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The use of TCMTB in applications other than sapstain prevention: A review
1990 - IRG/WP 3606
The efficacy of TCMTB against staining fungi and surface moulds has been thoroughly investigated during the last decade. As a result, the chemical is used as an alternative to the chlorinated phenols in various parts of the world for the preservation of freshly sawn timber. Less known are the data obtained against brown rot, white rot and soft rot fungi. The termite repellent and bactericidal prop...
R Van der Eynde


The registration of wood preservatives under the Pesticides Act of 1962 in the Netherlands
1976 - IRG/WP 364
J Van der Kolk


The influence of previous anti-blue-stain preservative treatments on the fixation of CC in spruce
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30134
Freshly cut and kiln dried spruce boards were treated with 4 different anti-blue stain preservatives (ABP). After a period of 10 days allowing the samples to dry and fixate, the samples were treated with CC (chromium, copper formulation) using a vacuum pressure cycle. After impregnation the wood was steam fixed. A submersion leaching test showed differences in the leachable quantity of copper and ...
M Van der Zee, W J Homan


Some experiments with hexabutylditin against fungi
1977 - IRG/WP 388
The investigation was carried out in 1972 and 1973 to collect experimental data about the poisonousness of hexabutylditin (HBDT) against the woodrotting fungi Coniophora puteana (Coniophora cerebella), strain 15, and Chaetomium globosum, strain hexabutylditin was being manufactured by the Organisch Chemisch Instituut (O.C.I.) TNO, at Utrecht....
J W P T Van der Drift


Thermotolerant mould growth in dehumidifier kilns in New Zealand
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10169
Growth of Aspergillus fumigatus and Paecilomyces variottii is common on wood dried in dehumidifier kilns that operate within a temperature range of 35-55°C. Aspergillus fumigatus causes an unacceptable blue / grey discolouration of the woods surface and prolonged exposure to spores during handling of mouldy wood can cause health problems amongst timber workers. A survey of dehumidifier kiln opera...
R N Wakeling, J G Van der Waals


Effect of wood moisture on ability of Sphaeropsis sapinea to colonise Pinus radiata
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10311
The factors influencing colonisation of unseasoned radiata pine logs by sapstaining fungi which can result in detrimental wood discolouration, are being explored. The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of wood moisture content on fungal growth and wood colouration (melanisation). Five replicate trials were set up using increment cores (10mm diameter) which were taken from ...
B Kreber, D R Eden, R N Wakeling, C M Chittenden, J G Van der Waals, B Carpenter


Fluoride woodpill
1987 - IRG/WP 3431
Decay problems of spruce joinery in the Netherlands in the 1960's and 1970's led to the introduction of preservative treatment. Because of the known penetration difficulties with Spruce, the results of the treatments were not always successful. The fact that the decay was found only in the joints led to development of the philosophy of "local preservation" of the joints in remedi...
J W P T Van der Drift, K J M Bonsen


Evaluating the potential of modified wood for use in marine environments using a short-term laboratory bioassay
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10525
Chemically modified wood may be an alternative to preservative treated timber for marine structures. In this study a screening laboratory test using the wood-boring isopod crustacean Limnoria quadripunctata was used to assess the durability of chemically modified Pinus sylvestris, Pinus radiata and Picea sp. Most of the treatments used a combination of one of two of types of the resin dimethyloldi...
L M S Borges, S M Cragg, M van der Zee


Modelling the control of decay in freshly felled pine poles
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10206
In a recent study investigating control of decay in freshly felled pine utility poles, it became apparent that the efficacy of different treatment methods was strongly related to the size of the material being treated. A topical application of 5% w/v disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT), brush applied to the cut surfaces of logs with otherwise intact bark was just as effective at excluding white...
M W Schoeman, W Van der Werf, J F Webber, D J Dickinson


The efficacy of Sentry® as a treatment for the control of sapstain in pre-infected radiata pine
2001 - IRG/WP 01-30260
Experiments were conducted to determine the efficacy of Sentry® when used to control sapstain fungi on radiata pine branch billets stored under high fungal hazard conditions. Prior to antisapstain treatment, the billets were pre-infected with a mixed inoculum of staining fungi and held from zero to 10 days at 25°C and 75% relative humidity. This was done to produce billets with different degrees...
C Chittenden, J G van der Waals, B Kreber, R N Wakeling


Comparative study on leaching of CCA from treated timber: Modelling of emission data
1994 - IRG/WP 94-50027
Results of a comparative study on leaching of CCA from treated timber are reported. The study aims at investigating the applicability of prestandard leaching test methods for modelling purposes. Prestandards used are the European standard proposed by CEN/TC38/WG11 and NEN 7345 (Dutch prestandard for building materials). Parameters of study are type of fixation, wood species (pine - spruce), specim...
G M F Van Eetvelde, M Stevens, L Van der Mijnsbrugge


Sentry®, a new antisapstain formulation for protecting logs and lumber. - Part 2: protection of lumber
1999 - IRG/WP 99-30189
Recent research conducted by Forest Research, Chemcolour Industries (NZ) Ltd. and Fletcher Challenge Forest Ltd. has resulted in the development of antisapstain formulations that meet the efficacy requirements of the New Zealand Forest industry for export logs. One treatment, called Sentry®, is now poised for commercial use in New Zealand for treating export logs, having undergone an extensive su...
R N Wakeling, D R Eden, C M Chittenden, J G Van der Waals, B Carpenter, I Dorset, R Kuluz, J Wakeman


Influence of concentration, catalyst, and temperature on dimensional stability of DMDHEU modified scots pine
1998 - IRG/WP 98-40119
Dimethyloldihydroxyethyleneurea (DMDHEU) is being used in textile industry to improve wrinkle recovery. Trials on solid wood have been performed to minimise swelling of the wood. This paper focuses on the effect of various types and concentrations of catalyst and reaction temperature on the dimensional stability of Scots pine. Three different catalysts, NKS (based on magnesium chloride), 3282 (bas...
M Van der Zee, E P J Beckers, H Militz


Effect of treating process on efficacy of CCA in a laboratory decay test
1990 - IRG/WP 3628
Test samples of Pinus radiata sapwood measuring 40x40x500 mm³ were treated with a range of concentrations of the copper-chrome-arsenate (CCA) formulation "Tanalith C" using Rueping (empty cell), Lowry (empty cell) and Bethell (full cell) treatment processes. Samples were then reduced to 40x40x7 mm³ test blocks and exposed to the decay fungus Coniophora puteana using an agar/block technique. Repl...
M E Hedley, K Nasheri, J G Van der Waals


Field performance of novel antisapstain formulations
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30125
The effectiveness as antisapstain formulations of combinations of oxine copper (Cu-8), carbendazim, hexaconazole, cyproconazole, flusilazole, didecyldimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC), an alkanolamine borate (SB), benzalkonium chloride (BAC), 2-n-octylisothiazolin -3-one (isothiazoline) and p-chlorophenyl-3-iodopropagilformal (CPIPF) was determined for freshly sawn, block-stacked radiata pine in th...
D R Eden, R N Wakeling, C M Chittenden, J G Van der Waals


Laboratory trial to identify potential in-forest treatments to control fungal pre-infections of radiata pine logs
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30220
Development of fungal infections of radiata pine logs by wood degrading fungi commences immediately after tree felling. In general, subsequent antisapstain treatments are unable to control fungal degrade on logs where the pre-treatment log storage time exceeds 2-5 days. However, use of an in-forest treatment of logs may be advantageous to log exporters to control fungal pre-infections during the p...
D R Eden, B Kreber, R N Wakeling, J G Van der Waals, C M Chittenden


Effect of bioextracts on colonisation of radiata pine sapwood by three sapstain fungi
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10485
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of aqueous bioextracts prepared following two-week incubation of forest soil, garden compost and chicken manure respectively, on the ability of Ophiostoma flocossum, Leptographium procerum and Sphaeropsis sapinea to colonise unseasoned radiata pine sapwood. The research showed that all bioextracts tested retarded the rate of fungal colonis...
J van der Waals, C Chittenden, B Kreber


Time limits for holding logs to achieve successful antisapstain treatment
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30126
The purpose of these trials was to determine the maximum time that logs can be left in winter and summer before treatment if sapstain, caused by pre-treatment infection, was to be prevented. Pre-treatment storage conditions representative of average temperature and humidity for the winter months of June, July and August, and of moderately severe summer conditions, for the Bay of Plenty, New Zealan...
D R Eden, R N Wakeling, C M Chittenden, J G Van der Waals, B Carpenter


Variable tolerance of Ophiostoma spp. and Diplodia pinea to commercial antisapstain products
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10266
A recent survey of the occurrence of sapstain fungi in New Zealand, conducted at The University of Waikato, provided the opportunity to examine fungicidal tolerance amongst new isolates. It also enabled a comparison of tolerance amongst new isolates with those used in routine antisapstain screening trials at Forest Research. A rapid antisapstain laboratory disc trial was used to determine the ext...
D R Eden, C M Chittenden, B Kreber, J G Van der Waals, R N Wakeling, R L Farrell, T Harrington


Effect of origin and orientation of Radiata pine substrates on the development of fungal degrade
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30221
The objective of this study was to determine the influence of different radiata pine substrates on colonisation by sapstain fungi. Freshly-cut branch wood, stem wood and sawn lumber were used to prepare test samples with the largest wood surface area showing a transverse, radial or tangential face. Test samples were evaluated against sapstain fungi using a rapid laboratory antisapstain screening m...
B Kreber, D R Eden, C M Chittenden, B Carpenter, J G Van der Waals


Sentry®), a new antisapstain formulation for protecting logs and lumber. - Part 1: advances in protection of New Zealand radiata pine logs
1999 - IRG/WP 99-30188
Until recently antisapstain formulations gave approximately 10 weeks protection to radiata pine logs and even within this time frame protection was often not consistent. Industry requires 20 weeks protection. The degree of protection sought by industry is in the order of 90-95%. For example, this equates to a maximum of 5 - 10% surface cover of sapstain in the first whole veneer produced from a pe...
R N Wakeling, D R Eden, C M Chittenden, J G Van der Waals, B Carpenter, I Dorset, R Kuluz, J Wakeman, T Price, B Nairn


The lasting dehydration of wood treated by bifluorides worked up in Diffusec noticed by a continual drying of the wood
1999 - IRG/WP 99-30196
After an immersion of sound wood in a solution of Diffusec, in which a combination of acid potassium and ammonium bifluorides = FHF- in dissociated form is present, their potassium and ammonium fluoride ions together with the bifluoride ion = (FHF-) diffuse into the wood. They make use of the woodmoisture available as O-H-O bonds directly attached to the cellulose in the wood fibres to attract the...
H F M Nijman


Environmental risk assessment of wood preservatives in the Netherlands
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-10
Before biocides can be introduced to the Dutch market, they have to be authorised under the Pesticides Act (1962). The criteria for authorisation of biocides have been laid down in the Dutch Decree on Environmental Requirements for the Authorisation of Pesticides Used in Fields Other than Agriculture. In 1998, the EU Biocides Directive (98/9/EC) entered into force, and it was implemented in May 20...
E Smit, P van der Zandt, J Appelman


Decay potential of various New Zealand Phlebiopsis gigantea strains using a soil block method
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10309
The objective of the current study was to determine the decay potential of different strains of Phlebiopsis gigantea using Pinus radiata and European Fagus sylvatica, respectively. A soil block method was used to determine mass weight loss of P. radiata and F. sylvatica following 10 weeks incubation with different strains of P. gigantea. For comparison, Trametes versicolor, Postia placenta, Gloeop...
B Kreber, J G Van der Waals


Proposal for a method aiming at the quantification of the impact of wood extraction in Life Cycle Assessment
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50113
Life Cycle Assessment has been accepted as an instrument for the assessment of the environmental impact of products. Characterisation factors for impact assessment of emissions from products have been established. To date no characterisation factor exists for the extraction of biotic resources, for example wood. Since the main disadvantage of using wood as a material lies in the extraction of reso...
P Esser, E Van der Voet


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