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Experiments on the degradation of tributyltin oxide: A progress report
1984 - IRG/WP 3287
A variety of experiments designed to assess the chemical and physical factors affecting the degradation of tributyltin oxide in treated timber are described. Simple procedures in which temperature and oxygen availability were increased in the presence of wood and water suggest that the wood itself was of prime importance. Attempts to decrease degradation with antioxidants were unsuccessful but led to the idea that free radicals may be instrumental in the degradative mechanism. Subsequent work in which a range of antioxidants and free radical producing systems were used confirmed the susceptibility of tributyltin oxide to the action of free radicals. It is suggested that the presence of free radicals in the painted and treated wood system may be an important factor in the eventual degradation of tributyltin oxide.
R J Orsler, G E Holland


Production, function and neutralization of oxalic acid produced by the dry rot fungus and other brown rot fungi
1987 - IRG/WP 1330
The formation of oxalic acid by the wood-destroying fungi causing brown rot, is found to be the key which by hydrolysing the hemicellulose brings the cellulose in the tracheid wall in contact with the cellulase enzymes and yeld watersoluble sugars leaving only a lignin skeleton. To control the pH in the substrate the excess oxalic acid is precipitated to water insoluble calcium oxalate by the dry rot fungus in contact with a calcium source. As source glass can be used, however, mortar, concrete or clay soil is better. Heavy metals that form complex compounds with oxalic acid can substitute calcium certain to a degree. The wet rot fungus Coniophora putenea is not dependent on calcium like the dry rot fungus. By producing acetic as well as oxalic acid it might form a buffer solution which controls the pH in the substrate.
J Bech-Andersen


Effects of acetic acid and nitric acid pre-treatment on copper content of spruce wood treated with CBA-A and CCA
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40406
This work investigates the effects of nitric acid and acetic acid on compression strength values and copper retention contents of refractory spruce wood (Picea oriental L.) treated with the waterborne preservative Copper azole, (CBA-A, Tanalith-E 3492) and copper / chrom / arsenic (CCA). Before the CBA-A and CCA treatment, the samples were immersed in 500 ml of nitric and acetic acid solutions for two different durations (3 and 6 hours). A 2 % active ingredient solutions of CBA-A and CCA were applied for use in vacuum treatment of the sapwood samples. According to the results, average copper contents of the specimens were higher than that of the control groups except of the 3-hours nitric acid treatment in CCA and CBA-A impregnation. Acetic acid exhibited better performance than nitric acid although it was used at lower concentration. The highest copper content values were obtained in the variations of the 6-hours acetic acid pre-treatments for both CCA and CBA-A impregnations. Compression strength values generally slightly increased compared to the control groups.
S Yildiz, E Dizman, Ü C Yildiz


Surface moulds and staining fungi on acetylated wood – effect of increasing acetyl content
2013 - IRG/WP 13-10797
Wood used in outside applications is susceptible to weathering and photo degradation, which often leads to surface discoloration, loss of brightness and surface deterioration. Research has shown that acetylated wood is more resistant against brown rot, white rot and soft rot, and more dimensionally stable than untreated wood. However, acetylated wood seems still to be disfigured by surface moulds and staining fungi. Samples of acetylated Southern Yellow pine at three different treatment levels; low, intermediate and high acetyl content were exposed outdoors at Ås (Norway) for a period of 9 months. Corresponding samples from the same material where tested according to a modified version of EN 15457 (agar plate test) using A.pullulans as test fungi. In the outdoor test unmodified wood had higher mould ratings than acetylated wood, and there was a tendency that samples with low acetyl content had lower mould ratings than samples with higher acetyl content. In the laboratory test, non-leached samples with high acetyl content had significantly higher mould rating than samples with lower acetyl content and unmodified samples. In this study a concentration of free acetic acid of 0.77% seemed to restrict growth of A.pullulans on samples of a high treatment level.
L Ross Gobakken, S Bardage, C J Long II


Short-term protection of palm wood against moulds and decay fungi by environment-friendly organic acids
2015 - IRG/WP 15-10843
Felled palm trunks are susceptible to fungi as long as their moisture content is above fibre saturation. During this period, it has to be protected against moulds and decay fungi. The study tested environmental-friendly organic acids for their protecting efficiency. Small samples of Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) and Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) wood were treated with weak organic acids and subsequently infected by moulds and wood-decay fungi. Short dipping of the samples in solutions of 5% acetic acid and propionic acid, respectively, protected all samples for two months from colonization by Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp., Cladosporium sp., and by a natural infection. Boric acid (4%) used in practice for protection was ineffective. Decay tests with the white-rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus, the brown-rot species Coniophora puteana and the soft-rot fungus Chaetomium globosum showed that both acids prevented most samples from fungal colonization and reduced decay considerably during two months.
M Bahmani, O Schmidt


Prevention of fungal damage of oil and date palm wood by organic acids
2017 - IRG/WP 17-10877
Felled palm trunks are susceptible to fungi as long as their moisture content is above fibre saturation. During this period, palm wood has to be protected against mould and rot fungi. Environmental-friendly organic acids are suitable. Small samples of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) and date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) wood were treated with 1 to 10% solutions of acetic acid and propionic acid, respectively, and subsequently infected by moulds, blue-stain and wood-decay fungi. Short dipping of the samples in 2% solutions of both acids protected all samples for two months from colonization and discolouration by Aspergillus niger, Penicillium commune, Mucor sp., and a natural infection. A blue-stain fungus was inhibited by 5% solutions. Decay tests with the white-rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus, the brown-rot species Coniophora puteana and the soft-rot fungus Chaetomium globosum showed that 5 and 10% solutions of both acids reduced degradation.
M Bahmani, O Schmidt


Synergistic effect of boron on Streptomyces rimosus metabolites in preventing conidial germination of sapstain and mold fungi
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1565
We evaluated the synergistic effect of boron (4% BAE solution of Tim-Bor or 4% boric acid) on Streptomyces rimosus metabolites in preventing spore germination of sapstain and mold fungi using plate bioassay, Southern yellow pine and sweetgum block tests, and green pine log sections: sapstain -- Ceratocystis coerulescens, Ceratocystis minor, and Aureobasidum pullulans; mold fungi -- Aspergillus niger, Penicillium spp, and Trichoderma spp. Inhibition of spore germination in plate bioassay by metabolites with boron was more effective than without added boron. Treatment of wood samples with the mixture of boron and unconcentrated metabolites also resulted in the synergistic effect and completely inhibited spore germination of sapstain and mold fungi.
S C Croan, T L Highley


A new concept of oxalic acid biosynthesis in physiology of copper-tolerant brown-rot fungi
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10394
Recently, a wide variety of roles of oxalic acid (oxalate) in wood decay systems have been receiving much attention. Copper tolerance of wood-rotting basidiomycetes has been believed to be due to the detoxification of copper wood preservatives by oxalate produced by these fungi. However, biochemical mechanism of oxalate biosynthesis in relation to physiology of wood-rotting fungi has not been elucidated although two oxalate-forming enzymes, oxaloacetase and glyoxylate dehydrogenase, have been studied in our laboratory. Recently, a new role of glyoxylate cycle in oxalate biosynthesis in wood- rotting fungi has been presented, and the cycle commonly occurred to varying extents among the fungi although they were grown on glucose. Enzymatic analyses showed that isocitrate was cleaved by isocitrate lyase in the glyoxylate cycle rather than oxidized by isocitrate dehydrogenase in tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and the fungi were found to lack a normal TCA cycle due to the absence of - ketoglutarate dehydrogenase. It is noteworthy that glucose was efficiently converted to oxalate in a theoretical yield of about 80%, accumulating in the culture media of F. palustris. The results further indicate that acetyl-CoA derived from glucose was not completely oxidized to CO2 in TCA cycle but was mainly converted to oxalate with help of the other coupling metabolic cycles, including glyoxylate cycle. Formation of oxalate from several intermediary metabolites using cell-free extracts of F. palustris confirmed that oxalate is also the final product of the metabolic pathway in the in vitro system. Thus, it is proposed as a new concept that most of copper-tolerant brown-rot fungi may acquire the energy by oxidizing glucose to oxalate, i.e. oxalate fermentation expressed in the following equation; Glucose + 5O2 --> 2 Oxalate + 2CO2 + 4H2O.
E Munir, T Hattori, M Shimada


Response of the Formosan Subterranean Termite (Coptotermes formosanus) to Cellulose Insulation Treated with Boric Acid in Choice and No-Choice Tests.
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10532
The tunneling ability of the Formosan subterranean termite Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki through a cellulose insulation material containing11.1% boric acid was tested in choice and no-choice bioassays. We examined tunneling behavior and mortality of termites exposed to treated and untreated insulation material in miniature simulated wall voids. In a choice test termites tunneled through untreated insulation in all but one of the replicates used. Termites were unable to fully penetrate any of the replicates containing treated insulation and experienced a significantly higher mortality (78.4 ± 18.4%) than termites exposed to untreated insulation (11.6 ± 5.6%, F = 60.4, df = 1, P < 0.0001). In a no- choice test termites fully penetrated all replicates containing untreated insulation and experienced 37.1 ± 37.2% mortality. Termites exposed to treated insulation in this test experienced a significantly higher mortality of 100.0% (F = 14.3, df = 1, P < 0.005), and did not fully penetrate the treated insulation.
M E Mankowski, J K Grace


Boron treatments for the preservation of wood - A review of efficacy data for fungi and termites
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30037
Boron treatments have been used for many decades for protection of timber from biological attack and also as a fire retardant treatment. In recent years there has been an increased interest in boron treatments as an option for protection of structural timbers&apos; e.g. timber framing used in termite risk areas. This paper reviews efficacy data for both fungi and termites relevant to this end-use.
J A Drysdale


Preliminary results of investigations on screening test of chemical compounds suitable for the preservation of lignocellulosic materials against biodeterioration
1976 - IRG/WP 262
This paper investigates the possibilities of reducing the time needed for the determination of the effectiveness of chemical compounds from the point of view of their eventual application to lignocellulosic materials for preservation against decay and soft-rot.
K Lutomski, S S Neyman


Patent on the use of tannic acid and ferric chloride against marine borers, etc
1982 - IRG/WP 495
R Mitchell, T D Sleeter


The influence of boric acid on respiratory quotients and methane production of subterranean termites
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10136
The toxicity of boron compounds to subterranean termites (Reticulitermes lucifugus) was studied by analysing changes in the levels of oxygen uptake respiratory quotients and methane production. Termites were fed with filter paper treated at different levels of boric acid, the RQ was evaluated by constant volume manometry and the methane production by gas chromatography. Results are discussed in relation to termite gut symbiontes.
L Nunes, D J Dickinson


Comparative investigations on the influence of wood seasoning, wood properties and temperature on the toxic values of wood preservatives against Hylotrupes egg larvae
1970 - IRG/WP 28
Comparative tests carried out at three institutes indicated the influence of kiln temperature, position of wood specimens in the cross sectional area and test temperature on the toxic values determined in accordance with DIN 52165 with egg larvae of the house longhorn beetle (Hylotrupes bajulus L.). The preservatives applied were boric acid in distilled water and g-benzene-hexachloride dissolved in chloroform; the timber species used was pine sapwood, (Pinus sylvestris L.). The method of seasoning had no influence on the toxic values of boric acid. With the g-BHC, however, the toxic values gradually increased with rising kiln temperatures (20°C, 70°C, 105°C). With boric acid the position of the sapwood samples in the log had no influence on the toxic efficacy; with g-BHC the efficacy was slightly greater in the outer sapwood, compared with the inner sapwood. The test temperatures (20°C, 24°C, 28°C) yielded different toxicity results for boric acid. At 24°C and 28°C the threshold values were somewhat below those of 20°C; they agreed with the values obtained at 20°C after a longer test period. With g-BHC different temperatures did not affect the results. An explanation is suggested for the causes of the influence exerted by the kiln temperature and wood properties on the toxic values of g-BHC. There was good agreement between the toxic values obtained in the different institutes.
G Becker, T Hof, O Wälchli


Options for accelerated boron treatment: A practical review of alternatives
1985 - IRG/WP 3329
Boron wood preservatives are almost exclusively applied by momentary immersion and block diffusion storage. Alternative techniques are described which can be used to accelerate boron treatment. Diffusion coefficients have been derived to define the acceleration of diffusion with increasing temperature. Schedules are described for pressure impregnation of green timber, involving steam conditioning, evacuation and alternating pressure method treatment. Timber Preservation Authority penetration and retention requirements can be met in approximately 4-5 h. The optimum schedule, however, included a 12 hour holding period between steaming and preservative treatment. A method of applying boron preservatives as a vapour is described, Trimethyl borate vapour reacts with wood moisture to form boric acid. The kinetics of this reaction, however, are very fast. This limits treatment to timber dried to very low wood moisture contents.
P Vinden, T Fenton, K Nasheri


Movement of boron from fused boron rods implanted in Southern pine, Douglas fir, red oak, and white oak timbers
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30061
This paper reports the distribution of boron from fused boron rods installed into six-inch (15.2 cm) square timbers of Douglas-fir, Southern Pine, red oak and white oak exposed aboveground. The composition and size of rods was: sodium borate and sodium borate-copper oxide (8.5 x 100 mm²); sodium borate-copper, sodium borate and boric oxide-copper oxide (12 x 76 mm²). The boric acid equivalent was roughly monitored by the curcumin/salicylic acid color test and the presence of copper was detected by the chrome azurol-S reagent. One year after installation of rods, movement of boron was determined by application of curcumin dye to increment cores removed at various distances from the site of boron rod installation. A portion of a sodium borate treated Southern Pine timber was also analyzed by spraying curcumin dye on sawed longitudinal and transverse sections. At 2 years, one foot sections were removed from all timber species, sawed as above, and boron and copper detection reagent sprayed on the sawed surfaces. Movement of copper from rods in all timbers was virtually nil. Both transverse and longitudinal movement of boron from rods was greatest in Southern pine which also had the highest moisture content. Movement of boron was next best in red oak. There was little movement of boron away from the rods in white oak and Douglas-fir.
T L Highley, L Ferge


A new approach to the maintenance problems of wooden railway sleepers
1986 - IRG/WP 3392
The microenvironment of wooden railway sleepers is being investigated to assess their condition to determine the necessary treatment, repair and replacement criteria. The research work involves the development of an integrity tester to determine the condition of sleepers, a remedial treatment of sleepers by selective application of boric acid and a synthetic repair system.
W Beauford, P I Morris.


Diffusion treatment plants (Latin America - Africa)
1974 - IRG/WP 333
B N Prasad


A field test with Benzotar, an industrial residue, as a wood preservative
1985 - IRG/WP 3349
Benzotar, a residue of production of benzoic acid, was tested in field as a wood preservative. Results, after 6.5 years of exposure, showed that this product presents properties that improve the performance of wood in ground contact. This paper describes these results and presents a discussion an some aspects of its potential utilization in Brazil.
S Milano, L R Silva


CCA fixation experiments. Part 2
1989 - IRG/WP 3505
CCA fixation in wood was measured by both squeezing solution from treated wood that had not been dried and analyzing the solution for copper, chromium and arsenic, as well as using a chromotropic acid test to detect the presence of chromium VI. Both methods provide useful information on the CCA fixation process and illustrate that chromium VI disappears as CCA becomes fixed within wood.
W S McNamara


Testing of alkylammonium compounds
1981 - IRG/WP 2152
Following laboratory soil block tests which showed that Bardac 20 possessed a fungicidal threshold similar to that of chromated copper arsenate, treated ponderosa pine sapwood stakes were installed in a field test site near Vancouver, Canada. Two years after installation all the stakes show signs of fungal degradation. Seven stakes have been removed from the test due to total loss of strength after only two years, and many others are near failure due to extensive decay. It may be concluded from this study, that under the conditions of the test, Bardac 20 has failed to prevent wood-destroying fungi from decaying the stakes. Further investigation of treated "check" stakes and failed field tested stakes has revealed an uneven distribution of the chemical in some stakes treated to low retentions.
J N R Ruddick


In-situ pressure injection for preservation of rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis Muel Arg.)
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3688
Rubber wood is widely used for the manufacture of furniture, doors for housing and packing cases. However in an untreated condition it is highley susceptible to sapstain and decay fungi and borers. Its utility gets considerably reduced if the wood is not treated well in time. Preservative treatment has to be given within the period of felling and transport to prevent not only loss of structural properties and wood material. Although Boucherie, hot-cold bath diffusion, pressure impregnation, vacuum-pressure impregnation processes for treating timbers have been successfully employed for protection, but the process in cumbersome and difficult to adopt at the site of extraction. Hence, it was found necessary to evolve a simple and convenient method to treat trees in-Situ. A simple pressure injection technique was adopted to treat the standing tree using an instrument designed at the Institute (IWST). This instrument is easy to operate and inexpensive. It was observed that the movement of preservatives was satisfactory and effective. Samples of wood taken from treated stem of such trees were subjected to attack by brown and white rot fungi in the laboratory. It was observed that wood samples treated with Borax, boric acid and Bavistin (1:1:0.2); Borax, boric acid and Sodium pentachlorophenoxide (1:1.5:1) and Bavistin and Ekalux (0.5:0.5) showed higher resistance to fungi and insect attack compared to boric acid and Borax (1:1) in both laboratory and field conditions. Treated wood also retained natural colour and was free from fungal and insect attack for over 24 months in storage. Studies in this method of treatment of plantations species are in progress.
H S Ananthapadmanabha, V R Sivaramakrishnan


Localization of oxalate decarboxylase in the brown-rot fungus Postia placenta
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10161
Oxalate decarboxylase, the enzyme that breaks oxalic acid down into formic acid and carbon dioxide, was recently detected in mycelial extracts of the brown-rot fungus Postia placenta. Differential centrifugation was used to demonstrate that the enzyme is loosely associated with the hyphal surface. Enzyme activity can be removed by washing the hyphae with a low pH buffer. Only low levels of activity were detected in soluble and membrane-bound intracellular fractions. The presence of the enzyme on the hyphal surface and possibly in the hyphal sheath supports the hypothesis that this brown-rot fungus actively regulates the pH and oxalic acid concentration of its environment.
J A Micales


Effect of fatty acid removal on treatability of Douglas-fir
1993 - IRG/WP 93-40008
Treatment of Douglas-fir with chromated-copper-arsenate (CCA) poses a major challenge. Several hypotheses based on the anatomical aspects as well as chemical reactivity of the preservative formulations with cell wall constituents and deposits have been proposed. Techniques to prevent pit aspiration or slow fixation reactions have, however, not significantly improved treatment. The presence of high molecular weight fatty acids have been reported to be responsible for higher hydrophobicity in some wood species. These acids can react with Cu+2/Cr+3 ions to form insoluble metallic soaps, thereby immobilizing Cu/Cr and increasing wood hydrophobicity by a mechanism similar to that employed in paper sizing. The effect of fatty acids on treatability was explored by removing these components via several extraction methods. In general, extracted wood had higher gross solution absorptions and chemical retentions, but preservative penetration was largely unaffected. The results suggest that removal or disruption of fatty acids can improve treatability of Douglas-fir heartwood.
S Kumar, J J Morrell


First draft of a monographic card for Fomitopsis pinicola (Fr.) Karst
1980 - IRG/WP 196
P W Perrin


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