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Speciation of leachates from CCA-treated wood
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-27
Different species of arsenic and chromium are characterized by different toxicities and different mobilities. The environmental impacts of CCA-treated wood would therefore be a function of the chemical forms of the metal releases. As a consequence a series of tasks were undertaken to evaluate arsenic and chromium species from CCA-treated wood. The intent of these tasks was to quantify the total...
H M Solo-Gabriele, T G Townsend, Yong Cai, B I Khan, Jin-Kun Song, J Jambeck, B Dubey, Yong-Chul Jang


Treatability of Siberian larch and spruce with chromated copper arsenate
1996 - IRG/WP 96-40060
Heartwood of Siberian larch (Larix gmelini) and spruce (Picea jezoensis) was pressure treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) Type B using a full cell process. Larch heartwood was somewhat difficult to treat than the spruce, although both species did not meet a minimum requirements of penetration and retention specified by the American Wood Preservers' Association (AWPA) for difficul...
Gyu-Hyeok Kim, Woo-Gue Jee, Jae-Jin Kim


Leaching of CCA components from treated wood under acidic conditions
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50004
The leaching of CCA components from treated wood under acidic conditions were investigated. Western hemlock treated with three types of CCA and two levels of target retention was subjected to leaching at four different levels of pH. After leaching tests, leached samples were subjected to laboratory decay and soft rot tests. The amount of CCA components leached was dependent on acidity of leaching ...
Jae-Jin Kim, Gyu-Hyeok Kim


Wood preservation in China
1989 - IRG/WP 3546
Huiming Zhou, Zhongwei Jin


An investigation into the influence of soil cation exchange capacity on preservative component depletion
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20050
The mobility of preservative components from treated wood into the soil environment is regarded as an important determinant of preservative performance. Standard procedures for the investigation of this phenomenon have not been developed to any great extent. Soil bed studies conducted in this laboratory using natural soil and modified soil media have provided interesting comparative data on the in...
K J Archer, L Jin


Performance of copper-based wood preservatives in above ground and ground contact tests
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30057
The relative performance of a range of copper-based wood preservatives was compared using above ground and ground contact procedures. The data, accumulated after several years' testing, show that on an equivalent active ingredient basis, differences in performance of the preservative systems tested can vary quite markedly. The contribution of co-biocides to the overall performance of thes...
A F Preston, K J Archer, L Jin, W Metzner, D Seepe


Development of a turbidity method for the determination of water repellent in CCA treatment solutions
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40177
The use of aqueous water repellent emulsion formulations has increased significantly in the wood treatment industry. These are primarily used to enhance the weathering characteristics of wood products treated with water borne preservatives systems used in exterior above ground exposures. However, they are also used in pole treatments to improve the climbing characteristics and in low VOC millwork ...
P J Walcheski, L Jin


The role of third party independent inspection agency for wood preservation industry in China
2009 - IRG/WP 09-20425
This presentation attempts to provide a brief historical background and a current status report on the wood preservation industry in China. In addition, it will briefly introduce the need for building the quality control procedures and China wood protection Quality Supervision and Testing Center, a third-party inspection agency. Besides, some suggestions of this industry are proposed for its furth...
Zhenzhong Tang, Changsheng Shen, Yujie Han, Changming Song


Wood Protection in China
2009 - IRG/WP 09-30516
The wood protection has been recognised in ancient China, and has made the tremendous contribution to the knowledge and techniques of wood protection. The paper mainly introduced the development and situation of China wood protection industry, including industry organization, policy guidance, standardization system, quality supervision, training, technical exchange, project HYPERLINK "http://dj.i...
Zhongwei Jin


The Effect of Soil on the pH of Untreated Southern Pine in Ground Contact
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10742
Untreated southern yellow pine samples were subjected to three soils that had been amended to provide acidic, neutral and alkaline conditions. Wood pH was measured prior to, and then one, two, four and eight weeks after being placed in the soil to determine the effect of soil pH on wood pH....
C Vidrine, C Schauwecker, L Jin, A F Preston


Evaluation of the corrosivity of the treated wood - Laboratory vs field test methodologies
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20211
The corrosivity of treated wood to fasteners has been evaluated using laboratory test procedures, including AWPA Standard E12-94. The standard method was modified in order to allow detailed study of commercial metal fasteners in terms of sample types, installation configuration and exposure conditions. Parallel field tests were also performed. The experimental results generated from these tests su...
L Jin, A F Preston


The Effect of Soil pH on the pH of Treated Southern Pine in Ground Contact after 12 Months
2011 - IRG/WP 11-50281
Southern pine samples treated with soluble and particulate copper solutions were subjected to three soils that had been amended to provide acidic, neutral and alkaline conditions. Wood pH was measured prior to, and after 6 and 12 months after being placed in the soil to determine the effect of soil pH on wood pH....
L Jin, C Schauwecker, C Vidrine, P Walcheski, A Preston


The influence of copper (II) chemicals on the weathering of treated wood. Part 1: ACQ treatment of wood on its weathering
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30040
Wood weathering can be accelerated by alkylammonium compound (AAC) treatment, and slowed by ammoniacal copper quat (ACQ) treatment. This study aims at investigating the influence of ACQ treatment of wood, especially the present of copper (II), on its weathering. ACQ, CCA and DDAC treated microtomed sections of southern yellow pine earlywood were prepared and naturally weathered for five periods, t...
Ruiying Liu, J N R Ruddick, L Jin


Which fungi should be included in the laboratory evaluation of anti-stain chemicals?
2001 - IRG/WP 01-20236
Test fungi for efficacy tests of anti-stain formulations were selected based on the assumptions that test fungi should be fungicide-tolerant antagonists and fungi resistant to both fungicides and fungicide- tolerant antagonists, and such fungi should be re-isolated from treated samples with the highest fungicidal concentration used for laboratory evaluation of fungicides. This paper discusses the ...
Hyung-Jun Kim, Jae-Jin Kim, Gyu-Hyeok Kim


Analysis of water repellents in wood treated with water borne formulations using FTIR
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40176
The use of aqueous water repellent emulsion formulations has increased significantly in the wood treatment industry. These products are primarily used to enhance the weathering characteristics of wood products treated with water borne preservatives systems used in exterior above ground applications. They are also used in pole treatments to improve climbing characteristics and in low VOC millwork t...
P J Walcheski, L Jin


Morphological and Molecular Diagnosis of Leptographium spp. in Canadian Softwoods
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10479
Sapstaining fungi that affect commercially important softwood species mainly belong to the genera Ceratocystis, Ophiostoma and Leptographium. Our 1997-1999 fungal surveys confirmed that this is the case in Canada. The work reported here addresses identifying the morphologically plastic Leptographium at the species level, which is difficult using conventional methods. We assessed the morphologic...
S Alamouti, Jae-Jin Kim, A Uzunovic, C Breuil


Mold and stain fungi associated with Radiata pine logs imported from New Zealand
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10346
The Korean sawmills have recently realized the importance of prevention of fungal discoloration due to increased losses in revenue. Before establishing integrated control strategies of fungal discoloration, more complete knowledge about causal organisms is needed. As a first step, we initiated a through survey of mold and stain fungi colonized commercially important softwood species (Pinus densifl...
Jae-Jin Kim, Gyu-Hyeok Kim


Dimensional stabilization and decay resistance of wood treated with brown-rotted lignin and copper sulfate
1990 - IRG/WP 3608
The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential usefulness of brown-rotted lignin (BRL) as a dimensional stabilization and copper complexing agent for wood treatment. For dimensional stabilization, aqueous solutions of the lignin extract were combined with either copper sulfate, glyoxal or other additives. Anti-shrink efficiency (ASE) values as high as 42% were obtained with wood treated...
L Jin, D D Nicholas, T Schultz


Use of compression strength loss for measuring decay in the soil block test
1996 - IRG/WP 96-20083
The possibility of using radial direction compression strength of wood, rather than mass loss, was evaluated for both a brown-rot fungus (Gloeophyllum trabeum) and white-rot fungus (Trametes versicolor). With untreated pine wafers (5 x 19 x 19 mm³ - l x r x t) exposed to Gloeophyllum trabeum in a soil block test for five days, the compression strength loss was nearly 50% compared to a 5% mass los...
D D Nicholas, Zhongwei Jin


Database of sapstain fungi affecting lumber, logs and trees
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10534
Sapstain fungi discolour lumber, logs and tree sapwood and are often mistaken for moulds, which cause a superficial discoloration. Stained wood has a lower market value. Further, because stained wood products can potentially carry pathogenic fungi, such products may be refused by importing countries. Addressing these issues involves developing ways for accurately identifying staining fungi, docume...
S Lee, F de Giuli Vallverdu, S Alamouti, Jae-Jin Kim, A Uzunovic, C Breuil


Surface characteristics of wood treated with various AAC, ACQ and CCA formulations after weathering
1991 - IRG/WP 2369
Wood samples treated with various alkylammonium compounds (AACs) as well as ammoniacal copper quat (ACQ) and chromated copper arsenate (CCA) have been studied in accelerated weathering experiments. Microscopic examination of the surfaces of these samples after exposure in a weatherometer revealed several different changes. Samples treated with didecyldimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC) show consider...
L Jin, K J Archer, A F Preston


Effect of test methodology on seed germination using filter paper and soil as substrates
1994 - IRG/WP 94-50029
Tomato, cucumber and grass seeds were used to examine the influence ot two wood preservatives, chromated copper arsenate (CCA type C) and ammoniacal copper quat (ACQ tvpe B) in seed germination studies. Two methodologies, using contaminated filter paper and contaminated soil as substrates, were investigated to generate the comparison results. The results from these studies suggest that the test su...
L Jin, A F Preston


Influence of water-borne preservatives on water repellency and the impact of addition of water repellent additives
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3704
The primary goal of a desirable wood preservative system is to effectively control decay fungi and other biodeteriogens in service. The water repellent nature of a given system may play an important role in the protection of wood. In this study, the water repellency of several water-borne preservative systems has been evaluated by measurements of tangential swelling during immersion. The systems i...
L Jin, D M Roberts, A F Preston


The ground proximity decay test method
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20205
A decay field test method, which has been recently proposed for the standardization by the AWPA, is described for evaluating the relative performance of wood samples in a severe above ground situation exposed to the weather. Data is presented on the relative performance of untreated control samples and standard preservative systems exposed at the same site at different time periods, or at differen...
A F Preston, P J Walcheski, K J Archer, A R Zahora, L Jin


Depletion of preservatives from treated wood: Results from laboratory, fungus cellar and field test
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-07
This paper compares results of preservative component losses using a range of test procedures with several different water-borne preservatives. The data shows that laboratory leaching tests are in some cases comparable to, but in other cases significantly underestimate preservative component losses when compared with field or fungus cellar depletion tests. The results also suggest that preservativ...
L Jin, A F Preston


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