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Japan's comments on ISO/DIS 12583-1/2
1996 - IRG/WP 96-20100
The paper describes an accelerated field test for the evaluation of timber preservative formulations against subterranean termites. The method has been adopted by the South African wood preservation industry as a screening method for the approval of wood preservatives for use under SA conditions. The method which is based upon the fungal cellar test offers a rapid means of evaluating the comparati...
P Turner, D Conradie


Risk assessment and the approval of wood preservatives in the United Kingdom
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-23
An approval system operates in the United Kingdom (UK) for the regulation of wood preservatives. The regulatory authority uses a risk assessment approach to evaluate how far the potential for harm to people and the environment from wood preservatives is likely to be realised in practise, and hence the controls required for products to be, used safely. The evaluation for approval purposes also take...
R M Turner


Species pairs in the Teredinidae
1987 - IRG/WP 4142
Classification and identification in the Teredinidae are based on the anatomy of the major organ systems, the shells, and particularly on the characters of the blade-like pallets which are used to plug the opening of the burrow when the siphons are retracted. Variations in the reproductive system and/or reproductive behaviour (among the most common and best documented isolating mechanisms in anima...
R D Turner, C B Calloway


The chemical analysis and biological evaluation of wood extractives as potential timber preservatives
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30090
Work involved the biological performance of water and organic solvent soluble extractives of four naturally durable wood species, namely; Matumi, Tamboti, Sneezewood and the Turpentine tree. These timber species are known to be naturally durable against termites and fungi (±25 to 35 years). The extractives were evaluated against termites and fungi using impregnated pine pencil stakes in field tes...
P Turner, D Conradie


Treatment of wood-based panel products with volatile borate
1990 - IRG/WP 3616
The paper presents recent developments in the use of volatile borate esters for the preservative treatment of wood based board materials. Several advances on previous reports are discussed. In laboratory studies, treatment times of approximately ten minutes at 20°C on boards at equilibrium moisture content provided full penetration and retentions of 1% wt/wt boric acid. Biological tests have been...
P Turner, R J Murphy, D J Dickinson


Copper linoleate: A new low toxcity wide spectrum, heavy duty wood preservative
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30082
Copper linoleate, a "fixed" copper soap has been developed and evaluated in South Africa over a 30-year period. The initial product, an organic solvent based preservative has been tested in pine poles against termites and fungi. Results indiate that the product has performed well against existing heavy duty wood preservatives such as CCA and creosote in long term field trials (30 years). The paper...
D Conradie, P Turner, W E Conradie, A J Pendlebury, T Pizzi


Changes in fat and moisture contents, and nitrogen fixation in laboratory maintained termites
1984 - IRG/WP 1242
Orphaned groups of termites of Coptotermes acinaciformis and Mastotermes darwiniensis were maintained in the laboratory for several months on two dietary regimes, and changes in their fat contents, moisture contents and nitrogen fixation rates were examined. There were no significant feed or feed time effects for either species. For Coptotermes acinaciformis, there was a highly significant time ef...
J R J French, P J Robinson, L G Turner, P J Pahl


Accelerated termicidal performance data for new water-based copper linoleate formulations
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30104
An organic solvent based copper linoleate (Culin) has proved itself as an effective wood preservative in long term field trials in South Africa over a period of 30 years. Whilst the organic solvent based product offers good wood preservative performance, primary industrial interest has been in an emulsified version of the product. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of two di...
D Conradie, P Turner


Revised South African standards for wood preservation: Protocols for approval of wood preservatives
1995 - IRG/WP 95-20072
In 1994 the South African timber treatment industry completed its revision of the South African Bureau of Standards (SABS) Code of Practice for the preservative treatment of timber. These revisions were undertaken in parallel with changes to the SABS specifications for preservative treated timber. As a result of shortcomings in the previous wood preservative classification system which was based o...
D Conradie, P Turner, W E Conradie, A D Currie, I S J Burger


The development of a new boron-based wood preservative
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30085
The paper describes a new boron based wood preservative for the treatment of green timber. The product offers many benefits over conventional boron diffusion treatment including: 1. high viscosity, high concentration formulation; 2. permits dip treatment of a wide range of sawn board and pole sizes at ambient temperatures; 3. permits full cross section diffusion of borates without block stacking a...
P Turner, D Conradie


Penetration Depth of Borates in Historic Wooden Structures in Virginia City Montana
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30475
Virginia City, Montana contains some of the best preserved examples of gold boom construction in the United States. Unfortunately, even the dry climate and fortuitous lack of fire have not prevented decay from claiming parts of the historic fabric. This project aims to determine if borates should be integrated into the preservation plan of the Montana Heritage Commission. Solutions of disodium ...
A A Turner


Use of X-Ray Micro-Computed Tomography to Visualize Copper in Preservative Treated Wood
2012 - IRG/WP 12-20488
This study tests the hypothesis that X-ray micro-computed tomography will be able to visualize the distribution of copper in wood treated with a micronized wood preservative containing copper carbonate. A small wood block measuring 12 x 12 x 19 mm was cut from a 2.4 m x 51 mm x 51 mm southern pine batten that had been treated with a micronized wood preservative. Tomograms of the wood block were ob...
P D Evans, A Limaye, H Averdunk, M Turner, T J Senden, M A Knackstedt


Visualization of Copper in the Voids and Cell Walls of Treated Wood using X-Ray Micro-Computed Tomography
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40640
This study extends our observations of the distribution of copper in treated wood. A small wood block was cut from a southern pine batten that had been treated with a particulate-copper preservative and similar sized block was cut from a batten that had been treated with a copper-amine preservative. Both blocks were imaged using X-ray micro-computed tomography. We obtained tomograms of each treate...
P D Evans, A Limaye, H Averdunk, M Turner, T J Senden


Accumulation of copper in parenchyma cells in southern pine wood treated with micronized and amine-copper preservatives
2019 - IRG/WP 19-20657
Our previous research used X-ray micro-computed tomography to examine the micro-distribution of copper in southern pine wood treated with a micronized wood preservative (MCA) and an amine-copper preservative (ACQ). We found that copper in wood treated with MCA was mainly concentrated in fusiform rays (rays containing resin canals), and in vertical (axial) resin canals. A similar, although not iden...
D Feng, M L Turner, A Limaye, M A Knackstedt, P D Evans