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Biological performance of gypsum products containing borates
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30237
At suitable retentions borates have biostatic properties enabling them to be used for biodeterioration control in wood. They provide protection against decay fungi, mould, and termites, which are known to also attack gypsum products. Currently, many gypsum products contain added borates, which are used to improve physical and processing characteristics. Work examining the effect of borates at cont...
J L Fogel, J D Lloyd


Borates and their biological applications
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30178
This paper reviews some of the many biological applications of borates. Boron is a ubiquitous element found widely distributed in the environment and is a normal component of a healthy diet. Elemental boron does not exist in nature, but is always found combined with oxygen in compounds called borates. Boron is an essential micronutrient for plants, and there is evidence to suggest that boron is of...
J D Lloyd


The use of zirconium as an inert fixative for borates in preservation
2001 - IRG/WP 01-30256
Stand-alone borates have been used in internal protected situations as wood preservatives for about 60 years. They have not been deemed acceptable for external situations because of their leaching characteristics. Work carried out to reduce the leachability of borates has been reviewed briefly here, and a specific fixation agent based on zirconium has been tested in standard leaching and decay tes...
J D Lloyd, J L Fogel, A Vizel


Preservative treatments of window components with a water-based borate formulation
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40171
Factory finished window joinery components were treated with an aqueous borate preservative in order to investigate penetration and retention levels, associated drying times; and the potential impact of using a water-based treatment on finished items. It was found that by using borates applied by light double vacuum schedules, it was possible to meet standards for penetration and retention, to air...
J Jermer, J D Lloyd


Section reports from IRG 42
2011 - IRG/WP 11-60317
J Lloyd


Section reports from IRG 43
2012 - IRG/WP 12-60335
J Lloyd


An Open Letter to Proponents of CLT/Massive Timber
2016 - IRG/WP 16-40755
We present an Open Letter that discusses the need to address the potential for biodeterioration in CLT/Massive timber structure. We invite members to review and sign the document. We also welcome suggestions for potential recipients....
A Taylor, J Lloyd, T Shelton


Comparison of the effects of borate, germanate and tellurate on fungal growth and wood decay
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1533
The tetra-hydroxy borate ion is known to undergo complexation with polyols and has been shown to inhibit dehydrogenase enzymes in this way. It has been previously suggested that this complexation is responsible for the inhibition of fungal growth and the protection of boron treated timber. Other ions that have the ability to complex with polyols have also been shown to inhibit dehydrogenase activi...
J D Lloyd, D J Dickinson


The probable mechanism of action of boric acid and borates as wood preservatives
1990 - IRG/WP 1450
The tetrahydroxyborate ion [B(OH)4-] acts by complexation with poly-ols and probably attacks decay fungi through extracellular substrate sequestration; intracellular substrate sequestration; enzyme inhibition; and change in membrane function. Work was carried out to investigate this further and to try to explain certain phenomena observed in the area of boron preservation. The effect of Na borate ...
J D Lloyd, D J Dickinson, R J Murphy


Losses of pyrethroids from treated wood due to photodegradation
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30177
The fact that significant photodegradation of pyrethroids can occur in use has been established for over 20 years. It is known, mainly from experience with tsetse fly control, that such degradation leads to marked reductions in efficacy. This realisation has lead to extensive investigation into ways of stabilising this group of important insecticides. Pyrethroids are widely used as the insecticid...
J D Lloyd, M W Schoeman, F Brownsill


Prevention of Termite Tubing Over Non-Wood Construction Materials Using Glycol Borate
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30358
Glycol borates have been demonstrated to prevent termite tubing and attack of wood materials and are extensively used as termite preventative applications in new construction in the USA. This study evaluated the ability of such systems to prevent Formosan subterranean termite tubing over non-wood materials. Concrete was selected as a common inert construction material and tests were carried out ...
W R Smith, J D Lloyd


Efficacy of Didecyl Dimethyl Ammonium Chloride (DDAC), Disodium Octaborate Tetrahydrate (DOT), and Chlorothalonil (CTL) against Common Mold Fungi
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30338
The fungitoxic properties of four fungicides, alone and in combination, against four different mold fungi commonly associated with indoor air quality problems were evaluated on two different wood species and sheetrock. The fungicides were chlorothalonil (2,4,5,6-tetrachloroisophthalonitrile) (CTL) in a 40.4% aqueous dispersion, disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT) in two different forms - a ...
J A Micales-Glaeser, J D Lloyd, T L Woods


Movement of borates in a range of timber species at various moisture contents
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30181
Borate-based wood preservatives are used in industrial pre-treatment as well as remedial treatment of timbers in situ. In both of these areas, understanding the mobile nature of these compounds is important in optimizing the main benefits of borates. Considerable work has been conducted on movement of borates in dip-diffusion treatment of freshly felled wood, as well as focusing on subsequent diff...
M W Schoeman, J D Lloyd, M J Manning


The effect of of sorbitol on the decay of boric acid treated Scots pine
1991 - IRG/WP 1509
The tetra-hydroxy borate ion is known to undergo complexation with polyols of biological importance and probably protects treated timber by this action. The inhibitory effect of boric acid upon fungal growth and dehydrogenases has been shown to be prevented by the addition of certain polyols. This work was extended, with a study of the effects of a polyol on the performance of boric acid in treate...
J D Lloyd, D J Dickinson, R J Murphy


Comparison of the inhibitory effects of borate, germanate, tellurate, arsenite and arsenate on 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase
1991 - IRG/WP 1508
Sodium borate inhibits the enzymatic activity of many dehydrogenases, and it is thought that this is due to the complexation of the borate anion with the coenzyme nucleotide. It has been suggested in the past that complexation of this type, leading to enzyme inhibition and other biological effects, is responsible for the inhibition of fungal growth and consequently the protection of boron treated ...
J D Lloyd, D J Dickinson


International standardisation: a hypothetical case study with stand-alone borate wood preservatives
1998 - IRG/WP 98-20147
The possibility of developing wood preservation standards with a global remit has a number of obvious advantages as well as far reaching ramifications, many of which are undefined as yet. The commercial implications of adopting international standards are clearly considerable, but equally, such a development is likely to focus attention on the conceptual differences in the way that different regio...
M W Schoeman, J D Lloyd


Near infrared spectroscopy for the quantification of wood preservatives
2008 - IRG/WP 08-20391
Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a rapid, flexible, inexpensive and non-destructive technology that has many applications, including the evaluation of many wood properties. Initial studies have indicated the potential to apply NIRS for the quantification of wood preservatives. However, further evaluation with borate and azole preservative systems has revealed that NIRS technology is challenged ...
A M Taylor, Seung H Baek, Myong K Jeong, J D Lloyd, J J Morrell


Preventing decay in termite monitoring stations
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30546
In-ground monitoring stations and termite baits are widely used in the southern United States with the intent of detecting and eradicating subterranean termite activity near buildings. These stations comprise a wood (or other cellulose material) substrate (monitor) and perhaps a termiticidal toxicant (bait) held in a plastic cage that allows for both easy examination and access by termites. The us...
A M Taylor, Jae-Woo Kim, S Duarte, L Nunes, J D Lloyd


Decay factors in termite in-ground monitoring stations
2012 - IRG/WP 12-10775
Subterranean termites are serious pests of wood in service in much of the world. One of the most common techniques for monitoring and controlling termites is the use of in-ground monitoring stations which comprise a wood or other cellulosic material monitor (cellulosic matrix) and/or a termiticide bait held in a open plastic holder so facilitates examination and the termite access. Wood and other ...
S Duarte, A M Taylor, Jae-Woo Kim, J D Lloyd, M Duarte, L Nunes


Pre-treatment decay and strength loss of railroad ties, and their prevention
2013 - IRG/WP 13-30610
Evidence of fungal decay in air-drying, untreated railway crossties is referred to as ‘stack burn’ in the industry. The deleterious consequences of stack burn on tie mechanical properties was confirmed by evaluating the impact bending toughness of wood samples taken from untreated tie stock air dried in the southern United States. These results suggest that careful consideration should be give...
A M Taylor, B Jordan, J D Lloyd


Cost effective extension of service life of bridge tie (sleepers) - Effectively applying borate during Boulton conditioning and treatment with copper naphthenate
2014 - IRG/WP 14-30637
Current longevity of creosote treated wooden bridge ties in the South Eastern US is about 15 to 25 years, which is well below of the average service life of 33-50 years of railroad ties. Such short service life increases costs associated with maintenance of railroads including bridge down time for tie replacement as well as the cost for the new ties themselves. Because of this, many railroads are...
J D Lloyd, T Chambers, J-W Kim


Borate treatment of green ties: An initial report on the effects on mechanical properties
2014 - IRG/WP 14-40686
Borates are increasingly used as components of wood preservative systems for railway cross ties (“sleepers”) in the USA. A variety of methods exist for incorporating the borate component; however, the so-called ‘two-step’ treatment, which involves treating the green tie in borate, followed by a pressure treatment with creosote or copper naphthenate after drying (‘seasoning’), offers th...
A M Taylor, J D Lloyd


Steam accelerated borate diffusion: Optimizing dry tie treatment
2015 - IRG/WP 15-40713
A small laboratory study was carried out which demonstrated that dry wood dip treated in a high concentration borate solution could not be subsequently treated properly with oil borne copper naphthenate unless it was subsequently steam treated to accelerate borate penetration into the wood and re-dry the wood beforehand. A larger study with commercial sized cross ties (railway sleepers) was carri...
J-W Kim, J D Lloyd


Best handling practices for wood crossties (sleepers)
2015 - IRG/WP 15-40714
Wooden crossties (sleepers) dominate the rail industry in the USA. Most ties are hardwood treated with oil-borne preservatives using pressure treatment. Incipient decay (called ‘stack burn’) commonly develops during the pre-treatment drying process and reduces tie performance and longevity. Practices to minimize stack burn and enhance wooden tie performance are discussed as an aid to non-wood ...
N Irby, J Lloyd, A Taylor, J Watt


Recycling of used railroad ties via two-staged pyrolysis for fractionation of wood preservatives and bio-oil: pyrolytic characterization by TGA and Py-GC/MS
2015 - IRG/WP 15-50311
Creosote and copper naphthenate (CuNap) (in an oil carrier) treated railroad tie materials (crossties or sleepers) were initially heat-treated at 200 – 300 oC and subsequently pyrolyzed via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) to recover wood preservatives and produce a higher quality bio-oil. Preservative-desorptive temperatures at 200 a...
Pyoungchung Kim, J Lloyd, Jae-Woo Kim, N Labbe


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