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The results of detection on CCA components of the soils contacted with CCA-treated woods - A trial study for the availability of the burial Method as a disposal CCA treated wood waste
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50005
The objecteve of this experiment is to get a knowledge that, when CCA treated wood wastes were buried in a soil as a disposal, the soil would be or not be contaminated by the components of CCA preservatives in wood wastes. The specimens used were cutting logs and chips made of the CCA treated electric pole waste. The soil was buried to the 15 cm depth and the log specimens were set in the soil for parallel direction to the ground line. The chips specimens were placed in the bottomless boxes which were set on the ground floor at 20 cm depth under the ground line. The soil samples were taken from where were directly contacted with the specimens and from where were the nearest places apart from the specimens and were analyzed for CCA components after 6 months and after 6 years since these installation. The results were summerlized as follows. The levels of CCA components in the soil where were directly contacted with the specimens were slightly increased. However that in the soil where were collected over 5 cm far from the specimens were not increased. Therefore, the CCA components in the woods were not contaminated to the soil where were over 5 cm far from the specimens. According to our results, we can consider that the burial method for the disposal of CCA treated wood wastes was an avalable method and also practical possiblity to prevent from environmental contamination.
K Suzuki, H Sonobe

Bamboo: A Material Rediscovered
2006 - IRG/WP 06-10577
Bamboo has resurfaced as a valuable raw material as an inexpensive substitute for wood and a variety of value added products for engineered composites. Being a fast growing material available in the tropics, its real value was not realized until recently. Property evaluation studies and efforts to develop processing methods were initiated in the bamboo growing countries in the nineteenth century. Being available almost free its use was limited to handicrafts, paper and low cost housing in rural and tribal areas around the world. These areas having very little access to the developed world developed their own tradition methods to use bamboo for different application. Shortage of wood helped in rediscovery of bamboo. With its recognition as a wonderful material having fastest growth rates, many bamboo-growing nations have chalked out ambitious plans to promote its utilization and raise plantations to relieve pressure on forests. Government of India has initiated an elaborate program to promote bamboo. National Mission on Bamboo Applications an initiative of the Department of Science &Technology, Government of India plans to establish 10 common facility cum training centers in bamboo rich states to realize real value from this versatile material, neglected so far. This paper is intended to bring out the developments featuring processing of bamboo and its utilization in the first half of the 20th century. An update covering the later half of the 20th century will be covered later.
S Kumar

Laboratory Studies on Copper Availability in Wood Treated with Soluble Amine Copper and Micronized Copper Systems
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30489
A laboratory method has been employed to investigate the level of soluble copper in wood treated with various copper-based preservative systems, such as micronized copper (particulate copper) and amine copper solutions. This report describes the methodology and preliminary results on determination of the soluble copper in the treating solutions and the treated wood by these systems, as well as the potential impact on performance of such systems against wood decay fungi.
L Jin, P Walcheski, A Preston

Distribution and availability of preservative components in ACQ treated wood - effects of coatings and weathering
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30537
Copper and quaternary ammonium compound (quat) distributions across lumber (gradients) and availability, as measured by amount removed by intensive leaching of wood flour, were measured in ACQ treated southern pine lumber. Samples were evaluated just after treatment and stabilization, or after 3 years of laboratory storage, or after 3 years of natural weathering exposure. The objective was to investigate how the distributions of copper, quat and monoethanolamine (MEA) changed under different exposure conditions to try to explain the long terms effects of semi-transparent wood coatings to reduce leaching, even after partial failure of the coatings. In unweathered lumber, there was a slight copper gradient from the surface to the interior of the lumber and a steeper quat gradient. Analysis of specimens after 3 years of weathering exposure confirmed the effectiveness of the coatings to reduce copper and quat leaching and showed that quat leaching from uncoated samples was substantial. There was little effect of aging indoors on availability of ACQ components. However, the availability of copper was significantly reduced after 3 years of natural exposure, even after accounting for the copper that leached during weathering. It was observed that the MEA availability was greatly reduced, presumably by preferential leaching compared to copper and quat during weathering. This appears to have reduced the amount of soluble/available copper resulting in lower long term copper leaching, especially in coated samples that were protected from high copper losses by the effect of the coating. The reduced quat leaching from coated samples is attributed to the long term effectiveness of the coatings in the earlywood portions of the samples.
T Ung, M Nejad, P Cooper

Studies on Effect of pH on Copper Availability in Copper-Based Preservatives
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30549
Laboratory methods have been employed to investigate the pH effect on the copper solubility of basic copper carbonate. The pH was controlled using two different approaches. One was with the adjustment of pH of the solutions by acid or base using sulfuric acid or sodium hydroxide until the solution equilibriums were obtained for each defined pH. A second approach was to control pH with buffer solutions to provide the designated pH range. Differences in copper solubility at the same pH with these two approaches were observed. The results generated from this study are compared with previously presented data and are discussed in terms of the influence of methodology, potential interactions of component(s) and the effect of the pH control agents.
L Jin, P Walcheski, A F Preston