Your search resulted in 1214 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
L-joint trials: Part 3: Relative performance of a range of preservative products
2002 - IRG/WP 02-30292
Long-term trials using the L-joints described in BS EN 330 and AWPA Standard E9-97 have been in progress at BRE since 1982. This paper records the current assessments of decay of L-joints in trials started between 1982 and 1994 with treatments applied to both Scots pine sapwood (Pinus sylvestris) and spruce (Picea sp.). Data are provided on a range of active ingredients including TnBTO, PCP, a...
J K Carey
Natural progression of decay in unrestrained, Southern pine sapwood exposed above ground
1995 - IRG/WP 95-20060
In this study, the natural progression of decay is being monitored in 2.4-m (8-ft) lengths of dimension lumber. The 2.4-m lengths are supported without restraint in a horizontal plane approximately 0.75 m above ground in a partially shaded field plot in southern Mississippi. The lumber is 100% sapwood. Prior to installation in the field, each piece was planed to exactly 38 by 89 mm² (1.5 by 3.5 i...
R C De Groot, R J Ross, W Nelson
L-joint trials: Part 1: Observations on the process of colonisation and decay
2002 - IRG/WP 02-20250
The first trials using the small L-joint, later adopted for use in BS EN 330 and AWPA Standard E9-97 were exposed at BRE in 1975 but all were assessed destructively during the early stages of exposure. The longest running trial which included replicates for long-term exposure will have been exposed for 20 years in July 2002. This paper provides an overview of the results of testing during that p...
J K Carey
Soft Rot Decay of Cengal (Neobalanocarpus heimii) Heartwood in Ground Contact in Relation to Extractive Microdistribution
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10501
The heartwood of cengal (Neobalanocarpus heimii, fam. Dipterocarpaceae) is naturally durable. A square-sawn utility pole specimen of cengal heartwood, after 30 years in ground contact, showed 10-15 mm surface decay all around the ground line position, accompanied with isolated surface termite attack at the decayed region. Light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the decayed regions prov...
A P Singh, A H H Wong, Yoon Soo Kim, Seung-Gon Wi, Kwang Ho Lee
Colonization of treated and untreated ponderosa pine exposed in Hilo, Hawaii
1995 - IRG/WP 95-20068
The rate of decay in above ground exposures is largely controlled by rainfall and temperature, factors which can be used to construct a climate index of decay hazard in above ground exposures. Developers of new biocide formulations have utilized this knowledge by establishing test sites in sub-tropical regions such as the Gulf Coast of the United States. More recently, field sites have been locate...
C M Freitag, J J Morrell, K J Archer
Comparison of the in-ground performance of pigment emulsified creosote (PEC) and high temperature creosote (HTC)
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30217
A long-term field trial was conducted in Australia to compare the in-ground performance of two oil-borne preservative formulations, conventional high temperature creosote (HTC) and a modified creosote formulation, pigment emulsified creosote (PEC). Three retentions (50, 100 and 200 kg/m³) were targeted for each formulation. An additional retention of PEC formulation (308 kg/m³), which contained ...
J W Creffield, H Greaves, N Chew, N K Nguyen
International comparison of three field methods for assessing the in-ground resistance of preservative-treated and untreated wood to termites and fungal decay – Summary of observations after five years
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20261
Results are presented from a five-year study conducted in five locations in Australia, Thailand and the USA. Three methods of exposure were assessed (below-ground, graveyard and ground contact) for evaluating the in-ground termite and decay resistance of Pinus radiata D. Don sapwood stakes that had been vacuum pressure impregnated with CCA (Type C) and ACQ (Type D) each at two nominal retentions (...
M Lenz, J W Creffield, T A Evans, B M Kard, C Vongkaluang, Y Sornnuwat, A F Preston
Three years of field tests with "Lignomer" stakes in ground contact
1981 - IRG/WP 3166
The "Lignomer" (Wood Polymer Composite) is a material obtained during the polymerisation of various monomers or its mixtures in wood. As laboratory tests have shown, this material is characterized by a high resistance against biological deteriorating agents. The laboratory investigations on the durability of various materials against biological deterioration are in many instances extended by field...
The ground proximity decay test method
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20205
A decay field test method, which has been recently proposed for the standardization by the AWPA, is described for evaluating the relative performance of wood samples in a severe above ground situation exposed to the weather. Data is presented on the relative performance of untreated control samples and standard preservative systems exposed at the same site at different time periods, or at differen...
A F Preston, P J Walcheski, K J Archer, A R Zahora, L Jin
Moisture content and other tested values in. Double layer tests of different size in Lithuania and Germany
2004 - IRG/WP 04-20299
The paper presents measurement results of moisture content and the analysis of durability trial of double layer wood in variants of varying size, conducted in Girionys, Kaunas distr., Lithuania and in Hamburg, Germany. In this trial 3 sample sets of varying size, containing 25, 50 and 100 specimens, are used. The aim of this trial is to ascertain an optimal number of test specimens. The dynamics o...
J Saladis, A O Rapp
Bethoguard; A new wood protecting fungicide for use in metal free ground contact wood preservatives
2002 - IRG/WP 02-30301
Research has identified the limitations in both the spectrum of activity and permanence of organic biocides placed in wood in high hazard environments, particularly in the absence of heavy metals such as copper. More specifically, the control of soft rot decay in wood in soil contact has proven to be most problematic. The new organic biocide, Bethoguard; an oxathiazine, has demonstrated excellen...
S C Forster, G R Williams, M Van Der Flaas, M Bacon, J Gors
Performance of above ground decay test units treated with a substituted isothiazolone
1989 - IRG/WP 3503
RH 287, a substituted isothiazolone, was evaluated for efficacy against decay fungi in an above ground test in Mississippi. After 45 months of exposure, all test units that were pressure treated with this biocide at levels of 0.026 pcf and higher have no deterioration. In addition, the test units that were dip-treated with a solution concentration of 0.5% also have no deterioration. Compared to pe...
D D Nicholas, J A Wilson, D E Greenley
Predicting the decay resistance of timber above-ground: 1. Climate effects
2006 - IRG/WP 06-20330
Despite the benefits of using timber as a building product, it is disadvantaged by current Australian Standard durability classifications which lack the sensitivity desired by engineers and architects. To address the need for more sensitive timber service-life information in Australia, an above-ground durability research program was established in 1987. One focus of research is the relationship be...
L P Francis, J Norton
Decay Hazard Classifications in China for Exterior Above-Ground Wood
2007 - IRG/WP 07-20357
A decay hazard map for exterior above-ground wood structures is presented based on Scheffer’s Climate Index, with the major purpose of promoting awareness for proper protection of wood structures in different locations in China. A very large area in the South, including southern Yunnan, most of Sichuan Province and Chongqing, and part of Hunan, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangxi, and Zhejiang, as well as all...
J Wang, X Wu, M Jiang, P I Morris
Predicting the decay resistance of timber above-ground: 2. When can reliable field data be obtained?
2007 - IRG/WP 07-20368
Application of modern performance-based engineering and design requires building products that are thoroughly characterised in terms of their ability to perform as expected over time. The engineering community is attempting to use this information to provide predicted service-lives for various building elements. Increasingly, this service-life prediction must be based on objective measurement coup...
L P Francis, A J Swain, J J Morrell
Water repellency and dimensional stabilIty of wodd treated with waterborne resin acids/TOR
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40364
Wood used in above ground applications such as decking undergoes undesired dimensional changes leading to the lumber warping, cupping, splitting, etc. This is a major concern to consumers but it can be reduced by treating lumber with a water repellent. The ability of resin acids, hydrophobic compounds naturally present in southern yellow pines, was examined as a possible water repellent. A wate...
T P Schultz, D D Nicholas, J Shi
Durability of some alternatives to preservative-treated wood. Progress report 2: Results from field tests after 5 years’exposure
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30442
A number of alternatives to preservative-treated wood have been tested according to EN 252 (stake test) and a specially designed ground-proximity field test, the latter in Sweden as well as in Hawaii, USA. Seven untreated wood species and four alternative wood treatments labelled as environmentally friendly (acetylation, linseed oil, heat treatment, vinyl polymer) were included in the study. Four ...
M-L Edlund, J Jermer
Performance of softwood preservative treated stakes after 4 years exposure in-ground to decay fungi and termites in tropical Australia
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10643
This field study was based on the 1993 IUFRO method and designed as a graveyard (in-ground) test in the tropical region of the Northern Territory to examine the efficacy of novel preservative formulations developed as alternative protection for softwood timber against decay fungi and termites for Hazard Class 3 and 4. This study was supported by the Forest and Wood Products Research and Develop...
B M Ahmed (Shiday), J R J French, S R Przewloka, P Vinden, J A Hann, P Blackwell
Validity of above ground testing according to ENV 12037
2008 - IRG/WP 08-20379
The standard ENV 12037 for testing of treated and untreated wood (lap-joint) exposed above ground was issued in 1996 by The European Committee for Standardization. A draft for the development of the standard was presented by CEN-TC 38/WG 25/DOC N 076 in 2002. For a test to become valid the median rating of decay for untreated control replicates (Scots pine sapwood) must be equal or greater than ...
Ö Bergman, U Råberg, N Terziev
Above Ground Field Testing – Influence of test method and location on the relative performance of various preservative systems
2008 - IRG/WP 08-20393
Standardized above ground tests such as the lap-joint or test deck methods can be very slow in producing useful information on the relative performance of wood preservative systems. It often requires many years for decay to develop in wood treated to sub-optimal concentrations of standardized preservatives, making relative comparisons of performance between new systems and established preservativ...
Effect of a biological treatment on below ground decay of Douglas-fir pole sections
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40433
The use of exogenous sugars to accelerate microbial growth and eventually limit available oxygen in soil surrounding wood in soil contact was investigated on untreated Douglas-fir poles exposed over a 3 year period in Western Oregon. Isolation frequencies differed markedly between treated and untreated poles and the treatment did appear to shift the frequency of some basidiomycetes. The treatment ...
C Freitag and J J Morrell
Evaluation of variables that influence dynamic MOE in wood decay studies
2009 - IRG/WP 09-20409
The effect of wood moisture content (MC) and outdoor exposure of southern pine lap-joint components on dynamic MOE values was investigated. The use of dynamic MOE as a method of measuring progressive biodeterioration of above ground test samples shows promise, but the accuracy of this method for evaluating test samples subjected to fluctuating environmental conditions has not been reported. The re...
D Nicholas, J Shi, T Schultz
Accelerated H3 above-ground decay trials in Australia
2009 - IRG/WP 09-20411
An above-ground H3 fungal field trial was installed at five sites (3 in Australia, 2 in New Zealand), with the aim of finding a method that would shorten the time required for evaluating new preservatives and protection systems. One-quarter of the H3 preservative retentions were mostly installed, as first results suitable for registration occur when these reach 70% soundness. Chemical analysis of ...
L J Cookson, J Carr
Service life prediction of wooden components – Part 1: Determination of dose-response functions for above ground decay
2010 - IRG/WP 10-20439
Scots pine sapwood (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Douglas fir heartwood (Pseudotsuga menziesii Franco) specimens were exposed in double layer field trials at 24 different European test sites under different exposure conditions (in total 28 test sets). The material climate in terms of wood moisture content (MC) and wood temperature was automatically recorded over a period of up to eight years and compar...
C Brischke, A O Rapp
Comparison of rates of wood decay from four different field test protocols following 4-5 years exposure at a site in New Zealand
2011 - IRG/WP 11-30565
The rate of decay of Pinus radiata was evaluated using four different field test protocols at a site near New Plymouth, New Zealand. The average Scheffer index was 86 over the five year period of testing. The field tests were an in-ground stake test (AWPA Std E7-01) and three above ground tests – lap-joint (AWPA Std E16-98), decking (AWPC protocol) and ground proximity tests (AWPA Std E18-06) T...
P Lobb, K Day, A Siraa