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Fire resistance of Alder wood treated with some chemicals. Part II. Effect of Other Chemicals on the Combustion Properties
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40235
Samples from alder wood (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. subsp. barbata (C.A.Mey) Yalt.) were impregnated according to ASTM D 1413-88 with boron compounds (boric acid, borax, sodium perborate), vinyl monomers (styrene, methyl methacrylate), Tanalith-CBC, Phosphoric acid, Vacsol, Immersol, Polyethylene glycole (PEG-400) and their mixed solutions of chemicals in order to determine their combustion properties. The results indicated that inorganic boron compounds with aqueous solutions were very effective as fire retardant and reduced burning of some vinyl monomers at some extent such as styrene and methylmetacrylate when used as a secondary treatment chemical polimerized later on wood structure and phosphoric acid was also showed fire-reterdancy. Further studies are suggested on boron-vinyl monomers, and boric acid+borax with different concentrations by physical and chemical interactions in terms of fire reterdancy.
A Temiz, Ü C Yildiz

Combustion properties of Alder wood treated with some new environment friendly natural extractives. Part 1. Effect of Natural Tannins on the Combustion Properties
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40234
Powders of the brutia pine bark, sumach leaves, acorn, gall-nut and boric acid and borax which are known as potential environment friendly wood preservatives were impregnated according to ASTM D 1413-88 in order to determine their combustion properties. A commercial treatment compound, Tanalith-CBC, was also used for comparison. The results indicated that the natural extractives did not have any effect on combustion properties of alder wood and showed the same fire properties with control sample. However, when wood samples were treated with first natural extractives then boron compounds solution sequentially, the combustion properties were reduced.
Ü C Yildiz, A Temiz, E D Gezer, S Yildiz

The Efficacy of Wood Preservative Treatments in Laboratory Soil-Bed Test
2004 - IRG/WP 04-20289
The efficacy of wood preservatives were determined in laboratory soil-bed test. Pine and alder wood samples (10 x 10 x 10 mm) were treated with CCA (1, 2%), ACQ-1900 (2, 3%), ACQ-2200 (1, 2%), Tanalith E 3491 (2, 2,8%), Wolmanit CX-8 (1, 2%). The leached and unleached samples were exposed 76 days at Simlångsdalen soil and determined mass loss. The results of this study showed that mass losses of samples treated with preservatives were very low and ranged from 0,5 to 5%. However, mass losses of control samples for alder and pine were 17% and 26%, respectively.
A Temiz, T Nilsson, Ü C Yildiz, E D Gezer, S Yildiz

Physical and mechanical properties of wood-polymer composites prepared from alder wood (Alnus glutinosa (l.) gaertn. subsp. barbata (c.a.mey.) yalt)
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40201
In this study, the physical mechanical properties of wood-polymer composites prepared from alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. subsp. barbata (C.A.Mey.) Yalt) wood were investigated. Three different monomers styrene, methyl methacrylate and styrene/methyl methacrylate (70/30) mixtures and two loading levels were used in preparation of wood-polymer composites. Of physical properties, the oven-dry specific gravity, the ratio of water uptake, the water repellent effectiveness and from mechanical properties; the compression strength parallel to the grain were determined. Full loading applications gave the best results for all monomer. The oven dry specific gravity, the water repellent effectiveness and, the compression strength parallel to the grain were found between 0.710-0.950 gr/cm3, 39.45-85.78% and 338.78-645.13 kp/cm2 respectively.
A Temiz, Ü C Yildiz, E D Gezer

Fire retardant treated wood and plywood: A comparative study Part III. Combustion properties of treated wood and plywood
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40236
The fire retardant treated and untreated plywood and alder wood samples were prepared with the aim to investigate the effects of the way of treatment on the combustion properties. Alder wood was used for the preparation of plywood. Boric acid and borax were used as fire retardant. The plywood samples were impregnated by using three different methods; first group samples were impregnated by soaking of individual veneer before manufacturing plywood. The second group samples were impregnated by adding boron compounds into the glue mixture and third plywood group samples were vacuum impregnated according to ASTM D 1413-88. In addition, the solid alder wood samples were impregnated with same fire retardant solutions for control purpose according to ASTM D 1413-88. The results showed that the most effective way of the treatment was the impregnation of plywood panels treated with boric acid and significantly reduced burning of plywood and solid wood samples.
S Çolak, A Temiz, Ü C Yildiz, G Çolakoglu

Leaching Characteristics of Alder Wood Treated with Copper Based Wood Preservatives
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50225
In this study, it was designed for determining leaching characteristics of CCA and alternatives wood preservatives. Alder wood blocks were treated with CCA (1 % and 2 %), ACQ-1900 (2 % and 3 %), ACQ-2200 (1 % and 2 %), Tanalith E 3491 (2 % and 2.8 %), Wolmanit CX-8 (% 1 and 2 %). Leaching studies were conducted according to AWPA E11-97. Copper analyses of leachate were determined Atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results shows that alternative copper based wood preservatives were released higher copper amounts than CCA treated samples.
A Temiz, Ü C Yildiz, E D Gezer, S Yildiz, E Dizman

The Use of Modulus of Elasticity and Modulus of Rupture to Assess Wood Decay in Laboratory Soil-Bed Test
2006 - IRG/WP 06-20338
The efficacy of wood preservatives were determined in a soil-bed test. Samples of alder wood sapwood (Alnus glutinosa subsp. barbata) (5x10x100 mm) were treated with Solutions of CCA (1 % and 2 %), ACQ-1900 (2 % and 3 %), ACQ-2200 (1 % and 2 %), Tanalith E 3491 (2 % and 2.8 %), Wolmanit CX-8 (% 1 and 2 %). Modulus of Elasticity, modulus of rupture, mass loss and decay rate according to AWPA E7 were determined for specimens exposed in soil bed. Results from this study showed that modulus of elasticity can be used to prediction of early stage of wood decay since it is non destructive method.
A Temiz, Ü C Yildiz

The Effects of Natural Weathering on the Properties of Heat Treated Alder Wood
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40484
Heat treatment is an effective method to improve the dimensional stability and biological durability of wood. The heat treatment technology and the heat treated wood products were recently introduced to Turkey. However, only a few studies have been reported on the effect of natural weathering on the properties of heat treated wood in both Turkey and the world. In this study, heat treated alder (Alnus glutinosa L.) wood stakes were subjected to a field trial in a test site of northern region of Turkey, which exhibits favorable conditions for degradation of wood. The alder wood specimens were heat treated at temperatures of 150, 180 and 200°C for periods of 2, 6 and 10 hours. The heated samples were exposed to the field soil for 3 years. At the end of the three years the mass loss was calculated. The color stability of the samples of untreated, only heat-treated and heat-treated and weathered samples, was determined according to the CIE L*a*b* system. The bending strength (modulus of rupture: MOR) of the test and control samples were also determined according to the ASTM D 143 standard method. Each sample was visually inspected for decay index according to EN 252 during weathering. Results indicated that the mass loss values were extended with increasing treatment temperature and duration. After heat treatment it was observed that MOR values were reduced by up to 50% compared with normal untreated wood. At the end of the 3 years, MOR values of the field test samples were clearly lower than the only heated ones. Color changes (∆E) values of the samples have varied between 4 and 35 after heat treatment. Heat treatment increased the wood color stability. However, ∆E values of the field test samples were clearly much lesser for the only heated samples having varied between 6 and 19. Index of decay (ID) of heat treated wood samples was fairly lower than that of the controls, especially at temperatures of 180 and 200°C. The lowest ID value (30%) was obtained in the samples treated at 200°C for 10 hours.
S Yildiz, Ü C Yildiz, E D Tomak

Formation of hydrophobic wood surface by means of thermal treatment and surface modification with alkyl ketene dimer (AKD)
2016 - IRG/WP 16-40738
One of the major shortcomings of wood-based materials compared to technical materials is attributed to their poor dimensional stability in changing climates and in contact with liquid water. Heat treatment induces chemical change with a consequent decreasing of reactivity of the material showing unwanted surface inactivation. Alkyl ketene dimer (AKD) is a widely used sizing agent in papermaking, which serves to reduce the uptake of water into paper and thus ensures e.g. printability. AKD molecules can directly react with hydroxyl group of cellulose forming β-ketoester linkages by esterification. In the present study, AKD has been studied as a potential hydrophobic reagent for thermo-treated and untreated wood. To understand how thermo treatment and AKD influences the wood surface of two native species, (Alnus cordata Loisel and Cedrus deodara Roxb.), the samples were treated in Termovuoto® plant technology at 200 °C for 3 hours and then surface were sprayed with AKD, at 5% of solution. 0.5g/m2 and 1 g/m2 quantity of AKD for each treatment were used. The contact angle measurements and ATR-FTIR analysis on Alder and Cedar of treated and untreated wood were investigated. The main results indicated that the contact angle of aqueous solution against wood was changed during time. Treated alder showed an increase of wettability compared to untreated wood. No effect on cedar wood was depicted. When AKD was used the effect of heat treatment on wettability was negligible. A different chemical behaviour was observed on Cedar wood compared to Alder on both heating and AKD treatment effect.
T Lovaglio, T Meints, L Todaro, W Gindl-Altmutter

The effect of acetylation on physical properties of beech (Fagus orientalis) and Alder (Alnus subcordata) wood
2016 - IRG/WP 16-40759
In this study the effect of acetylation on physical properties such as water absorption, volumetric swelling and anti-shrink efficiency (ASE) of beech and alder were investigated. After 24 hours soaking in acetic anhydride, in order to achieving two surface of weight gains, acetylated samples were heated in oven at 120 0C for 90 and 360 minutes. Then water absorption and dimensional stability in terms of volumetric swelling percent and anti-shrinkage efficiency was determined. Physical properties of samples improved by increasing degree of acetylation with considerable decreasing in Water absorption during 24 h soaking in water, that for beech and alder were about 39.2% and 36.6% less than control at highest modification level, respectively. Volumetric swelling of beech and alder treated specimens at 90 and 360 minutes modification was about 55.8, 62.5, 64.2 and 72% less than control, respectively of time. ASE of samples treated in 360 minute has greatly increased.
M Akhtari, M Arefkhani

Monitoring Diversity and Colonization Patterns of Wood-Inhabiting Fungi Using Field Stake Tests
2017 - IRG/WP 17-20614
Advances in molecular identification of microbial communities enabling rapid microorganism determination have allowed ecological data to be increasingly incorporated into standardized wood performance tests. Combining standard field tests with molecular methods to study wood-associated microflora can help to better understand fungal colonization and decay processes of wood in service. The potential for using DNA-based identification techniques to examine changes in diversity and community composition of wood-inhabiting fungi was assessed in ground-contact field stake tests at the Starker Post Farm research site located near Corvallis, Oregon, USA. Field stakes of red alder (Alnus rubra), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) sapwood and western red cedar heartwood (Thuja plicata) were installed and a subsample collected every 3-months (long-term exposure; LTE) or installed and replaced every 6-months (short-term exposure; STE) over a two-year period. Isolated, pure-culture fungi were sequenced and identified by comparison to the GenBank database using BLAST. A total of 384 fungal isolates were recovered and identified from 54 stakes. Eleven basidiomycete isolates were identified, with Peniophora limitata and Phanerochaete livescens occurring most frequently. The most common ascomycetes were Phialophora mustea and Cadophora sp. Species richness differed between the LTE and STE tests, while fungal diversity in both exposure tests remained constant. In contrast, diversity decreased with longer exposures. Short term variations in temperature and precipitation were the most significant environmental gradients influencing fungal community composition of stakes in ground contact. The results will be used to better understand fungal ecology and microbial colonization processes.
P Torres-Andrade, J Cappellazzi, J J Morrell

Danish wood preservatives approval system with special focus on assessment of the environmental risks associated with industrial wood preservatives
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-01
The following is a description of the procedure used by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency to assess the environmental risks associated with preservatives used in the pressure impregnation of wood. The risk assessment covers issues considered to be of significance for the environment and which are adequately documented so as to allow an assessment. Such issues are persistence and mobility in soils, bioaccumulation and the impact on aquatic and terrestrial organisms. Unless required in special circumstances, the assessment does not apply to birds and mammals as the normal use of preservative treated wood is not expected to involve any noteworthy exposure of these groups. Approval of wood preservatives will be based on a general assessment of the environmental risk associated with the normal use of wood treated with the preservative in a realistic worst case situation. The assessment may address other aspects such as disposal and total life cycle.
J Larsen

Data sheet on wood-boring insects. Apate monachus Fabricius. 2. Position systématique, nomenclature, identification et distribution - Espèces végétales attaquée
1981 - IRG/WP 1105
R L A Damoiseau

Confocal laser scanning microscopy of a novel decay in preservative treated radiata pine in wet acidic soils
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10215
Light microscopy of radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) field test stakes (20x20x500mm3) exposed in wet acidic (pH 3-4) soil for 12 - 24 months showed predominance of an unusual type of decay characte-rised by tunnelling attack of wood cell walls. After two years decay was moderate to severe in wood treated to ground contact CCA specifications and also equivalent retentions of creosote, and a number of new generation preservatives. Relative to other New Zealand temperate test sites and also an Australian tropical site, the New Zealand acidic soil test site was very aggressive. Correlative scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) were used to elucidate the micromorphology of this attack. Tunnels of diameter 0.2-5 µm were present throughout all layers of the cell wall, and their orientation was not related to cellulose microfibril orientation. They also showed no preference for particular cell wall layers, indicating a lignin degrading capability. CLSM images showed that living, connecting fungal hyphae were present in the cell lumina and tunnels. This type of attack was predominant in wood that was highly saturated with water whereas wood that was less moist was predominantly attacked by classical white rot. Ongoing isolation and incubation studies in conjunction with further microscopy should enable identification of the fungal species involved.
R N Wakeling, Ying Xiao, A P Singh

Effect of acetylation on decay resistance of wood against brown-rot, white-rot and soft-rot fungi
1989 - IRG/WP 3540
Effect of acetylation on decay resistance of wood was investigated using wood blocks of Cryptomeria japonica, Pinus densiflora, Albizia falcata and Fagus crenata. Blocks were treated with uncatalyzed acetic anhydride for different lengths of time and exposed to Tyromyces palustris, Serpula lacrymans, Coriolus versicolor and unsterilized soil. The action of OH-radical on acetylated wood was also examined using Fenton's reagent. The enhancement of decay resistance by acetylation was revealed clearly for all cases of exposures but varying with fungal and wood species used. For a brown-rot fungus Tyromyces palustris, the weight loss reached almost nil in all woods at 20 WPG (weight percent gain) of acetylation, after the striking decrease from 10 to 15 WPG. For a white-rot fungus Coriolus versicolor, it was counted until 12-15 WPG in the perishable hardwoods used, but not in a softwood Cryptomeria japonica, even at 6 WPG. In cases of another brown-rotter Serpula lacrymans and soil burial, effect of acetylation was intermediate between Tyromyces palustris and Coriolus versicolor. Anti-degradation mechanism by acetylation was discussed, from these weight loss - weight gain relationships, and the IR-and 13C-NMR spectral analyses of fungus-exposed wood.
M Takahashi, Y Imamura, M Tanahashi

The IRG..Chanelling information and ideas into the mainstream of wood preservation technology
1985 - IRG/WP 5241
IRG Secretariat

Wood preservation in Poland
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30362
Dynamic growth of market demand for wooden elements and articles, generated in Poland increase of interest in industrial preservation. Today, Poland is a substantial producer and exporter of wood made products. Majority of exported wood - approximately 70% - is scotch pine (Pinus silvestris L.), which, due to its natural durability, requires preservation.
A Kundzewicz

Wood preservatives: Field tests out of ground contact. Brief survey of principles and methodology
1976 - IRG/WP 269
This paper contains the following spots: 1.: The general need for field tests. 2.: Interests and limits of field tests in ground contact. 3.: Various methods in use for out-of-ground contact field tests. 4.: Fungal cellar tests are they an alternative to above-ground decay exposure tests? 5.: Conclusions.
M Fougerousse

The effect of certain wood extractives on the growth of marine micro-organisms
1977 - IRG/WP 438
S E J Furtado, E B G Jones, J D Bultman

Management of the wood and additives wastes in the wood processing industries: Problematics and technical answers review
1996 - IRG/WP 96-50073
Management pathways for pure wood subproducts are well known and used; but as soon as additives like preservatives, glues, varnishes or coatings are present within the wood wastes, their disposal or valorization becomes more tricky. The different kinds of mixed wood wastes of the wood processing industries, from the sawmill to the furniture manufacture, are identified herewith and their diversity is examined. These wastes can be classified according to their danger characteristics, taking into account the type of additives, their concentration, their availability for the environment, the physical state of the waste. Different disposal pathways are then considered. Combustion, with the possibility of energetic valorization seems the best answer for a major part of these wastes. But this is only possible if good combustion conditions are defined, so that no harmful products are emitted. Moreover, these conditions must be affordable on the technical and economical point of view. Then, some wastes cannot be burned in such a simple way, and need a larger approach, which is presented in this document.
S Mouras, G Labat, G Deroubaix

Biological screening assays of wood samples treated with creosote plus chemical additives exposed to Limnoria tripunctata
1980 - IRG/WP 408
Laboratory methods for exposure of treated wood coupons to Limnoria tripunctata are described. Chemical additions to creosote were screened using this method. Three pesticides, Endrin, Kepone, and Malathion proved particularly effective. The addition of varying percentages of naphthalene to creosote using several treatment methods are currently being assayed. Results to date show that the coupons treated by the empty cell method have better performance than those prepared by the toluene dilution method. The naphthalene coupons treated by the full cell method show no attack after six months' exposure.
B R Richards, D A Webb

Sequestration of copper ions by the extracellular mucilaginous material (ECMM) of two wood rotting basidiomycetes
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10533
The radial growth rate of colonies originating from either whole or ECMM-free inocula of Coriolus versicolor was investigated. The presence of ECMM allowed colonies to maintain higher growth rates than those form ECMM-free inocula up to 2 mM CuSO4 in the medium. The ECMM of C. versicolor and G. trabeum was able to reduce the diffusion of copper ions in solution. The ‘raw’ ECMM of both fungi had a greater ability to reduce the diffusion of copper ions than ECMM which had been subject to dialysis to remove soluble, low molecular weight components. The ‘insoluble’ fraction of ECMM for both species was more effective than the ‘soluble’ fraction at reducing the diffusion of copper ions. It is concluded that ECMM confers some protection to hyphae against the toxic effects of copper ions on growth in vivo and that this due to the binding of copper ions to both the polysaccharide and to low molecular weight components of the ECMM
D Vesentini, D J Dickinson, R J Murphy

Improvements of monitoring the effects of soil organisms on wood in fungal cellar tests
1996 - IRG/WP 96-20093
Accelerated testing the durability of preservative treated timber in a so called "fungal cellar" or "soil-bed" to evaluate its performance in ground contact is widespread practice. In order to obtain a more accurate and reproducible estimate of preservative performance, several institutes, among them the BAM in Berlin, have routinely carried out static bending tests in addition to visual examination. These tests were usually performed with a defined maximum load or deflection path regardless of the remaining degree of elasticity of the test specimens. Recent studies at the BAM revealed that by modifying the method, i.e. by restricting the applied load to the non-destructive interval for each individual test specimen, the calculated modulus of elasticity (MOE) reflect the changing strength properties caused by biological deterioration and allow within a relatively short time valuable predictions on the service life of the treated timber in soil contact.
I Stephan, S Göller, D Rudolph

Working Group I Sub-group 5 'Insects in dry wood'. Plan for data sheets
1982 - IRG/WP 1173
S Cymorek

Penichroa fasciata (Stephens) (Col. Cerambycidae) a pest in wood materials
1988 - IRG/WP 1365
Penichroa fasciata (Stephens) (Col. Cerambycidae) is found to be a frequent pest occurring in hardwood in storage in Italy. This paper reports the characteristic for identification, biological features, distribution and timber liable to attack.
A Gambetta, E Orlandi.

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