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Visual assessment of longitudinal wheel timbers and assessing the feasibility of extending wheel timber service life in the UK railway network
2019 - IRG/WP 19-20651
Timber has been a versatile building material for centuries and during the start of the Railway Age in the nineteenth century it was in considerable demand for use in the railway network, particularly bridge building. Timber is still in service and widely used throughout the UK railway network. The resilience and favourable strength to weight ratio and its relative ease of fabrication make it an attractive material for use in the network. Longitudinal wheel timbers are used extensively to carry track in situations where it is desirable to reduce the weight of bridges and in locations where the depth of the structure prevents the use of ballasted track. Most wheel timbers in the UK comprise creosoted Douglas fir, southern pine or European redwood and to a lesser extent, naturally durable tropical hardwoods. Wheel timbers installed post-2003 tend to comprise softwoods treated with aqueous borne ‘copper/organic’ formulations. Concerns about the effects of fungal decay and non-standardised inspection regimes are problematic. Managing the network is complex and imposes high and often conflicting demands on infrastructure asset managers. Effective asset management within a safety critical sector is an essential discipline and it is the variable nature of timber that presents significant management challenges. This paper summarises a possible strategy to improve the examination and assessment of wheel timbers and assesses the feasibility of extending service life of wheel timbers exhibiting signs of localised decay. This approach may deliver more effective asset management of timber assets.
J R Williams


Management of the wood and additives wastes in the wood processing industries: Problematics and technical answers review
1996 - IRG/WP 96-50073
Management pathways for pure wood subproducts are well known and used; but as soon as additives like preservatives, glues, varnishes or coatings are present within the wood wastes, their disposal or valorization becomes more tricky. The different kinds of mixed wood wastes of the wood processing industries, from the sawmill to the furniture manufacture, are identified herewith and their diversity is examined. These wastes can be classified according to their danger characteristics, taking into account the type of additives, their concentration, their availability for the environment, the physical state of the waste. Different disposal pathways are then considered. Combustion, with the possibility of energetic valorization seems the best answer for a major part of these wastes. But this is only possible if good combustion conditions are defined, so that no harmful products are emitted. Moreover, these conditions must be affordable on the technical and economical point of view. Then, some wastes cannot be burned in such a simple way, and need a larger approach, which is presented in this document.
S Mouras, G Labat, G Deroubaix


Water-based wood preservatives for curative treatement of insect-infested spruce constructions
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30171
On laying down sanitation measures for wooden constructions infested by wood boring insects, we must take into account static risks for the construction - and, thus, for the security of the user - as well as risks for humans and environment due to the chemical preservative compounds of the treated wood. Analyses on many roof constructions made with spruce (Picea abies L.) have revealed that Hylotrupes bajulus L. and Anobium punctatum De Geer have not the significance given to them for decennies. That often allows to replace solvant-based with water-based wood preservatives in old buildings, for the protection of humans and environment. Therefore, a method has been developed in Switzerland for testing wood preservatives with delayed curative efficacy against the house longhorn beetle. Like the European Anobium Standard EN 370 this method intends to prevent the emergence of Hylotrupes beetles. Laboratory tests with diverse water-based wood preservatives available on the market in Switzerland have shown that particularly boron and benzoylphenylurea derivatives containing products get a sufficient penetration in the wood and prevent the emergence of the beetles.
E Graf, P Manser, B Lanz


Preservative-treated wood as a component in the recovered wood stream in Europe – A quantitative and qualitative review
2004 - IRG/WP 04-50218
Wood preservatives have been used for the protection of timber products in the European market in appreciable quantities for about 100 years. Between the 1960s up to the present day this usage has been particularly noticeable. The aim of this paper is to present quantitative and qualitative data on the volumes of preservative treated wood placed on the market in the UK and Sweden and to evaluate the expected quantities of preservative treated wood coming out of service and into the ‘recovered’ wood stream in the future. Data are presented from a case-study in the UK on CCA (copper, chromium, arsenic) treated timber and projections on likely amounts of this entering the recovery stream up to 2061. It is estimated that in the UK in 2001 approximately 62,000m3 of CCA-treated wood required disposal and that this could rise to about 870,000m3 by 2061. The proportion of CCA-treated timber in all post consumer waste wood in the UK is predicted to rise from about 0.9% in 2001, to about 12.3% in 2061 representing a substantial component of the post-consumer wood stream. In Sweden statistics have been compiled for production of preservative treated wood for many years. The preservatives used for waterborne treatments have also changed significantly over the last 10 years from a dominant role for CCA to alternative, As-free systems. It is estimated that preservative treated wood will represent on average about 5% of the recovered wood flow in Sweden over the next 25-30 years and that this will represent an appearance of about 8000 tonnes of As, 7000 tonnes of Cu and 6500 tonnes of Cr. These data and the possible disposal options for CCA and similar treated wood are considered in a life-cycle thinking context.
R J Murphy, P Mc Quillan, J Jermer, R-D Peek


Some biological observations on the management of preservativion experiments with submerged timber in the marine environment
1976 - IRG/WP 421 E
P Deschamps


Trends in environmental management in industry. Implications for wood preservation activities
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-34
J A De Larderel


The use, approval and waste management of industrial wood preservatives. A preliminary report
1994 - IRG/WP 94-50033
The structure on the wood preservation through the world is heterogenous. Environmental legislation, approval policy and application practices differ in each geographical region and in individual countries. This preliminary report gives a rough estimation of the production of treated timber, the use of wood preservatives and a bief summary of environmental status of wood impregnation in selected countries.
A J Nurmi


Disposal of treated wood - Canada
1990 - IRG/WP 3563
It is estimated that treated wood removed from service each year in Canada contains about 16,000 tonnes of creosote, 1000 tonnes of pentachlorophenol and 245 tonnes of CCA or ACA. The amount of CCA treated wood for disposal is expected to increase more than ten-fold by the year 2020. At present, most treated wood is disposed of in landfills, burned (creosote only) or recycled as other products. Other approaches to reduction, reuse, recycling and disposal are discussed.
P A Cooper


Migration of Metals from Douglas-fir Lumber Treated with ACZA or Pentachlorophenol Using Best Management Practices: Preliminary Tests
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-4
The potential for migration of preservative components from ammoniacal copper zinc arsenate (ACZA) and pentachlorophenol treated Douglas-fir lumber in non-soil contact exposure was assessed in a simulated rainfall device. Metal levels from ACZA treated wood were elevated for the first 30 minutes of rainfall and then declined sharply. Repeated cycles of rainfall led to declines in initial metal losses suggesting that surface metals were gradually depleted from the wood. Penta losses were also initially high, but then declined at rates related to rainfall level. The results suggest that preservative losses from treated wood in above ground exposures can be predicted.
J J Morrell, Hua Chen, J Simonsen


Wood preservation in Kenya
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40191
Current research on wood preservation in Kenya is mainly on the development of biological control of wood-destroying termite species, using mycoinsecticides. The major research institutions include the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI), Kenya Forestry Research Institute (KEFRI), Moi University and the International Centre for Insect Physiology (ICIPE). Training institutions include Forestry Training College, Forest Products Training Institute and Moi University. A number of publications, mostly an biological control of termites, are available and they range from workshop and conference proceedings to theses and journal publications. Wood-destroying termite species include several genera in Macrotermitidae and one drywood termite genus. Wood preservation facilities are available in Kenya, mainly for assorted timber products, sleepers and utility poles. The major preservatives used are CCAs, PCP and Creosote oil. There are still no set standards, specifications and requirements for wood preservatives and little, if any information exists on the marketing aspects of wood preservatives. The yet to be established Industrial Chemicals Act and the recently introduced Environmental Management and Coordination Bill (1999) may be able to handle regulatory, environmental, health and safety aspects of wood preservation in Kenya.
G Ochiel


Waste management of wood products in life cycle assessment
2000 - IRG/WP 00-50154
Within the framework of the European project LIFE SYS WOOD (contractnr. FAIR CT95-7026) TNO has performed a study on the waste management of wood demolition waste for inclusion in Life Cycle Assessment. In LIFE SYS WOOD one of the main aims was to develop a consistent LCA methodology for wood products. LCA case studies have been performed by partners on wood as raw material, glulam contructions, OSB and plywood roof constructions, window frames, a CCA-treated fence and multi-layer parquet flooring. For the relevant European countries involved contributions to this study of all research partners (EMPA, Imperial College, NTI, Traetek and VTT) have been included, on the composition of the wood waste, on the state of the art of waste management techniques and regulations, and the estimated mix of waste treatment options. The approach in consistently handling final waste management of wood products in LCA and some results are summarised in this paper. For several wood products it has been concluded, that the waste stage has a very significant impact on the LCA results.
P Esser, P Eggels, A Voss


Cleaner prodiction and the wood preserving industry
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-29
H Carr-Harris, C R Coggins


The first two years of an area wide management program for the Formosan subterranean termite in the French Quarter, New Orleans, Louisiana
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10357
The Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus, is a serious pest in several parts of the world and is the most destructive insect in Louisiana. The density of the Formosan subterranean termite in the French Quarter, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA is very high. A large area pilot test for area wide management of this insect was begun in 1998 in the French Quarter to reduce densities of termites and demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach of treating all properties in a large area using area wide management. The pilot test is a cooperative effort between the LSU Agricultural Center, USDA-Agricultural Research Service and New Orleans Mosquito and Termite Control Board. All but four of 323 properties in a contiguous 15 block area in the French Quarter were treated using commercially available baits or non repellent termiticides selected by property owners and applied by professional pest control operators. Properties were inspected for conducive conditions and proper treatment after treatments were made. Data on termite activity were collected using glue boards for alates and in ground monitors for foraging activity. Alates were sampled two to three times weekly during the flight season (May through July 15) in both 1998 and 1999 using glue boards hung near lamps on street lights. Monthly monitoring of foraging activity began in January, 1999 to determine the number of stations with termites and amount of wood consumed. Reductions in densities of alates between years were not found; probably as a result of the limited time treatments had been in place. The percentage of in ground monitoring stations with termites was lower in the treated zone than outside the treated zone after September 1999. Continued treatment and monitoring are required to determine the extent of and the long term effects of the area wide management program.
D R Ring, A L Morgan, W D Woodson, A R Lax, X P Hu, E D Freytag, L Mao


Restriction for use and waste management for pressure treated wood - The current situation in Norway
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50175
The Norwegian Environmental Authorities have this winter sent out a draft on restrictions in production and use of heavy metals in preservative treated timber. If it is passed, it will lead to drastic changes in the use of preservatives in Norway from this autumn. The environmental authorities and the preservative industry are both at present discussing waste management for CCA and creosote treated wood.
F G Evans


Survey of maintenance management of a residence
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10405
The following points were clarified from the responses to the questionnaire. Termite damage was most common in the bathroom, washroom, and entrance, in that order. Termite damage was most commonly found beneath floors, followed by floor surfaces, and inside walls, in that order. Damage in framing was minimal. Damage in all structural components was most common in the Kyushu region, with the most significant difference with other regions being the higher frequency of damage in framing. Damage beneath floors was common in all regions. It is thought that the differences in the extent of damage between regions is due the difference in the types of termite prevalent in each region; 37% of respondents operating in regions infested with both Coptotermites formosanus Shiraki and Reticulitermes speratus reported damage in framing, whereas only 9% of respondents operating in regions infested with only Reticulitermes speratus reported framing damage. In the Kyushu region, more than 60% of respondents reported damage in framing, indicating considerable variation in the site of damage between regions. Termite damage to thermal insulation was reported by 77% of respondents, with such damage occurring throughout the country. Damage reported to be most common in expanded polystyrene insulation, however damage to other types was also reported and it is apparent that all types of thermal insulation are subject to termite damage. The number of houses designed for energy efficiency through the use of high thermal efficiency insulation and airtight construction is expected to increase, and in order to extend the life of housing under these conditions in terms of termite damage, it is desirable that procedures for maintenance management be investigated for each region to ensure that thermal insulation is of the appropriate type, and is appropriately installed, to minimize termite damage.
Y Yamaguchi, M Azuma, Y Hikita, K Nishimoto


Risk reduction from curative treatments, restoration and maintenance of building and individual housing - simple precautions that make the difference
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-15
This document explores the potentialities of risk reduction, from activities of remediation in construction, developped at small scale by professionals or individuals on targets like moulds, rots, termites and other wood destroying insects, with products distributed for professional or do-it-yourself purposes. At the first stage, an inventory of the type / interest of products / processes is carried out, with the identification of the sequences, including the fate of wastes and the resulting exposure for the compartments of interest. For health aspects, a crude practical evaluation of the exposure of direct receptors, operators, and indirect ones, inhabitants and the public in the vicinity, to the pathologies and their remediation, seems possible. This exercise aims to provide the users of products with the minimum set of tools and criteria of direct exposure assessment, prior to their use, based on available documentation, regulation and warnings. The best case occurs with the access to material safety data sheets and the corresponding labelling. Per default, they take available products from the shelf (approved for marketing or restricted use, doses, conditions of application), with the support of suppliers and local requirements. Regular training is one way of progress, the obligation of result with procedures adapted to the site of the building and its own exposure, another route of improvement. As works in this field are often non typical, there is still room for the optimisation of individual options, based on experience, to locate the necessary dose and performance at the right place. Description and examples are provided.
G Ozanne


Traitement des matériaux lignocellulosiques en présence des composés halogénés (Risques toxiques des produits de combustion)
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-17
From the point of view of the combustion products toxicity, the highest environmental hazard comes from the combustion of materials creating toxic products such as dioxins and dilbenzofurans. 95% of these are formed during incineration of different materials. The aromatics result essentially from the products of paper industry and from wood treatment. Formation of halogenated products during the combustion of materials on the wood basis (papers, cartons, packing materials, wood treated, et c.) in the presence of halogenated compounds (PVC, PVDC, halogenated salts) is very complex. From the point of view of the toxic products formation, there is necessary to examine not only the influence of the polymer structure and the structure of halogenated compounds, but also oxygen concentration, temperature, ions, radicals and another components present in the flame. For the formation of chlorinated dioxins and dibenzofurans is essential that the polymer is able to generate the compounds with benzoic character as the intermediates. The examples of such precursors can be phenol formaldehyde polycondensates, various types of wood products, some polyesters and epoxy resins, but also polyvinyl chloride and polyvinliden chloride, combustion products of whose are aromatic structures.
I Surina, M Slimak, S Vodny, A Périchaud, K Balog


Introduction to keynote: Perspective in urban termite biology and management in Southeast Asia
2012 - IRG/WP 12-10786
This keynote lecture will provide a perspective on the pest status of termites in Southeast Asia, the damages they cause to the urban structures, important biological and behavioural characteristics, detection methods and the various management strategies available.
Chow-Yang Lee


Feasibility study for a dedicated pressure treated wood waste management system
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-22
For the creosote treated wood coming out of service, it has been estimated an amount of 200 000 t per year for the next twenty years, and 100 000 t per year afterwards. With a limited number of actors, mainly SNCF (as producer and as user), no importations, and available energy recovery options, it appears possible for setting a dedicated wood waste management system, if the SNCF agrees to. For the CCA treated wood, the amount of it coming out of service will increase and will be much more important, reaching about 400 000 t per year. For setting a voluntary dedicated waste management system might be much more difficult, because the importation is very important (about 50%), the margin of product low and the actors and users are numerous. Over the answer of the question on the feasibility for setting a dedicated pressure treated wood waste management system, this study must allow also define the priority actions to improve the pressure treated wood waste management.
C Cornillier, I Buda, E Heisel, G Labat


Management of treated wood waste in Canada - Technical and regulatory solutions
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-15
A major problem facing the wood preservation industry in Canada is the management of wastes. This refers to wastes generated during the treatment process as well as waste treated wood that is removed from service. The volume of oil borne preservative treated industrial products to be removed from service in Canada over the next 20 years is expected to be fairly constant at approximately 350,000 to 400,000 cubic metres (m3) per year. On the other hand CCA treated removals will increase from 112,000 m3 in the year 2000 to approximately 480,000 m3 in 2020. Current management practices for industrial product removals are reuse, recycling as wood and fibre, energy recovery in industrial combustion systems and land filling. The expected increase in the volume of waste CCA-treated industrial material represents a major disposal challenge. The volume of CCA treated consumer products to be removed from service over the next 20 years is expected to increase dramatically from approximately 75,000 m3 in the year 2000 to in excess of 1 million m3 in 2020. At present, the only practical disposal methods for this material are land filling and limited reuse. For the foreseeable future, management practices such as reuse, recycling and energy recovery in industrial combustion systems such as large power boilers and cement kilns, appear to be practical and economically feasible for oil borne preservative-treated products. Furthermore, the owners of these products are motivated to pursue responsible disposal methods in order to avoid the increasing cost of land filling. In the case of CCA-treated consumer products, the waste material is widely distributed in residential areas. Individual homeowners have no commitment to responsible disposal and in fact, in many cases, may not even be aware that they have CCA-treated wood on their property. The identification, collection, storage and disposal of this material represent major problems due to the growth in volume that is forecasted. This paper presents the current situation that the wood preservation sector is facing in Canada with respect to the management of wastes and discusses both the technical and regulatory options that are being explored and implemented.
B Munson


Utility pole recycling and disposal in Eastern Canada
1990 - IRG/WP 3587
Increasing public awareness, prompted by environmental groups such as Greenpeace, concerning the use and disposal of treated wood is becoming a serious issue in Canada. Producers and user groups of treated Pentachlorophenol (PCP) utility poles are at the forefront of public, government and media attention. If, as expected, further limitations on the use and disposal of PCP by the public are imposed, the producers and users of this material will have to find alternative means of the means of pole disposal.
S D Henry


Forest management policies and timber supplies in British Columbia
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10244
British Columbia has a huge wealth of timber resources, currently exceeding 7 billion m3 of mature timber on about 43 million ha classified as productive forest lands. That land area also supports a current volume of over 2 billion m3 of timber in immature stands. How much of the volume will be made available as an annual timber supply for the forest industry is dependent upon a set of policies governing timber harvest regulation, including social decisions on land and resource allocations, such as parks, and required resource management practices, such as environmental protection measures. These policies are considered by the province's Chief Forester along with detailed inventory data when determining an Allowable Annual Cut for each sustained-yield management unit. This paper provides an overview of timber harvest regulation in British Columbia and examines some of the major policy initiatives affecting timber supplies. Results of the recent Timber Supply Review are presented, along with a forecast of timber supply trends over the next several decades. Opportunities for increasing future supplies are identified.
R B Addison


Options for termite management using the insect pathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10142
The insect pathogenic hyphomycete fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin is promising as a biological insecticide for many species of subterranean termites. In Australia, a survey of termite mounds and feeding sites using a selective medium showed that this fungus is widespread but rarely causes mortality of termites under natural conditions. One isolate, codenamed FI610, has been selected for detailed field trials on the basis of its high virulence for a range of termite species and efficacy at high temperatures. Various options for using this fungus as a biological insecticide are now being evaluated in the field. These include: (1) Direct treatment of termite nests. As little as one gram of pure conidia may suffice for control depending on correct application of the formulation and the time of year in which it is carried out. Spores persist for at least two years in the nest; (2) Spraying directly onto and/or into timber structures to protect at least for a certain period against termite damage, relying on the repellency of the conidia to Australian species of termite; (3) Mixing of conidia into soil to create a barrier around timber structures. Depending on circumstances over two years protection of timber has been achieved in SE Australia; (4) Use of the fungus as the controlling agent in bait systems. The major factor limiting the efficacy of Metarhizium anisopliae especially in baiting systems is the behavioural response of healthy termites to the applied fungal conidia, to foraging termites carrying conidia and to termites infected with the disease.
R J Milner, J A Staples, M Lenz


Growth of selected wood decay fungi on various agar-supplemented media
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10456
The growth rates of a selection of wood decay fungi (brown and white rots) on various agar-supplemented media have been determined and compared. The agar media investigated were Malt extract agar (MEA), Potato dextrose agar (PDA), YMPG agar (yeast extract, malt extract, bacto-peptone, glucose, asparagine and thiamine), YMPG agar (without amino acids) and Beech wood powder agar (BWA). The tested wood decay fungi were Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Phanerochaete sordida, Trametes versicolor, Bjerkandera adusta, Antrodia vaillantii and Leucogyrophana pinastri. The results obtained show that growth rates of the white rot decay fungi were higher than the brown rot decay fungi on all the tested nutrient agar media. The highest growth rates of the fungi (white and brown rots) were obtained on YMPG agar medium and the lowest on beech wood agar. Growth rates of all the fungi on malt extract agar and potato dextrose agar were comparable. Finally, both brown rot decay fungi showed biphasic growth on the beech wood agar.
S A Amartey, M Humar, F Pohleven


Scandinavian experience – 25 years’ experience in transforming used creosoted wood into bio-fuel
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-18
Swedish experiences show that the best and most efficient way to handle the creosoted wood waste is through combustion. The preparation of creosoted waste wood to fuel chips at IQR AB’s plant in Trollhättan is done by splinting the wood according to a special method. Mainly railroad sleepers, but also other wooden commodities, from all over Europe are delivered to the plant. The wood material is crushed in a number of steps to achieve the appropriate size of the chips. The wooden chips are then delivered to combustion facilities in Sweden. The PAH emissions can be kept at a low level due to good mixing, high temperature and a high retention time in the furnace.
T Karlström


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