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Your search resulted in 51 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.


Effects of boron treatments on partially decayed oak and pitch pine heartwood
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30106
This paper reports results of borate based preservative treatment and leaching experiments on partially decayed oak and pitch pine heartwood. Previous experiments have shown little damage is caused to sound timber of these types when treated with Polybor and Boracol 20 preservatives. This experiment was carried out to assess the suitability of selected borate based preservatives for use in histori...
S McCutcheon, G M Smith, J W Palfreyman, P Durrant


Fungal decay of archaeological waterlogged oak timber: role of the mineral content
2016 - IRG/WP 16-10873
In service, wood foundation poles are subjected to water level fluctuation in soil. While wood is saturated by water only bacterial decay occurs. When oxygen content increases and moisture content decreases, severe fungal attack may occur. To evaluate the long term fungal durability of wood foundation pole in the context of service, 300 years waterlogged archaeological wood poles were used. The oa...
A Besserer, M Letellier, E Fredon, Q Kleindienst, M-L Antoine, C Perrin, J Lallemand, C Rose, M-C Trouy


Interspecific variability of European oak durability against white rot fungi (Coriolus versicolor): Comparison between sessile oak and peduncle oak (Quercus petraea and Quercus robur)
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10393
The knowledge of wood natural durability against biologic predators enable its external use. The resistance of European oak wood was reported like durable according to the EN 350-2. However, some individuals may contain high durable wood. Our research was focused to understand this variability in oak population that represent the first french species (4.1 millions of ha). Natural durability of Eur...
N Ayadi, B Charrier, M Irmouli, J P Charpentier, C J Allemand, F Feuillat, R Keller


Movement of boron from fused boron rods implanted in Southern pine, Douglas fir, red oak, and white oak timbers
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30061
This paper reports the distribution of boron from fused boron rods installed into six-inch (15.2 cm) square timbers of Douglas-fir, Southern Pine, red oak and white oak exposed aboveground. The composition and size of rods was: sodium borate and sodium borate-copper oxide (8.5 x 100 mm²); sodium borate-copper, sodium borate and boric oxide-copper oxide (12 x 76 mm²). The boric acid equivalent wa...
T L Highley, L Ferge


Examination of timbers from the Mary Rose in storage
1988 - IRG/WP 4149
Timbers from the Tudor ship, Mary Rose, have been examined for the presence of fungal fruiting structures. Wood specimens were also examined for the presence of microbial decay patterns using light and scanning electron microscopy. Structural timbers were surveyed using the Pilodyn for an overall picture of the extent of decay. Mary Rose timbers were predominantly inhabited by marine fungi. Fourte...
R Mouzouras


Laboratory fumigations to determine the minimum temperature for methyl bromide eradication of the oak wilt fungus in red oak
1983 - IRG/WP 3243
Laboratory chamber fumigations of naturally-infected ret oak log sections exterminatet the oak wilt fungus in sapwood at temperatures down to 0°C. Only low, sporadic fungus survival was observed when log sections were gassed with methyl bromide at -5°C and aired for 4 da. at 0°C. Lower temperature treatments were not effective even if gas levels or exposure times were increased by 50%....
E L Schmidt


Bacteria and wood. A review of the literature relating to the presence, action and interaction of bacteria in wood
1971 - IRG/WP 101
S E Rossell, E G M Abbot, J F Levy


Importance of bacteria in the deterioration of archaeological woods
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10122
An electron microscopic study of archaeological woods from different sites and of different ages revealed that the woods had been attacked by erosion bacteria, tunnelling bacteria and soft rot fungi. Bacterial erosion appeared to be most widespread, and was present independently as well as together with tunnelling and soft rot attacks. Thus, in many instances bacterial erosion was the only type of...
Yoon Soo Kim, A P Singh, T Nilsson


Ultrastructural aspects of bacterial attacks on an archaeological wood
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10007
Transmission electron microscopy of wood from a Chinese ship submerged in the mud for over 900 years showed bacteria to be the main factor for its deterioration. The micromorphology of degraded wood cell walls was similar to that observed during the attacks of wood by erosion bacteria. Other bacterial forms, previously considered lo be scavenging bacteria, were also abundant in degraded areas of t...
Yoon Soo Kim, A P Singh


Analysis of degradation observed on ancient wooden objects buried underground
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10403
Ancient wooden objects were sometimes excavated from the moat of mounded tombs in Japan. Such wooden objects were in the shape of a sunshade, bird, shield, pole, yugi(a bag that holds arrows) among others. Archaeologists discussed the usage of such shaped objects, but no one could clearly explain their use. Some objects were observed using an ordinary microscope. Deterioration by bacteria was foun...
H Sakai


Movement and persistence of chloropicrin, Vapam, Dazomet and methylisothiocyanate in red and white oak timbers
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3728
This study describes the movement and persistence of four fumigants in sawn red and white oak timbers exposed out of ground contact for 2 years. Chloropicrin moved the furthest from the point of application, and was the most persistent. Vapam was next best, followed by Dazomet. Methylisothiocyanate (MIT), applied as pellets, was not effective, probably because MIT was lost from pellets prior to tr...
T L Highley


Methyl bromide eradication of the oak wilt fungus in logs. Laboratory and field fumigation
1981 - IRG/WP 3168
Concern over accidental introduction of the oak wilt fungus (Ceratocystis fagacearum) into oak-importing nations has prompted a study supported by the U.S. National Lumber Exporter's Assn. to assess the efficacy of methyl bromide fumigation to eradicate the fungus from logs and lumber. Laboratory and field fumigation trials to develop a reliable and realistic treatment were performed on r...
E L Schmidt, M M Ruetze, D W French


Microbial decay of an archaeological wood
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10053
A light and transmission electron microscopic investigation of an archaeological wood was undertaken to determine the cause of its deterioration. The wood came from a bulwark constructed in early 1100 in the lake Tingstäde Träsk on the island Gotland in Sweden. The samples of the wood, which was identified as Pinus sylvestris, were taken from a depth of 0.85 m below the bottom level. The wood wa...
A P Singh, T Nilsson, G F Daniel


Biodegradation of wood in wet environments: A review
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10217
Wood in wet environments is attacked and degraded by soft rot fungi and erosion and tunnelling bacteria, which are more tolerant to high moisture and reduced oxygen conditions than basidiomycetes, such as white and brown rot fungi. Since basidiomycetes are normally more aggressive and can degrade wood faster than soft rot fungi and bacteria wood in wet environments can survive longer. In fact, arc...
A P Singh, Yoon Soo Kim


Degradation features of waterlogged archaeological compression wood
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10258
The degradation characteristics of waterlogged archaeological compression wood excavated in South Korea were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Degradation of Pinus compression wood occurred mainly in the inner part of S2 layer. In contrast, the outer part of S2 layer remained relatively intact. CLSM and TEM showed the erosion type of ...
Yoon Soo Kim, A P Singh


The WOODCARE project: Development of detection methods for Death watch beetle larvae and fungal decay
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20172
Woodcare was a European project coordinated by English Heritage. The aim of the research was to develop more targeted and more environmentally friendly treatment methods for Death watch beetle infections in Oak constructions of historical buildings. TNO has developed two new methods for fast and reliable detection of Death watch beetle larvae and related fungal decay in Oak. The problem with Death...
P Esser, P Van Staalduinen, A C Tas


Cellular and fractural failure after supercritical fluid impregnation of four wood species
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10503
Supercritical fluids (SCFs) have been investigated for delivering biocides into sawn wood. Pressure differentials during treatment may exceed the compressive or tensile strength perpendicular to grain, creating a potential for transverse deformations that exceed elastic strain limits. Wood treated by SCF processing with CO2, a potential biocide carrier, was inspected macroscopically and microscopi...
M E Anderson, R J Leichti, J J Morrell


Wharf-borer a threat to stored archaeological timbers
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1560
Increased interest in marine archaeology has occured in recent years. Stored waterlogged archaeological timbers have been shown to be degraded by physical and microbial agents. In recent years a new threat has been highlighted, namely the wharf-borer Nacerdes melanura (L.). The objective of this paper is to outline studies of the morphology, biology, life-history and carbohydrate digestion by this...
A J Pitman, E B G Jones, A M Jones, M Rule


Fungal colonisation of the keelson and associated structures of a nineteenth century wooden frigate: Concepts of community structure and development
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10072
The early stages of microbial colonization and succession of wooden surfaces exposed to the sea have been extensively studied as have the community structures of archaeological timbers subjected to submergence and then retrieval from the sea. The frigate UNICORN, a largely intact 19th century wooden ship based in Dundee, Scotland, provides the microbial ecologist with a unique opportunity to study...
N A White, J W Palfreyman, G M Smith


Study of the degradation caused by micro-organisms in Pinus sp. waterlogged wood
1989 - IRG/WP 1411
So far, the different Centers are trying the restoration and the conservation of wood structures, coming from subaquatic archeological deposits, with interest from the historic - artistic point of view. The main objective of this paper has been the determination of the decay level of Pinus sp. wood coming from a roman ship (approximately 2000 years old), where we have analyzed their physical prope...
M T De Troya, M C Escorial, J Garcia, A Cabanas


Development of a disinfection treatment for oak logs to be imported from the USA
1984 - IRG/WP 3283
The European veneer industry depends greatly on oak supplies from the USA. To prevent the accidental introduction of the American Oak Wilt Disease (Ceratocystis fagacearum) into the member states of the EC, a disinfection treatment was developed for oak logs under consideration of the technical requirements of veneer production. Laboratory experiments and field trials in Germany and in the USA sho...
W Liese, M M Ruetze


Ultrastructure of Prumnopitys ferruginea wood from a buried forest in New Zealand
1991 - IRG/WP 1489
The buried wood of Prumnopitys ferruginea, a New Zealand native tree, was examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy to investigate the extent to which the wood had deteriorated and the cause of its deterioration. Examinations showed that some deterioration of wood had occurred. Microscopy revealed a decay pattern similar to that produced by cavitation bacteria. Lenticular cavities ...
A P Singh, T Nilsson, G F Daniel


Micromorphology of oak wood degraded by brown rot fungus Coniophora puteana
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10356
To characterize the degradation of hardwood by brown rot fungus, Coniophora puteana was incubated on the wood blocks of Quercus accutissima. For comparison, the same fungus was also incubated on the pine wood blocks of Pinus densiflora. In softwood, the shape of the wood cells and thickness of the cell appeared unchanged even the loss of birefringence in the affected areas. In contrast, oak wood d...
Yoon Soo Kim, Seung-Gon Wi, Kwang-Ho Lee


Northern oak wood and its damages in Iran
1988 - IRG/WP 1377
The Northern oak species of Iran designated Quercus castaneaefolia C.A.M. is distributed widely in caspian littoral. In natural conditions (healthy) has favourable quality and it is used mostly in rural construtions, sleepers, parquets, cross arms for electric and communication poles, it is used also indoor and window construction, benches and finally veneer. This wood in the case of sleepers and ...
D Parsapajouh, P Niloufari


Information from the COIPM wood group. (With Appendix: Préserver les matériaux en milieu marin sauvegarder l'environment marin telles sont la vocation et la mission du C.O.I.P.M.)
1989 - IRG/WP 4156
During the last COIPM Meeting, up to date information on cooperative work to test the resistance of plastic wrapping for pilings were submitted and discussed. In 1986 untreated wood samples wrapped with shrinkable polyolefin sleeves were submerged in 9 stations, situated in temperate and tropical waters. After 1 or 2 years of immersion the samples showed no sign of penetration by marine borers and...
A Gambetta


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