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Agenda:Workshop CCA failures in horticultural soils
1983 - IRG/WP 3241
J A Butcher, H Greaves


Antagonistic effect of Trichoderma spp. against Serpula lacrymans in the soil treatment test
1991 - IRG/WP 1473
Soil treatment tests for preventing growth of Serpula lacrymans were conducted using Trichoderma spp. as antagonists. Soil specimens tested were Kanuma-soil without organic matter and the horticultural soil which was collected from the test site of the stake test. Perfect efficacy of treatment with Trichoderma spp. was shown when the horticultural soil without sterilization was used as a soil spec...
S Doi, A Yamada


Premature decay of CCA-treated pine posts in horticultural soils - An overview
1984 - IRG/WP 1241
The recent discovery in New Zealand of early decay in CCA-treated pine posts set in horticultural soils led to the establishment of a comprehensive research programme. The objectives and outline of this programme are presented together with an overview of research progress to date. Results suggest that premature decay of CCA-treated timber is restricted to material placed in highly cultivated soil...
J A Butcher


Leaching tests on CCA-treated wood using inorganic salt solutions
1984 - IRG/WP 3310
Pinus radiata sapwood treated to approximately 10 kg/m³ with Tanalith NCA or Tanalith C-type CCA preservatives was ground to a fine powder and samples were then leached with solutions of calcium chloride, calcium nitrate, magnesium nitrate, or a mixture of potassium di-hydrogen orthophosphate and di-potassium hydrogen orthophosphate, at 0.03M-1.00M solution concentrations. Leached wood samples we...
D V Plackett


Danish wood preservatives approval system with special focus on assessment of the environmental risks associated with industrial wood preservatives
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-01
The following is a description of the procedure used by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency to assess the environmental risks associated with preservatives used in the pressure impregnation of wood. The risk assessment covers issues considered to be of significance for the environment and which are adequately documented so as to allow an assessment. Such issues are persistence and mobility ...
J Larsen


Confocal laser scanning microscopy of a novel decay in preservative treated radiata pine in wet acidic soils
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10215
Light microscopy of radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) field test stakes (20x20x500mm3) exposed in wet acidic (pH 3-4) soil for 12 - 24 months showed predominance of an unusual type of decay characte-rised by tunnelling attack of wood cell walls. After two years decay was moderate to severe in wood treated to ground contact CCA specifications and also equivalent retentions of creosote, and a numb...
R N Wakeling, Ying Xiao, A P Singh


A comparison of soft rot, white rot and brown rot in CCA, CCP, CCF, CCB, TCMTB and benzalkonium chloride treated Pinus radiata IUFRO stakes, after 9-15 years exposure at five test sites in New Zealand
1991 - IRG/WP 1485
The aim of this study was to determine if decay type varies significantly between five field trial test sites of different soil type, aspect and climate in 9-15 year old, replicate CCA, CCF, CCP. CCB, TCMTB and AAC treated IUFRO stakes. A visual on-site assessment of decay type on every test stake was made and observations confirmed by microscopical examination. Regression analyses were used to de...
R N Wakeling


Soil virulence tests using Scots pine sapwood
1973 - IRG/WP 222
Following the tests reported in Document No: IRG/WP/210, in which soils from different laboratories were investigated for virulence, supplementary tests have been carried out using Scots pine sapwood and an extended incubation period....
J K Carey, J G Savory


Types of decay observed in CCA-treated pine posts in horticultural situations in New Zealand
1984 - IRG/WP 1226
The few reported failures of 11-12-year-old horticultural posts in New Zealand in 1982 were caused by brown-rot. A subsequent survey of CCA-treated posts in all the major horticultural areas has revealed decay of many posts. A microscopic examination of these posts has shown decay by brown-rot, white-rot, soft-rot and bacteria. Several types of bacterial decay have been observed....
J A Drysdale, M E Hedley


Collaborative soft rot tests: Programme and test method
1973 - IRG/WP 229
J G Savory, J K Carey


Collaborative soft rot tests: Results of analyses of soil samples
1976 - IRG/WP 263
C R Levy


Bacteria and wood. A review of the literature relating to the presence, action and interaction of bacteria in wood
1971 - IRG/WP 101
S E Rossell, E G M Abbot, J F Levy


Cu, Cr and As distribution in soils adjacent to CCA treated utility poles in Eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey
2004 - IRG/WP 04-50214
In this study, the main objective was to asses the distribution of Cu, Cr, and As in soils adjacent to CCA treated utility poles in Eastern Blacksea Region of Turkey (Trabzon, Rize and Artvin ) and determine the influence of soil composition. Surface (0-5cm), subsurface soil samples (30-40cm) were collected near CCA-treated utility poles and control soil samples away from CCA-treated utility pole...
E D Gezer, Ü C Yildiz, A Temiz, S Yildiz, E Dizman


Factors affecting leaching of preservatives in practice
1978 - IRG/WP 3113
At the 7th Meeting of the IRG in Poland in May 1975, the findings of collaborative laboratory leaching techniques were discussed, and the dangers inherent in using such results to predict the behaviour of preservative-treated components in service were emphasised. In order to improve our understanding of the factors governing leaching of preservatives in practice, and to identify areas where furth...
R Cockcroft, R A Laidlaw


Nitrogen content of soils at field sites
1981 - IRG/WP 1133
Nine participants in the Collaborative Field Experiment submitted samples for nitrogen analysis to this laboratory as requested by Leightley (IRG/WP/3162). These arrived in a variety of conditions e.g. wet, dried, sterilised and unsterilised and sometimes spent a considerable time in transit. Soils varied in cellular fraction organic matter content, some were obviously sieved prior to postage whil...
B King, G Mowe


Laboratory investigations about the mobility of some inorganic wood preservatives in soils
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-22
Wood preservatives and components of wood preservatives leached from impregnated wood can enter the soil and thus contribute to the pollution of the groundwater. However, there is lack of understanding concerning the interacting parameters of wood preservative, leachate, soil and soil solution. To characterise of the behaviour of active ingredients and for the assessment of their environmental imp...
E Melcher, R-D Peek


Testing wood in ground contact: An artificial soil
1977 - IRG/WP 280
This document is an interim report on the development of the artificial soil medium. It includes some information on the relationship between soil, wood and water which is of relevance in testing....
E F Baines, D J Dickinson, J F Levy


Comparison of the effect of different soil sources on the type and rate of decay of CCA-treated pine exposed in a soil-bed
1984 - IRG/WP 2213
The types of decay observed in CCA-treated pine posts in horticultural situations in New Zealand can be reproduced using a soil-bed exposure. Radiata pine stakelets, untreated or treated to 1.4, 2.7, or 5.4 kg/m³ with Tanalith NCA, were exposed to six different soil sources. The local nursery soil used for all standard laboratory tests was found to represent the greatest decay hazard to untreated...
J A Drysdale


A contribution to the adsorption/desorption behaviour of zinc-hexa-fluoro-silicate in different soils
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50056
The estimation of a possible endangering of the groundwater through wood preservatives and thereof deriving measures for the avoidance of secondary damages require among others exact knowledge concerning the behaviour of wood preservative compounds in the soil matrix. Adsorption and desorption behaviour were determined at four soils of different characteristics, which were brought in contact with ...
E Melcher, R-D Peek


Decay types observed in small stakes of pine and Alstonia scholaris inserted in different types of unsterile soil
1990 - IRG/WP 1443
The attack of various wood-degrading microorganisms occurring in mini-stakes of pine and Alstonia scholaris buried in various types of unsterile soil was studied. Attacks by white rot, brown rot, soft rot, erosion bacteria, tunnelling bacteria and actinomycetes were found. Soft rot occurred in all soils, whereas attack by white rot and especially brown rot and erosion bacteria was rare. The type o...
T Nilsson, G F Daniel


Soft rot decay of Eucalyptus maculata Hook. in different soils from Queensland, Australia
1980 - IRG/WP 1113
In the present work, different Queensland soils were chosen and their gross effects on the decay of treated and untreated Eucalyptus maculata examined. The soils were also amended with various levels of phosphate to study the response of the wood decay mycota to an increasing supply of this nutrient. Phosphate amendment was chosen because of the wide-scale use of superphosphate on Queensland soils...
L E Leightley, I W Russell


Collaborative soft rot experiments 1974. Preliminary analysis of results
1975 - IRG/WP 251
J K Carey, J G Savory


Health hazards and environmental aspects when using Cu-HDO-containing wood preservatives in vacuum pressure plants
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-11
Apart from the biological efficacy of wood preservatives, the health and environmental aspects concerning the utilisation of wood preservatives, the use of treated timber and the disposal of impregnated wood are of high significance today. Therefore, information on a possible aerial concentration of wood preservatives, on the mobility of active substances in soil leached from treated timber in ser...
W Hettler, S Breyne, M Maier


Chemical, physical and biological factors affecting wood decomposition in forest soils
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20281
Organic matter (OM) decomposition is an important variable in determining the potential of forest soils to sequester atmospheric CO2. Studies using OM from a particular location gives site-specific decomposition information, but differences in OM type and quality make it difficult to compare results among soils and forest ecosystems. By using a “standard” OM in decomposition studies, OM qual...
M Jurgensen, P Laks, D Reed, A Collins, D Page-Dumroese, D Crawford


Soft rot tests
1983 - IRG/WP 2206
At the IRG meeting in Turkey it was proposed that developments in testing preservative-treated wood in unsterile soil according to techniques variously described as "fungus cellar", "soil-bed", or "accelerated field simulation" be considered along with conventional laboratory procedures as the basis for a standard test. Before formulating any co-operative test programme it is essential to examine ...
J A Butcher


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