disposal of treated wood - Canada
1990 - IRG/WP 3563
It is estimated that treated wood removed from service each year in Canada contains about 16,000 tonnes of creosote, 1000 tonnes of pentachlorophenol and 245 tonnes of CCA or ACA. The amount of CCA treated wood for disposal is expected to increase more than ten-fold by the year 2020. At present, most treated wood is disposed of in landfills, burned (creosote only) or recycled as other products. Other approaches to reduction, reuse, recycling and disposal are discussed.
P A Cooper

Cleaner prodiction and the wood preserving industry
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-29
H Carr-Harris, C R Coggins

Restriction for use and waste management for pressure treated wood - The current situation in Norway
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50175
The Norwegian Environmental Authorities have this winter sent out a draft on restrictions in production and use of heavy metals in preservative treated timber. If it is passed, it will lead to drastic changes in the use of preservatives in Norway from this autumn. The environmental authorities and the preservative industry are both at present discussing waste management for CCA and creosote treated wood.
F G Evans

Preservative-treated wood as a component in the recovered wood stream in Europe – A quantitative and qualitative review
2004 - IRG/WP 04-50218
Wood preservatives have been used for the protection of timber products in the European market in appreciable quantities for about 100 years. Between the 1960s up to the present day this usage has been particularly noticeable. The aim of this paper is to present quantitative and qualitative data on the volumes of preservative treated wood placed on the market in the UK and Sweden and to evaluate the expected quantities of preservative treated wood coming out of service and into the ‘recovered’ wood stream in the future. Data are presented from a case-study in the UK on CCA (copper, chromium, arsenic) treated timber and projections on likely amounts of this entering the recovery stream up to 2061. It is estimated that in the UK in 2001 approximately 62,000m3 of CCA-treated wood required disposal and that this could rise to about 870,000m3 by 2061. The proportion of CCA-treated timber in all post consumer waste wood in the UK is predicted to rise from about 0.9% in 2001, to about 12.3% in 2061 representing a substantial component of the post-consumer wood stream. In Sweden statistics have been compiled for production of preservative treated wood for many years. The preservatives used for waterborne treatments have also changed significantly over the last 10 years from a dominant role for CCA to alternative, As-free systems. It is estimated that preservative treated wood will represent on average about 5% of the recovered wood flow in Sweden over the next 25-30 years and that this will represent an appearance of about 8000 tonnes of As, 7000 tonnes of Cu and 6500 tonnes of Cr. These data and the possible disposal options for CCA and similar treated wood are considered in a life-cycle thinking context.
R J Murphy, P Mc Quillan, J Jermer, R-D Peek

Current and future options for managing used preservative-treated wood
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50042
The amount of preservative-treated wood available for disposal will continue to increase exponentially in the next several decades as landfill availability declines. At the same time, recent legal ruling on competitiveness among utilities and disposal of ash has clouded the economic outlook for combustion of treated wood for energy recovery. This report identifies current and future options for managing used preservative-treated wood, as well as technological and environmental/regulatory limitations to these options. Re-use, recycling (particularly through the manufacture of wood-based composites), and biodegradation are described as primary alternatives to land disposal and combustion. The report also describes supporting technologies (analytical methods and comminution) for managing used treated wood.
R C De Groot, C Felton

Wood preservation and the environment: A Canadian perspective
1990 - IRG/WP 3577
The non-pressure (surface) and pressure treatment of wood impacts on the environment in four ways. These are: through the production of treated wood at sawmills and pressure treating facilities; during the storage of treated wood prior to use; when the pressure treated wood is placed in service; and finally, when the treated product reaches the end of its useful life and must be disposed. By reference to current and past Canadian wood preserving practices, the impact of concern by environmentalists on future directions for the wood preserving industry is reviewed. "Information gaps" are identified, which must be filled if the general public&apos;s perception of wood preservation as being beneficial to society is to be maintained. The need for internationally agreed criteria for the approval of new preservatives is also identified.
J N R Ruddick

Bioconversion of wood wastes into gourmet and medicinal mushrooms
1999 - IRG/WP 99-50129
Increased wood wastes, including thinned material from stagnated and overstocked small-diameter forests, are a menace to forest health, to the sustainability of ecosystems, and to community economic viability. The objective of this study is to recycle wood wastes into value-added products, such as gourmet and medicinal mushrooms, by using the white-rot basidiomycetes, Pleurotus ostreatus, P. populinus, P. pulmonarius, and other Pleurotus species. When supplemented with low concentrations of dextrose, these basidiomycetes exhibit an excellent ability to colonize and stimulate fruiting body production on wood wastes. Inoculated wood wastes in air-permeable bags are incubated at 24°C in the dark for 3 to 5 weeks. When exposed to light cycle (10-h day), humidity, and air, they fruit within 4 to 8 weeks. Lyophilization of cultures stimulates filamentous mycelial growth and fruiting is then initiated within 3 to 7 days.
S C Croan

Pyrolytic treatment of CCB treated wood
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-23
Environmental problems caused by the toxicity of metallic elements of the preservative occur when treated wood comes to end of use. In the experiment, CCB treated wood chips were pyrolysed at various temperatures and residence times and the behaviour of boron, chromium and copper was observed. The three elements are almost entirely retained in the charcoal. There is no influence of final temperature and residence time on the chromium and copper retention (% weight). For temperature higher than 300 °C, a 15 % loss of boron relatively to copper is observed when the residence time goes from 15 to 30 minutes.
J F Collin, C G Jung, J M Romnée, J Delcarte

Experience with an industrial scale-up for the biological purification of CCA-treated wood waste
1997 - IRG/WP 97-50095
The biological purification of CCA-treated wood waste was tested in co-operation of the BFH and the Italian impregnation plant SoFoMe. Chipped poles were infested with the chromium and arsenic tolerant brown-rot fungus Antrodia vaillantii which can transform in the laboratory ca. 90% of the chromium and arsenic into watersoluble salts. These can be leached to 100-200 ppm residual metal content. The fermentation techniques tested will be described and the fermentation success as well as the possible use of the purified material will be discussed.
H Leithoff, R-D Peek

Disposal of CCA treated waste wood by combustion - An industrial scale trial
1996 - IRG/WP 96-50068
Totally 272 m³ (62.7 t) of CCA treated utility poles were chipped and incinerated at Jalasjärvi Gasification Plant. In average the whole batch of chips contained 57 kg of elementary copper, 95 kg chromium and 76 kg arsenic. During the 56 h combustion trial the measured arsenic emission to the air was 76 g in total. Copper and chromium emission was less than 1 g. The condensing water from the cooling unit and the ash from the gasifier were collected and transported to Outokumpu Harjavalta Metals Oy and finally circulated through a copper refinery line.
A J Nurmi

Waste management of wood products in life cycle assessment
2000 - IRG/WP 00-50154
Within the framework of the European project LIFE SYS WOOD (contractnr. FAIR CT95-7026) TNO has performed a study on the waste management of wood demolition waste for inclusion in Life Cycle Assessment. In LIFE SYS WOOD one of the main aims was to develop a consistent LCA methodology for wood products. LCA case studies have been performed by partners on wood as raw material, glulam contructions, OSB and plywood roof constructions, window frames, a CCA-treated fence and multi-layer parquet flooring. For the relevant European countries involved contributions to this study of all research partners (EMPA, Imperial College, NTI, Traetek and VTT) have been included, on the composition of the wood waste, on the state of the art of waste management techniques and regulations, and the estimated mix of waste treatment options. The approach in consistently handling final waste management of wood products in LCA and some results are summarised in this paper. For several wood products it has been concluded, that the waste stage has a very significant impact on the LCA results.
P Esser, P Eggels, A Voss

Balance of arsenic and recycling
2002 - IRG/WP 02-50189
Instead of importing considerable quantities of arsenic to Europe, it would be sensible to utilize the arsenic recovered in the recycling process in the manufacture of CCA-wood, in the metallurgical industry as well as in other ways. When copper is also processed into a form easy to utilize, it may be possible to utilize chrome as well. When these developments are implemented, it can be said that CCA-treated wood is an ecologically sound product. When the recycling process is introduced in Europe on a large scale, an amount of energy equivalent to a nuclear power unit can be conserved.
L Lindroos

Rapid analytical methods for wood waste - An overview
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50104
The proper handling of wood after service is a today&apos;s problem. Untreated wood could be reused or may be used as fuel. For treated wood special care is demanded to avoid environmental impacts. Thus, analytical methods are requested to detect rapidly whether and to what extend wood is contaminated, covering a wide spectrum of organic and inorganic agents used during the last 50 years. Traditional methods can not meet today&apos;s requirements due to their time consumption or high detection limits. Modern analytical techniques are widely used in research and industry, but their application for wood waste is still difficult due to the complex and differing organic structure of wood. An overview on analytical methods, their chances and limits will be given. In particular it is reported on a joint research programme initiated by the German Environment Foundation. The program aims at the development of a single or combined method that is able to detect both, organic and inorganic contaminations in wood in industrial scale. This technique shall be suitable for the entrance control at waste disposal sites as well as the controlled demolition. The most promising techniques for fast analises are based on Laser-Plasma-Atomic-Emmission-Spectroscopy for inorganic agents and Ion-Mobility-Spectroscopy for organic agents.
A Peylo, R-D Peek

Risk reduction from curative treatments, restoration and maintenance of building and individual housing - simple precautions that make the difference
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-15
This document explores the potentialities of risk reduction, from activities of remediation in construction, developped at small scale by professionals or individuals on targets like moulds, rots, termites and other wood destroying insects, with products distributed for professional or do-it-yourself purposes. At the first stage, an inventory of the type / interest of products / processes is carried out, with the identification of the sequences, including the fate of wastes and the resulting exposure for the compartments of interest. For health aspects, a crude practical evaluation of the exposure of direct receptors, operators, and indirect ones, inhabitants and the public in the vicinity, to the pathologies and their remediation, seems possible. This exercise aims to provide the users of products with the minimum set of tools and criteria of direct exposure assessment, prior to their use, based on available documentation, regulation and warnings. The best case occurs with the access to material safety data sheets and the corresponding labelling. Per default, they take available products from the shelf (approved for marketing or restricted use, doses, conditions of application), with the support of suppliers and local requirements. Regular training is one way of progress, the obligation of result with procedures adapted to the site of the building and its own exposure, another route of improvement. As works in this field are often non typical, there is still room for the optimisation of individual options, based on experience, to locate the necessary dose and performance at the right place. Description and examples are provided.
G Ozanne

Optimum growth conditions for the metal-tolerant wood decay fungus, Meruliporia incrassata TFFH 294
1999 - IRG/WP 99-50142
There is a worldwide need for alternative methods for the treatment and disposal of CCA-treated waste wood. Illman and Highley (IRG/WP 96-10163) reported the isolation of a unique strain of Meruliporia incrassata (TFFH 294) with tolerance to CCA. The strain is capable of degrading CCA treated waste wood, giving a 40% weight loss in the ASTM soil block test. The strain is an ideal candidate for degrading CCA-treated waste wood, which is accumulating in landfills at a rapid rate. In this study, we report the optimum growth conditions of the fungus, including the effect of chemically defined liquid media, growth temperature, light sensitivity, oxygen requirement and nutrient supplements. The results of a metal-tolerance test and SEM evidence of fungal growth on CCA-treated wood are given to support M. incrassata TFFH 294 tolerance.
V W Yang, B Illman

Traitement des matériaux lignocellulosiques en présence des composés halogénés (Risques toxiques des produits de combustion)
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-17
From the point of view of the combustion products toxicity, the highest environmental hazard comes from the combustion of materials creating toxic products such as dioxins and dilbenzofurans. 95% of these are formed during incineration of different materials. The aromatics result essentially from the products of paper industry and from wood treatment. Formation of halogenated products during the combustion of materials on the wood basis (papers, cartons, packing materials, wood treated, et c.) in the presence of halogenated compounds (PVC, PVDC, halogenated salts) is very complex. From the point of view of the toxic products formation, there is necessary to examine not only the influence of the polymer structure and the structure of halogenated compounds, but also oxygen concentration, temperature, ions, radicals and another components present in the flame. For the formation of chlorinated dioxins and dibenzofurans is essential that the polymer is able to generate the compounds with benzoic character as the intermediates. The examples of such precursors can be phenol formaldehyde polycondensates, various types of wood products, some polyesters and epoxy resins, but also polyvinyl chloride and polyvinliden chloride, combustion products of whose are aromatic structures.
I Surina, M Slimak, S Vodny, A Périchaud, K Balog

Feasibility study for a dedicated pressure treated wood waste management system
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-22
For the creosote treated wood coming out of service, it has been estimated an amount of 200 000 t per year for the next twenty years, and 100 000 t per year afterwards. With a limited number of actors, mainly SNCF (as producer and as user), no importations, and available energy recovery options, it appears possible for setting a dedicated wood waste management system, if the SNCF agrees to. For the CCA treated wood, the amount of it coming out of service will increase and will be much more important, reaching about 400 000 t per year. For setting a voluntary dedicated waste management system might be much more difficult, because the importation is very important (about 50%), the margin of product low and the actors and users are numerous. Over the answer of the question on the feasibility for setting a dedicated pressure treated wood waste management system, this study must allow also define the priority actions to improve the pressure treated wood waste management.
C Cornillier, I Buda, E Heisel, G Labat

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