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The influence of copper (II) chemicals on the weathering of treated wood. Part 1: ACQ treatment of wood on its weathering
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30040
Wood weathering can be accelerated by alkylammonium compound (AAC) treatment, and slowed by ammoniacal copper quat (ACQ) treatment. This study aims at investigating the influence of ACQ treatment of wood, especially the present of copper (II), on its weathering. ACQ, CCA and DDAC treated microtomed sections of southern yellow pine earlywood were prepared and naturally weathered for five periods, t...
Ruiying Liu, J N R Ruddick, L Jin


Leaching Characteristics of Copper in Copper Treated Wood
2003 - IRG/WP 03-30316
The leaching characteristics of copper in copper treated bamboo and other wood species such as slash pine and poplar has been conducted in this paper according to AWPA M11-87 standard, the result indicates that: --Copper fixation rate of salts from organic acids such as citrate and oxalate and malate is less than other non-organic acid formulations. --Copper fixation rate of oven-dried bamboo sa...
Mingliang Jiang, Junliang Liu, Daochun Qin, Yamei Wang, Zehui Jiang


Statistical evaluation of 'micro-bending' samples for classification of wood attacking fungi
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1544
Micro-specimens from both hardwood and softwood were exposed to selected species of field isolated fungi. The strength reduction and weight loss caused by these fungi were determined. A statistical procedure was then developed to classify the fungi into brown-, white-rot, or non-decay fungal categories based on these data. The procedure reveals the extent of hazard a fungus poses to wood members. ...
B Goodell, Jing Liu, A Homola, J Jellison, J Shottafer


Control of the Formosan subterranean termite in China
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10088
The termite fauna of China comprises 44 genera of which approximately 481 species are described. The Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, is one of the most economically important species. Its distribution, the damage it causes, commercial preventive remedial measures in China, are briefly reviewed. Laboratory experiments utilizing either antibiotics or sodium borate on w...
Zhong Junhong, Liu Liling


Laboratory Evaluation and Field Trial of Chlorothalonil and Copper-based Preservatives and Leaching Performance of Copper in Copper Treated Wood
2002 - IRG/WP 02-30279
Soil block test and field trial of some Chinese plantation wood species pine and poplar treated with chlorothalonil formulations and copper-based preservatives such as ACQ-B and copper citrate (CC) were conducted. The results of soil block test indicated that chlorothalonil formulations and ACQ-B as well as CC are very effective for controlling the 2 fungi species Corious versicolor and Poria plac...
Mingliang Jiang, Ping Wang, Chungen Piao, Zhaobang Li, Quan Lu, Lei Liu


Serial techniques for producing fire-retardant wood products
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30127
A series of techniques including fire-retarders denoted by WFR-1, WFR-2. WFR and their applications in producing fire-retardant wood (WFR wood), fire-retardant plywood (WFR plywood), fire-retardant particleboard (WFR particleboard) and fire-retardant MDF (WFR MDF) were investigated The fire retarders were low toxic, decay resistant and less leachable. The treated wood and WFR panels were of excell...
Zhu Jia Qi, Liu Yan Ji, Gao Chao Ying


The role of oxygen and oxygen radicals in one-electron oxidation reactions mediated by low-molecular weight chelators isolated from Gloeophyllum trabeum.markup
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10086
The KTBA assay for determination of one-electron oxidation activity was used to assay reactions of low-molecular weight chelators isolated from the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum. The assay, performed either under air or nitrogen showed that molecular oxygen was an important factor in chelator-mediated oxidation reactions. A reduction in oxidative activity was observed when superoxide dismu...
Jun Lu, B Goodell, Jiang Liu, A Enoki, J Jellison, H Tanaka, F Fekete


Laser incising of spruce lumber for improved preservative penetration
1991 - IRG/WP 3646
Red spruce heartwood specimens were incised using a range of laser beam power levels and pulse durations. The penetration of CCA through these holes into the wood was monitored after pressure treatment. In addition, green and dried spruce samples were incised using two patterns with incision densities of either 16.1 holes/in² or 21.3 holes/in². Following CCA pressure treatment the samples were t...
B Goodell, F A Kamke, Jing Liu


The role of chitinase in bioprotectant activity against staining fungi
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10175
Chitin is an important structural component of the hyphae of many wood staining fungi and its disruption can lead to dramatic declines in their growth. A number of bioprotectants have been shown to produce chitinases in liquid cultures, but the role of these enzymes in bioprotection remains poorly understood. The levels of these enzymes was studied by inoculating ponderosa pine sapwood wafers with...
J Liu, J J Morrell


Three-dimensional modeling of fumigant distribution in wood poles
1993 - IRG/WP 93-30025
The practice of using fumigants to control internal decay has been widely accepted in the United States and has shown to be effect in control internal decay in transmission poles and other large wood timbers. Mathematical models were developed to simulate the chloropicrin movement in utility poles after treatment. The simulation results indicated that treatment of utility poles, using either tradi...
Jing Liu, B Goodell


FTIR studies on the weathering of didecyldimethylammonium compound (DDAC) treated wood
1993 - IRG/WP 93-30013
Wood treated with alkylammonium compounds (AACs), such as DDAC, weathered more rapidly than untreated wood. In order to examine the influence of DDAC treatment of wood on its weathering, treated and untreated microtomed sections of southern yellow pine earlywood of various thicknesses, were prepared and weathered for approximately one month. The changes in these samples were monitored using FTIR. ...
R Liu, J N R Ruddick


A study on insect pests and preservation of fire-damaged timbers in Da Xing An Ling forest region
1991 - IRG/WP 1499
Investigated insect pest of timbers of Da Xing An Ling forest region by means of sampling inspection. Meanwhile we had researched insects pest situation, regularity occurred and biological nature for fire damaged timbers attacked in the log yard. The results showed that the mainly insect species are small black-marmorated longicorn (Monochamus sutor L). We had eagaged in various small tests of tim...
Lu Wenda, Li Jian, Shao Jing Wen, Liu Yixing, Cui Yongzhi


Use of Confocal Profilometry to Quantify the Weathering of Wood
2009 - IRG/WP 09-20421
The methods that have been used to screen chemicals for their ability to prevent the weathering of wood involve assessing the loss in weight and tensile strength of treated wood veneers or measuring the rate of erosion of exposed and unexposed (masked) wood subjected to weathering. The erosion of wood during natural weathering occurs slowly and long exposure times are required to produce differenc...
Chunling Liu, P Evans


The Promotion of Timber and Timber Product uses in China - Government's Role in Regulation and Standardization
2009 - IRG/WP 09-20424
Chinese Government always pays special attention to resource and environmental issues, therefore, resource saving and environmental protection are part of the basic state policies. This paper provides a brief summary of the key policies which guide the practices in promoting timber conservation and efficient utilization in order to meeting social demands of the wood uses. In the paper, the develop...
Liu Nengwen


Preliminary Observations of the Photostabilization of Wood Surfaces with Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40504
Reactive transition metal compounds, wood modification and grafting of UV absorbers have all been used to photostabilize wood. Some of these approaches are promising, but the toxicity of certain reactive transition metal compounds and the cost of wood modification and grafting have restricted their commercial applications. Hence, more cost-effective and environmentally friendly methods of protecti...
Chunling Liu, A Ahniyaz, P Evans


Preparation and characterization of activated carbon fibers prepared from liquefied wood
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40636
Activated carbon fibers were prepared from liquefied wood through stream activation. The effects of activation temperature and time on the microstructure and surface functional groups of the liquefied wood activated carbon fibers (LWACFs) were studied using analysis of burning behavior, X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and SEM. The resu...
Wenjing Liu, Guangjie Zhao


Facile in-situ growth of Ag-TiO2 nanoparticles on polydopamine modified bamboo with excellent mildew-proofing
2019 - IRG/WP 19-30734
Bamboo with good mechanical properties, fast growth rate and low growth cost is one of very utilitarian structural material from forest resources only less important than wood. But it is especially easy to mildew during outdoor service resulting in appearance mould scattering and corrosion. In this work, a facile method was developed to increased mildew-proofinging capability of bamboo. Mussel-ins...
J Hu, Z Lu, G Liu, S Chang, Y Liu, X Li


Antifouling wood matrix with natural water transfer and micro reaction channels for water treatment
2019 - IRG/WP 19-40853
Wood with abundant nutrition transport channels could be considered as a kind of natural water purifier due to quick and effective passages for separation. Nevertheless, microporosity as main porous structure of initial wood are not enough to effectively separate small molecular, such as organic dye pollutants. Meanwhile, like most filters the fouling resulting in blocking and poor water flux will...
G Liu, D Xu, S Chang, J Hu, Xianjun Li5, Y Liu


Wood veneer with high flexible decorated with nanoparticles for highly efficient water treatment
2019 - IRG/WP 19-50347
Natural wood is mainly comprised of numerous long, partially aligned channels (lumens) as well as nanochannels. Wood with these quick and effective passages is suitable for a membrane/separation material. However, a suitable thickness range of wood along its growth direction is essential to effectively separate small molecular, and the wood membrane is too thick to clean easily. In this paper, woo...
S Chang, D Xu, G Liu, J Hu, X Li, Y Liu