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An anti-termite formulation for soil treatment with natural products and its efficacy against Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki
2003 - IRG/WP 03-30319
An anti-termite formulation of an environmental conservation type for soil treatment was developed. The formulation was composed of decanoic acid (n-capric acid, an fatty acid derived from coconut oil with ten carbons) as an active ingredient and other natural products. Experiments to examine the efficacy of the formulation against Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki were conducted at the termite field test site in Kagosihima Japan and in our laboratory. The smallest concentration of decanoic acid in soil required for complete prevention of termite attack was estimated. Further the rate of disappearance of decanoic acid in the soil treated with the formulation under various conditions was measured. The formulation with natural products have been still keeping an complete performance after five years of the field test.
S Yoshida, T Nakagaki, A Igarashi, A Enoki

Some tests on ES - AS 11, a novel anti-sapstain formulation, and its properties
1987 - IRG/WP 3399
The results of some tests with the formulation ES - AS 11 are given. The formulation is an attempt to improve the performance of an anti-sapstain chemical by: 1) increasing its penetrability 2) uniquely combining its active ingredients. Very short times of treatment (dipping not longer than 5 seconds), low concentrations of active ingredients, and lower toxicological and environmental risks may be a promising result.
U Straetmans

Laboratory and field evaluations of a novel formulation, BAM as an anti-sapstain agent
1991 - IRG/WP 3639
A novel anti-sapstain formulation, BAM, consisting of 2-(thiocyanomethylthio) benzothiazole (TCMTB) and methylene bis thiocyanate (MBT) was evaluated for ist anti-sapstain performance in the laboratory and in the field as well. BAM proved effective in controlling the growth of molds and a sapstaining fungus in the standardized Japan Wood Preserving Association (JWPA) tests. All the test fungi could not show any growth on the boards treated at 1% (100 times dilution), and at 0.67% of BAM only Gliocladium virens grew very slightly. In the field tests, BAM maintained good protection for 1.5 months when freshly sawn pine boards were dipped in 1% aqueous solution for 3-10 minutes. The present results definitely support that BAM has a high potential to replace the currently used anti-sapstain formulations containing chlorinated phenols.
Y Nomura

Evaluation of a new anti-sapstain formulation
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30035
A new anti-sapstain mixture, which consists of 2% IPBC (3-iodo-2-propynylbutyl carbamate) and 1.5% DCOI (4,5-dichloro-2-n-octylisothiazolin-3-one), was evaluated by three methods in the laboratory. A standardized test (JWPA standard 2) demonstrated that the new anti-sapstain formulation was highly effective in controlling growth of monocultures of five test fungi on wood substrate. When exposed to mixed spore suspension, the formulation performed better than TCP-based commercial product. A larger scale laboratory tests and supplemental trials at sawmills also supported a satisfactory performance of the formulation to protect freshly sawn timber from moulds and sapstain fungi.
K Tsunoda, H Kumagai, M Sakurai

Development process of a new anti-sapstain formulation and its present status with the relevant problems
2001 - IRG/WP 01-30257
An anti-sapstain formulation, which contains 2-(thiocyanomethylthio)benzothiazol (TCMTB) and methylene-bis-thiocyanate (MBT) as active ingredients, was developed by a technical agreement with Buckman Laboratories (Memphis, TN, USA) as an alternative to chlorinated phenols for the Japanese market. The formulation was commercialized as BAM 12 years ago. As anti-sapstain treatment is commonly conducted by momentary dipping at the Japanese sawmills and the treatment solution is repeatedly used, a high stability of the solution is required. Thus, a series of surfactants was screened to select the most suitable surfactant to meet the requirement. Laboratory evaluations showed that the newly developed product was effective against molds (Aspergillus, Penicillium and Rhizopus) and a sap-staining fungus Aureobasidium pullulans. When it was occasionally found ineffective against Gliocladium at lower treatment concentration, a chemical additive (IPBC or carbendazim) was shown to be helpful to fill up the deficiency of effectiveness. This was also demonstrated in the field trials. This report additionally refers to the problems that were experienced during and after commercialization of the anti-sapstain chemical formulation BAM.
K Nobashi, Y Nomura, K Tsunoda

Migration of chlorothalonil and carbendazim in fruits stored in wood treated with the anti-sapstain formulation Tuff Brite C
1997 - IRG/WP 97-50097
Fruits and vegetables stored in treated wood boxes are in contact with the products used for the treatment. In order to obtain regulatory approval for incidental food contact it is necessary to determine the quantity of residues on these fruits or vegetables. When the active materials are used in agriculture it is required that residues found are below to the MRL fixed for these substances. In the case of Chlorothalonil this MRL (in Spain) is 0.5 mg/kg for apples (at European level a MRL of 1 mg/kg has been requested). For food contact approval of antisapstains it is therefore required that residue of Chlorothalonil transferred from treated wood is below this limit. Tuff Brite C is an antisapstain formulation of ISK Biosciences containing 450 gr/litre of CTL and 100 gr/litre of Carbendazim. A first migration study was conducted by the University of Gembloux in Belgium on wood treated with 1% Tuff Brite C. No residue was founded on: Apples after 55 days, Cherries after 7 days, Cucumbers after 7 days, Tomatoes after 7 days. This study was limited by the length of time the fruit could be held for observation. Therefore a second migration study was conducted by the University of Montpellier; France.
J F Cooper, D Riboul, M De Vleeschauwer, T L Woods

A practical method to evaluate the dimensional stability of wood and wood products
1990 - IRG/WP 2342
This paper presents a new simple method to evaluate wood and wood products for their resistance to swelling and to assess wood preservatives for their ability to dimensionally stabilize treated wood exposed to water. Permeable wood of various dimensions and treated with different preserving chemicals have been measured for swelling in the radial and tangential direction during immersion in liquid water. The results indicate that a simple exponential function describing the dimension of the samples during immersion can be used to evaluate both the water-repellency and anti-swelling effectiveness of wood preserving chemicals. The results can be achieved in reasonable time, and the parameters of the function can be determined by a commercial desk-top computer program.
J P Hösli

Effectiveness of "Gang-Nail" plates in preventing splitting of Eucalyptus poles and Brazilian hardwood sleepers
1984 - IRG/WP 3262
This paper presents the results of some tests carried out with an anti-splitting device, placed on the end surfaces of Eucalyptus spp utility poles and Brazilian hardwood sleepers at the beginning of an air-drying period. The type of device used, a "Gang-Nail" plate, reduces significantly the splits at the end-surface of poles, but reduces only a little the splits occurring in sleepers.
A M F Oliveira, J A C Sodré, O B Neto

In search of alternative antisapstain chemicals for use in Papua New Guinea
1988 - IRG/WP 3472
The paper presents results of antisapstain field trials from three locations in Papua New Guinea as part of the Research Centre's programme to find suitable antisapstains to replace the hazardous sodium pentachlorophenate. Effectiveness of seven tested chemicals varied between indigenous pines (Araucaria cunninghamii, Araucaria husteinii) and white coloured hardwoods (Alstonia scholaris, Pterocymbium beccarii) but not between sites. The indigenous pines required lower chemical concentration for same level and period of protection than white coloured hardwoods like amberoi and white cheesewood. Period of protection ranged from four weeks to a maximum of 16 weeks depending on chemical concentration and species of timber. Potential chemicals recommended for use as antisapstain include Celbrite T, Busan 1009, Penacide and Woodguard E.S. and Woodguard E.C.
A Oteng-Amoako

Observations on the colonization of freshly-felled timber treated with prophylactic chemicals by mould and sapstain fungi
1989 - IRG/WP 1394
Field tests using freshly felled pine sapwood were set up to determine the effectiveness of a range of antisapstain compounds and to study the problems of colonization by mould and sapstain fungi. Differences were recorded both in the overall performance of the compounds and also their selectivity in controlling specific fungal types. These results were found to be useful in gaining a better understanding of biocide - fungal interactions.
G R Williams, D A Lewis

Proposed standard laboratory method for testing fungicides for controlling sapstain and mould on unseasoned lumber
1977 - IRG/WP 292
This laboratory method is for determining the effective concentration, or concentration for zero growth (CGo), for fungicides or preparations of fungicides which are potentially useful in protecting packaged or unseasoned lumber in storage and shipment from biodeterioration by sapstain fungi and moulds. The test is rapid and may be completed in three weeks and gives a good indication of the toxicity of a chemical against sapstain fungi and moulds.
A J Cserjesi

Commercially available anti-sapstain chemicals in New Zealand - An update
1987 - IRG/WP 3416
Six anti-sapstain chemicals or mixtures (NaPCP plus borax, Haipen 5F, Mitrol PQ375, Busan 1009, Protek S, Pinefol 50W) are available as commercial treatments in New Zealand. A further two (Hylite 20F and Isothon-35) have shown potential in field and mill trials and will be available for use. A number of other formulations are under evaluation.
J A Drysdale

Nouvelles techniques de lutte anti-termites à faible impact environnemental
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-32
P Martinet

Mould resistance of lignocellulosic material treated with some protective chemicals
1984 - IRG/WP 3294
Effectiveness of preserving lignocellulosic material against moulding by treatement with water solutions of commercial wood preservatives and mixtures of various inorganic salts was investigated and compared with the effectivenes of sodium pentachlorophenoxide and boric acid.
K Lutomski

Field trials of anti-sapstain products. Part 1
1991 - IRG/WP 3675
The results obtained in two field tests of anti-sapatain products, carried out in four locations in Portugal, are presented. Boards from freshly cut logs were hand-dipped, close staked and left to dry for periods from four to six months. The results obtained seem to indicate that some of the products tested performed at least as well and sometimes better, than a 3% NaPCP solution which was used as control product.
L Nunes, F Peixoto, M M Pedroso, J A Santos

Microcapsule formulation of fenitrothion as a soil termiticide
1991 - IRG/WP 1478
The efficacy and the mode of action of a microcapsule formulation of fenitrothion against Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki were investigated. The physicochemical property that this formulation does not allow the active ingredient to diffuse through the capsule wall contributed to a long lasting efficacy and safety for the men spraying. The residual effect of the fenitrothion microcapsule in soil was revealed as well as that of chlordane in the laboratory test. It was clarified that the transmission of poisoning through the worker's self- and mutual grooming behavior contributed to the efficacy of this formulation. And it was suggested that the transmission of poisoning of fenitrothion through mutual grooming led to the collapse of a colony.
H Teshima, T Itoh, Y Abe

Selective adsorption of antisapstain actives from two aqueous suspensions, and movement of actives into wood
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30103
Green-off-saw rough sawn Pinus elliottii (slash pine) boards were dipped in aqueous suspensions of two antisapstain formulations, NeXgenâ and Busanâ Sap Stain Preventative (Busan 1009), at three product concentration levels. Concentrations of active ingredients (NeXgen: CTL (chloro-thalonil) and MTC (methylene bisthiocyanate); Busan 1009: TCMTB (2(thiocyanomethylthio)-benzothiazole) and MTC) were monitored with respect to the amount of material dipped. Selective adsorption (removal of actives from the suspension at greater than simple volumetric transfer rates) varied with formulation and active ingredient, and increased with decreasing product concentration. Movement of active ingredients into dipped boards was monitored for 30 days after dipping. Mobility order was MTC >> TCMTB > CTL. Surface depletion characteristics were obtained for each active ingredient.
M J Kennedy, T L Woods

Rates of emission from CCA-treated wood in the marine environment: measurement, modelling and requirements for further research
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-12
Accurate estimates of rates of emission of leachate from preservative treated wood are crucial for realistic predictions of the environmental impact of its use in maritime construction. Estimates are available for some commonly used preservatives, but these vary widely. Though variable, these measurements suggest that emission generally decreases exponentially with time. Part of the variation is due to differences in methodology employed. Physical and chemical characteristics of the seawater used (e.g. temperature, salinity, pH and oxygen content) affect emission rate. So too do the specifics of the treatment process especially the preservative formulation used, and pre- and post-treatment handling of the wood. The nature of the treated wood samples is also important, with misleadingly high estimates being obtained from samples with unrepresentatively high proportions of cross-cut surfaces. A suggested strategy for developing an informative and standardised methodology is discussed. To form useful models of impacts of leaching, emission rates need to be considered in conjunction with site-specific information regarding a) water exchange rates between the area where leaching occurs and the sea, and b) the extent of partitioning of leachate between the water column, biota and sediment. The risk of environmental impact may be reduced by modification to treatment procedures and by careful planning of installation.
S M Cragg, C J Brown, R A Albuquerque, R A Eaton

The identification and preservative tolerance of species aggregates of Trichoderma isolated from freshly felled timber
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1553
The surface disfigurement of antisapstain treated timber by preservative-tolerant fungi remains a major problem in stored timber. Identification of a range of isolates of Trichoderma based on microscopic morphological characteristics was found to be imprecise due to the variable nature of this organism. In addition, studies to compare visual (morphological) characteristics of these isolates with their tolerance to the antisapstain compound methylene-bis-thiocyanate (MBT) using minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) tests showed no clear correlations. Isoenzyme electrophoresis was used to investigate the taxonomic relationships between species aggregates of Trichoderma isolated from antisapstain field trials and to identify physiological differences between 30 isolates of Trichoderma which show tolerance to MBT at concentrations ranging from less than 4 ppm to 34 ppm. Results indicate that there is considerable variability in the preservative tolerance of different Trichoderma isolates from particular locality. This highlights the need for field testing of an antisapstain compound in the same locality and under the same conditions in which it will be used in practice.
R J Wallace, R A Eaton, M A Carter, G R Williams

Evaluation of the effectiveness of three microbiocides in the control of sapstains
1982 - IRG/WP 3212
Results of field test on the effectiveness of BUSAN 30, CAPTAN, FOLPET against mould and sapstain in Pinus elliottii are presented. The viability of use of FOLPET in Brazil as an alternative to sodium pentachlorophenate is also discussed.
S Milano, J A A Vianna Neto

Working Group II: Sub-group: Methods of testing anti-stain chemicals for protecting sawn lumber during storage, transit
1978 - IRG/WP 2121
R Smith

Some thoughts on the future strategy for eradicating Serpula lacrymans from a building
1989 - IRG/WP 1405
We now have a clear view of the mechanism of translocation of nutrients in the mycelium of Serpula lacrymans which is one of the physiological processes underlying the remarkable capacity of this fungus to spread through a building. Here the elements of the mechanism of translocation are dissected out to suggest avenues which might be followed in the search for new ways for eradicating the fungus from buildings.
D H Jennings

Observations on the failure of anti-sapstain treated timber under non-drying conditions
1990 - IRG/WP 1437
A range of bacteria and yeasts were isolated from antisapstain treated timber and fresh sawdust. Solution samples containing 100 ppm of TCMTB in a nutrient medium were inoculated with these organisms and incubated at 25°C for 5 days. The levels of TCMTB remaining in solution were determined by HPLC analysis after this time. Results indicated high losses of active ingredient for a range of organisms. These results suggest that active biodetoxification of organic biocides could occur in a short period of time during storage of antisapstain treated timber under favourable conditions. The implications of these results are discussed.
G R Williams

Austrian field test method for anti-sapstain chemicals
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20020
Although Austria is a small country, the annual consumption of anti-sapstain products ranks to approximately 500 tons annually. In 1994, only three products will be approved by the Austrian Wood Preservation Committee (AWPEC). There is demand for a field test method, which demonstrates the efficacy of an anti-sapstain product and consequently implies the acceptance and approval of product by the AWPEC. Present field test was carried out in 1992 and 1993. The results were evaluated after six months storage of test stacks. A TCMTB based product was used as a reference. The results show that the AFPRL method proves very suitable for the simulation of practical situation in Austrian treatment plants, where pine and/or spruce are treated periodically and where different methods of stack storage are applied.
R Gründlinger, M Brandstätter, H Melzer, O Janotta

Ecotoxicological risks of anti-sapstain preservatives washed off from treated timber
2000 - IRG/WP 00-50144
A field method for ecotoxicity assessment of rain water wash-off from anti-sapstain treated timber was developed. In the course of this study freshly sawn timber treated with 1.5% Busan 30 L (reference preservative) and a control stack with untreated pine were exposed to weathering. The run-off water was ecotoxicologically tested with organisms from three trophic levels (Vibrio fischeri, Kirchneriella subcapitata, Daphnia magna). Results show, that the highest ecotoxicity can be detected immediately after treatment and within the first 4 weeks of storage - depending on the precipitation: high rainfall during the first month of exposure significantly increases ecotoxicity. Covering the treated stack provides sufficient protection of timber against leaching of chemicals and further on significantly minimises the environmental risk. Results suggest either storage of anti-sapstain treated timber in saw mills underneath a roof or, when stored outside, protection of treated stacks by coverage.
G Aschacher, R Gründlinger

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