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A new approach on conservation of wooden heritage
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40291
Biodeterioration of wooden art objects has to be treated in a more delicate manner than biodeterioration of wood. Any treatment applied to the art object should not alter the visual, structural or scientific integrity of the object. These requirements therefore restrict the use of biocides and some alternative treatment procedures like high and low temperatures and radiation. Fortunately, an alternate procedure is available, anoxic treatment using argon gas, that has so far proven to be effective at killing all insects stages of life and some fungi important in wood degradation. The argon anoxic procedure is described in this paper.
R J Koestler, C Tavzes, F Pohleven


Evaluation of two populations of Reticulitermes santonensis De Feytaud (Isoptera) by triple mark-recapture procedure
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10237
The optimisation and use of biocides is linked to the improvement in our understanding of the target organism. With this in mind we have studied 2 populations of the termite Reticulitermes santonensis De Feytaud. The first inhabiting an urban territory, the trees lining Ave. Boutroux in Paris. The colony has been estimated at 1,200,000 +/- 130,000 insects by triple mark-recapture procedure, foraging a surface of 1080 m2. The area containing visible damages in the trees is of 2,100 m2. The greatest distance covered by an individual is 65 m in 18 days. The second is a field population at Fondette near Tours. The zone studied is of 2,500 m2, the colony being estimated at 230,000 +/- 14,000 insects, foraging a surface of 145 m2. The greatest distance covered by an individual is 40 m in 13 days. This study shows that a termite worker can cover a considerable distance in a short time and that the colonies themselves seem to move within a zone that they cannot totally exploit permanently.
I Paulmier, B Vauchot, A-M Pruvost, C Lohou, M Tussac, M Jéquel, J-L Leca, J-L Clément


Principles and procedure of the planeing test
1981 - IRG/WP 2162
Small end-sealed samples of pine-sapwood (1.5 x 2.5 x 5 cm³) are treated by brushing and afterwards different parts of the treated surface are removed. The remaining part of the sample is tested against either insects or fungi. If no attack occurs sufficient amounts of biocides have been penetrated at least beyond the zone which has been removed. In spite of some problems the test seems the only suitable method, to evaluate organic solvent preservatives, mainly those containing resins, for simple treating methods.
H Willeitner, M Gersonde


Field tests out of ground contact in France: Definition of the test procedure and preliminary results after 18 months
1981 - IRG/WP 2161
M Fougerousse


Test procedure to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of different preservatives in sea-wate
1975 - IRG/WP 414
R A Eaton


A simple leaching procedure for in-plant monitoring of CCA fixation
1993 - IRG/WP 93-30023
A simple leaching test is described to quantitatively estimate the extent of fixation of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) preservative treated wood products. It is based on the reaction between diphenylcarbazide and unreacted hexavalent chromium leached from borings taken from treated wood during the fixation process. The test requires about 20 minutes to complete and can be set up in a treating plant quality control laboratory for less than US $1000.00.
P A Cooper, Y T Ung


Procedure for a collaborative study of leaching from CCA-treated timber in the sea
1988 - IRG/WP 4143
As a follow-up to the collaborative IRG/COIPM marine trial of CCA and CCB preservatives, a further trial is proposed with the objective of measuring the degree of leaching of CCA components from three timber species at marine sites in Malaysia and the U.K.. Details of the planned procedure are given.
S M Cragg, J E Barnacle, J D Bultman, R A Eaton, B R Johnson, L E Leightley, K D Singh


A standardised procedure for the treatment of timber with test chemicals
1986 - IRG/WP 2257
A procedure is described which allows the standardisation of sample handling and data manipulation during trials invastigating the treatability of timber with test chemicals. The use of computer software allows the data to be handled efficiently.
J Norton, A Zosars, L E Leightley


Proposed test procedure to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of a copper/chrome/arsenic preservative in seawater
1975 - IRG/WP 411
R A Eaton


Nomination procedure for the offices of President, Vice-President and members of the Executive Council
1994 - IRG/WP 94-60023
IRG Secretariat


Isolation and identification of the fungal flora in treated wood
1976 - IRG/WP 144
J F Levy


Effect of asphyxiation on wood decay fungi treated with argon and nitrogen gas
2002 - IRG/WP 02-10452
The effects of low-oxygen conditions, achieved with either argon or nitrogen gas, on the viability of wood decay fungi Coniophora puteana, Antrodia vaillantii and Trametes versicolor, cultivated on PDA medium and infected wood samples, were examined. The fungal cultures were exposed to low oxygen concentration (below 10 ppm) for one to five weeks in hermetically sealed vessels. Anoxic treatment did not affect T. versicolor cultures in the time span of the experiment. Therefore treatment of only C. puteana and A. vaillantii mycelial cultures was extended to 10 and 16 weeks. After treatment, respiration and regeneration of mycelium were tested by measurements of CO2 production and resumed growth of hyphae onto fresh PDA growth medium. The effect of anoxic conditions on the mycelia of treated fungal species was expressed as an increased time needed for regeneration or as a complete absence of growth of inocula taken from the exposed cultures or wooden blocks reintroduced on new nutrient medium. The cultures that were retarded by the low oxygen concentration consequently produced less CO2. For C. puteana cultures, the effects of anoxic treatment became evident in the second week of the treatment. The number of affected cultures rose steadily with the prolongation of anoxic treatment. By the sixteenth week of the anoxic treatment, 80% of the inocula of C. puteana did not regenerate. A. vaillantii inocula regeneration was not affected until after the fourth week of treatment, and similarly for infected wood samples, after five weeks. The influence of anoxic treatment on the cultures of this species was more pronounced on the tenth and especially after the sixteenth week, when 67% of inocula did not regenerate. In general fungal species were differently sensitive to asphyxiation. T. versicolor cultures were not affected by anoxic conditions, caused by either argon or nitrogen gas, and A. vaillantii mycelial cultures proved to be less sensitive than those of C. puteana. In the test with infested wood blocks argon proved to be more effective, compared to nitrogen gas.
C Tavzes, F Pohleven, M Janisek, R J Koestler


Assessment of wood preservation facilities in Canada
1989 - IRG/WP 3557
This document sets out an assessment procedure for the current status of the wood preservation industry in Canada in relation to the Technical Recommendations (TR) documents for the Design and Operation of Wood Preservation Facilities published by the Government of Canada in April 1988. A questionnaire has been prepared in consultation with industry and the Canadian Institute of Treated Wood. An assessment report (state-of-the-art) will be prepared on the basis of the information provided in these questionnaires and discussions.
G Das, V N P Mathur


Nomination procedure for the offices of President, Vice-President and members of the Executive council of IRG
2003 - IRG/WP 03-60180
IRG Secretariat


Nomination procedure for the offices of President, Vice-President, members of the Executive Council and Scientific Programme Comitte of the IRG
2007 - IRG/WP 07-60245
IRG Secretariat


Nomination procedure for the offices of President, Vice-President and members of the Executive Council and Scientific Programme Committee of IRG-WP
2012 - IRG/WP 12-60339
IRG Secretariat


Determination procedure for wood preservatives in waste wood - statistics of sampling and analysis
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50121
In a RTD research programme funded by the German Federal Environmental Agency (UBA - Report No. 126-06-010103) a standardised and validated procedure was developed for sampling and analysing wood preservative components in waste wood. For this investigation a realistic quantity of waste wood from house demolition was used and 80 components analysed. The examination of single wood pieces and woodchips prepared therefore showed a good correlation with the retention of wood preservatives. For the estimation of the potential contamination of inhomogenic waste wood samples we developed a concentration-level model. There are three concentration-levels: Level 1: with preservative concentrations corresponding to waste of untreated - 'naturelike' - wood; level II: with concentrations higher than 'naturelike' wood and level Ill: with treated wood, under consideration of washout- and evaporation processes. For As, B, Cd, Cr, Cu, F, Hg, Pb, Sn, Zn, PAH (EPA), PCP, TCP and Lindane values were determined as known from naturelike waste wood. For calculating 90 percentile values a statistical method was used called "bootstrap" (n = 25). These values are interesting in context with the German waste law ("Kreislaufwirtschafts- und Abfallgesetz"), which prohibits the waste dilution and waste mixing. This demand causes specific problems in the production of chipboards when waste wood is used. The results indicate that the methods used for sampling and analysis can be applied for a safe and reproducible identification of wood preservatives in single wood pieces and shreddered wood chips.
P Stolz, J Krooss, U Thurmarm, R-D Peek, H Giese


Evaluation of a utility pole inspection procedure
1996 - IRG/WP 96-20084
Methods were developed and are currently being utilized to appraise residual strength of utility poles based on visual assessment of increment cores. Strength tests, mycological descriptions and anatomical analyses were performed on eight utility poles taken out of service and one new (never in service) pole. Samples were obtained from increment cores removed from 6 levels in the pole: 2 feet, groundline, +2 feet, +4 feet, +6 feet and +8 feet. Each segment (1 cm) of the increment cores was described visually according to the utility company's procedures. Static bending beams (0.6 x 0.6 x 15 cm³) were removed from pole sections adjacent to the core boring site. A method was developed for cutting static bending beams and performing static bending tests. The strength analysis corresponds to increment cores removed for pole inspections. Each beam represents 1 cm along the radius of the increment core. The relationship between percent latewood, strength and radial position will be exploited as a means for strength prediction. New evaluations of residual strength of individual core codes will be considered by the utility company for use in their current pole analysis procedure.
S E Anagnost, C J K Wang


A rearing procedure for the house longhorn beetle Hylotrupes bajulus L
1973 - IRG/WP 228
The technique practised at the Princes Risborough Laboratory for culturing Hylotrupes bajulus is described. It is modified from methods previously suggested by German workers. A protein and vitamin enriched wood diet to accelerate larval growth is employed and larvae are subsequently given a period of cool storage to induce pupation. Adults are confined in groups with prepared surfaces for egg laying: batches of eggs are removed daily and incubated over trays. Egg larvae fall into the trays as they hatch and are used for experimental work or for starting new cultures. The cycle takes under a year and adults, eggs and larvae can be available at any time throughout the year.
R W Berry


Isolation and identification of the fungal flora in treated wood. Revised technique
1977 - IRG/WP 159
At the 8th Annual Meeting in Wildhaus a paper was presented for discussion on the isolation of fungi from treated wood.·Since then work of this nature has been undertaken at Imperial College and as a result a revision of that document has been made and is presented here. The main alterations are: 1) To streamline the isolation procedure 2) Modification of the benomyl agar 3) The inclusion of a standard, low concentration malt medium, for the comparison of all isolates. This was found to be necessary due to the similar appearance of the same organism on different mediar. This isolation procedure thus supersedes the previous one outlined in Document No: IRG/WP/144.
C P Clubbe, J F Levy


Exposure of preservative treated wood to terrestrial microcosms, pure cultures of fungi and in the field
1997 - IRG/WP 97-20114
Small stakes (5x10x100 mm3) of treated and untreated Pinus sylvestris sapwood were exposed in terrestrial microcosms with different soils, two taken from test fields in Sweden, one soil from a conifer forest and one garden compost soil. Stakes of the same size were also exposed to pure cultures of the brown and white rot fungi, Postia placenta and Phanerochaete chrysosporium. After exposure, weight losses were determined and stakes from the microcosms were analysed concerning type of microbial attack using light microscopy. Preservatives effective against brown rot but not against soft rot and bacteria prevented weight losses in stakes exposed to pure culture of brown rot and in a soil containing brown rot fungi, while weight losses could be considerable after exposure in soils with soft rot fungi and bacteria. The ranking of preservatives varied depending on type of soil. Two preservative types included in the laboratory tests with small stakes as well as untreated stakes have been included in several field tests. Similarities can be observed when results from field tests and tests in microcosms with soils from the same fields are compared.
M-L Edlund


Resistance to decay fungi of ammonium borate oleate treated wood
2009 - IRG/WP 09-30505
Ammonium borate oleate molecule (ABO) produced from reaction between boric acid, ammonia and oleic acid was tested as wood preservative treatment against brown and white rot fungi according to European standards. This compound was prepared according to a previous study which has proved existence of synthesis reaction and effectiveness against termites (Lyon et al. 2007b). Four solutions of ABO in ethanol were then produced and impregnated sapwood specimens of Beech and Pine exposed to fungi Coniophora puteana and Coriolus versicolor. Efficiency thresholds were found in each case except for Pine samples exposed to Coniophora puteana. Combination of the biocide effect of boron, and the water repellence of fatty acids allowed to provide resistance of leached wood specimens against fungi.
F Lyon, M-F Thevenon, A Pizzi, J Gril


Determination of a fixation time of wood preservatives: A discussion paper
2010 - IRG/WP 10-20436
The intention of that paper is to initiate a discussion on the basis of a French method in combination with a German approach regarding the need of a method for the determination of a fixation time and especially to obtain input as well as ideas concerning a possible test design. Since no harmonised European approach exists up to now concerning the determination of a fixation time, CEN TC 38 (2009) launched a questionnaire to identify current national requirements. If the lack of answers did not allow a global view of all the member states, it highlights that national regulations are different as expected. Fixation time is already a data necessary for national regulations in France and in Germany. Europe is globally concerned by the Biocidal Product Directive which requires recommended methods and precautions to reduce dangers from handling, storage, and transport. Various studies carried out in France or in Germany show that laboratory protocols are available to determine a fixation time for different types of wood preservatives. The French method is a laboratory protocol in order to obtain water samples coming from treated wood which has been in continuous contact with water, at increasing time intervals. This treated wood is removed from summer and winter drying conditions after a defined time (for example, 4h, 19h, 24h, 48h and 96h), and then immerged in water. Kinetic curves allow then to estimate a fixation time. The German method is nearly identical with the French method from the practical point of view. The main difference consists of the assessment of the fixation time: instead of a kinetic curve a so-called fixation index (FI) is calculated. One of these procedures could be a useful tool for wood preservative manufacturers in order to determine these data by themselves or by a third party established by the manufacturer. Beside this such a proceeding could avoid any confusion with “conventional leaching tests” which are required for the environmental assessment according to the 98/8/EC directive.
E Raphalen, E Melcher


CT scanning of decay in creosoted poles for overhead lines
2013 - IRG/WP 13-30634
Creosote-treated poles have been examined by means of CT scanning in order to investigate the nature of soft spots that have been found more frequently during the last five years in Sweden. CT scanning provides a very good picture of the interior of the poles and decay can easily be detected. It was concluded that the soft spots in most cases were caused by decay which in turn had to do with extremely poor treatment of the poles. Both high temperature kiln dried and open air dried poles were studied, but the drying method had no significance. Based on the findings a new procedure for inspection of poles is suggested.
C-J Johansson, A Clang, I Johansson, G Berggren