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Termiticide Residues in Building Foundation Aggregate Fills After Trench and Surface Applications
2015 - IRG/WP 15-30679
Termiticide concentrations (ppm) in aggregate fill were determined by measuring active ingredient (a.i.) residues of two pyrethroid termiticides, Up-Cyde Pro® 2EC-cypermethrin, and BaseLine® EC-bifenthrin, at 24.0 hours, and then at 6.0- and 12.0-months after ‘horizontal’ surface applications, perimeter ‘trenching and rodding’ applications, or ‘rodding only’ trench applications at lowest label rates to two common building construction aggregate foundation fills often used in the state of Oklahoma, USA. Residues were determined within 5.1-cm-deep multiple-core composite aggregate fill samples extracted after surface applications, and 15.2-cm-deep multiple-core composite samples extracted from interior foundation perimeter trenches. Before termiticide applications were conducted, all test plots were raked to a level surface, then half the test plots were compacted and half remained not compacted. Residue concentrations were significantly influenced by aggregate fill type, regardless ofwhether compacted or not compacted.
B M Kard, C E Koneman, K T Shelton, C C Luper, R A Grantham

Techniques for field assessment of particulate termite barriers
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10376
Field testing of particulate termite barriers poses problems different from those encountered when testing preservatives or soil termiticides. To ensure an adequate level of challenge, and minimise the risk of a Type II error, the experimental design must promote termite activity and provide a significant, readily detectable, food source which can only be reached by penetrating the test barrier. In this paper we describe the development of techniques for tests with the wholly subterranean Mastotermes darwiniensis and epigeous mound builder Coptotermes acinaciformis and the application of these techniques to explore the particle/building material interface.
D M Ewart, E R Rawlinson

Comparison of various types of bait containers designed to aggregate large numbers of foraging subterranean termites from natural populations in below-ground mound colonies
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10116
At Walpeup in the semi-arid mallee country of north-west Victoria (350 km from Melbourne), there are several indigenous subterranean termite species, none of which build above-ground mound colonies but build their colonies below-ground and/or in trees. This paper describes a baiting experiment in which three types of bait containers were compared in their ability to aggregate large numbers of foraging subterranean termites of the Coptotermes species. These species were targeted as they are considered the most economically important termite "pests" of wood and wood products in Australia. The area was pre-baited with radiata pine timbers that were buried just below the surface of the soil and located around trees and vegetation that were infested with Coptotermes species. After foraging termites had located and attacked the pre-baits, the various types of bait containers were installed on top of the infested pre-bait material. Bait containers were removed after five weeks and each was replaced by fresh bait containers. This occurred three times. All bait containers were transported to our laboratory in Melbourne and the mass of aggregated termites in each container weighed and wood consumption estimated. Bait containers that were half buried in the ground and covered with large plastic sheets and soil proved the most "attractive" of the various containers used in this field experiment. Also, the wood consumption rates of the two Coptotermes species collected from the field were compared in laboratory bioassays.
J R J French, B M Ahmed

Termiticide Residues in Gravel Fill
2014 - IRG/WP 14-20553
Downward dispersion of liquid termiticide in gravel was determined by measuring active ingredient (a.i.) residues of two frequently applied liquid pyrethroid termiticides during one year following surface applications at lowest label rates (Up-Cyde Pro® 2 EC-cypermethrin; BaseLine® EC-bifenthrin) over the two most extensively used commercial building construction gravel foundation fills in Oklahoma. Residues were determined within partitioned depths in the two fills at 24.0 hours post-application, then after 6.0 and 12.0 months. Half the test plots were compacted (12-15% weight increase per unit volume) and half were not compacted. Downward dispersion of termiticide was significantly influenced by gravel type, regardless of whether compacted or not compacted. Dispersion of both termiticides in compacted plots compared with not-compacted plots was similar for Class A-#57 Crushed Rock, as residues were near evenly distributed throughout the entire 0.0- to 10.2-cm depth. However, for ODOT (Oklahoma Department of Transportation) Base Type-A Gravel, residues were greater in the top partition for both compacted and not-compacted plots. Residue differences were less pronounced when comparing within the same depth partitions only. Generally, residues within ODOT Base Type-A Gravel were retained in significantly greater amounts within the top partition depth, surface 0.0- to 5.1-cm deep, for both termiticides (cypermethrin: 115-118 ppm; bifenthrin: 43-44 ppm) compared with Class A-#57 Crushed Rock (cypermethrin: 27-33 ppm; bifenthrin: 8-21 ppm) at 24.0 hours after applications. These differences were less pronounced within the 5.1- to 10.2-cm partition depth. Total a.i. recovered accounted for ≈83-95% of amounts applied to ODOT Base Type-A Gravel, whereas residues recovered from Class A-#57 Crushed Rock ranged from ≈38-65% of applied amounts. This reduced recovery percentage is due to some of the termiticides dispersing downward completely through the Class A-#57 Crushed Rock and into the mineral soil beneath. Therefore, termiticide residues in the underlying soil were not recovered during sampling of the gravel fills. For ODOT Base Type-A Gravel, most of the termiticide residues that were recovered (≈59-81%) were retained in the top 5.1-cm-deep partition. Almost no residues of either termiticide (0.0 to <1.0 ppm) applied over both compacted and not-compacted ODOT Base Type-A Gravel dispersed downward deeply enough to reach underlying mineral soil.
B M Kard, C E Konemann, K T Shelton, C C Luper, R A Grantham, M E Payton