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Comparison of various types of bait containers designed to aggregate large numbers of foraging subterranean termites from natural populations in below-ground mound colonies
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10116
At Walpeup in the semi-arid mallee country of north-west Victoria (350 km from Melbourne), there are several indigenous subterranean termite species, none of which build above-ground mound colonies but build their colonies below-ground and/or in trees. This paper describes a baiting experiment in which three types of bait containers were compared in their ability to aggregate large numbers of foraging subterranean termites of the Coptotermes species. These species were targeted as they are considered the most economically important termite "pests" of wood and wood products in Australia. The area was pre-baited with radiata pine timbers that were buried just below the surface of the soil and located around trees and vegetation that were infested with Coptotermes species. After foraging termites had located and attacked the pre-baits, the various types of bait containers were installed on top of the infested pre-bait material. Bait containers were removed after five weeks and each was replaced by fresh bait containers. This occurred three times. All bait containers were transported to our laboratory in Melbourne and the mass of aggregated termites in each container weighed and wood consumption estimated. Bait containers that were half buried in the ground and covered with large plastic sheets and soil proved the most "attractive" of the various containers used in this field experiment. Also, the wood consumption rates of the two Coptotermes species collected from the field were compared in laboratory bioassays.
J R J French, B M Ahmed


Laboratory evaluation comparing three commercial termite baits based on chitin synthesis inhibitor (CSIs) against the subterranean termites Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt) and Mastotermes darwiniensis Froggatt
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10625
This laboratory bioassay report describes laboratory evaluation undertaken to compare the efficacy, and palatability of Requiem®, Nemesis® and Sentricon® AG as candidate bait toxicants against the subterranean termites Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt) and Mastotermes darwiniensis Froggatt. The laboratory bioassay results confirmed palatability and efficacy differences between the three commercial bait toxicants. Requiem® is the most palatable of the bait toxicants, while Nemesis® caused higher mortality rate with less bait substrate consumed.
B Ahmed


Physical barriers and bait toxicants: The Romeo and Juliet of future termite control
1991 - IRG/WP 1503
Soil chemical barriers are considered by some to be the most important technique for protecting buildings against subterranean termites in Australia (and elsewhere), providing a barrier against termite penetration. However, there is no such thing as a barrier that is 100 per cent +protective. And given the worldwide problems of using organochlorine termiticides, public awareness of chemical pollution and contamination to the environment, emphasis on physical barriers has been refocussed. In the event of such barriers being penetrated, the use of suitable bait systems and toxicants is considered a fruitful "back-up" strategy in future termite control measures. Such a system is environmentally friendly, has wide public acceptance, and readily marketable.
J R J French


Evidence supporting the use of termite baiting systems for long-term structural protection
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10377
The efficacy of the Sentricon Colony Elimination System containing Recruit II termite bait (0.5% hexaflumuron) in controlling active subterranean termite infestations has been demonstrated in numerous studies. This baiting system and other termite baiting systems are now widely used, and generally accepted, tools for remedial termite control in North America, Hawaii, and other parts of the world. The role of baiting systems in prevention of termite damages and long-term structural protection, however, is more controversial than their use in remedial control. We discuss three lines of evidence in support of the use of baits for long-term structural protection: (1) successful control of termite populations with baits in remedial studies allows a conceptual leap to preventative efficacy, since baits target colonies and populations and cannot be evaluated directly for prevention in the manner of soil insecticide barriers; (2) field and laboratory studies demonstrate that termite colonies feed on multiple resources and continue to radiate outward from each of those resources in search of additional food, increasing the likelihood of rapid bait discovery; and (3) results of our long-term field studies over the past decade demonstrate that newly invading termites will reuse existing galleries in the soil left by earlier colonies that lead to monitoring stations, were detected in monitoring stations, and were subsequently eliminated without any noticeable evidence of structural infestation or damage.
J K Grace, N-Y Su


Trials on the field control of the Formosan subterranean termite with Amdro® bait
1982 - IRG/WP 1163
Amdro® - treated paper towels were introduced into two field colonies of the Formosan subterranean termite in Hawaii. At the concentration of 180 ppm, the toxicant bait was ineffective one month after the introduction. At higher concentrations (> 6,400 ppm), the baits were eaten initially; however, one week after introduction, termites avoided or covered the baits. The 15,000 ppm baits supressed the activity of one colony but did not affect the other.
N-Y Su, M Tamashiro, J R Yates III


A method for screening termite baits using Coptotermes lacteus mounds
1984 - IRG/WP 1237
A method with several variations designed to rapidly screen potential bait substrates using Coptotermes lacteus mounds is described. The equipment used in this method is relatively inexpensive, readily prepared in the laboratory, and easily installed into active mounds in the field. Bait substrates are in continuous contact with a 'high termite hazard', and may be monitored with minimum interference to the termites.
J R J French, P J Robinson


Controlling Coptotermes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) infestations in buildings with bait boxes
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10372
This paper describes the results of a commercial pest control operators use of the CSIRO bait box procedure in controlling infestations within buildings of subterranean termites ('termites') of the genus Coptotermes. Polystyrene bait boxes (480 x 330 x 210 mm3) were filled with alternate layers of corrugated cardboard and kiln-dried hardwood strips of Eucalyptus regnans F. Meull. (mountain ash). A viewing port at one end of each box allowed for the operator, or the clients, to check the presence of termites in the bait box. On discovering termite activity in the box, a dust toxicant (arsenic trioxide) was applied to the aggregated individuals, and the dusted termites returned to the box, thus spreading the toxin to other members of the nest colony, leading to it's collapse. On average, the time from installation to aggregating termites was about 4-6 weeks. Of the seventy-four boxes installed since 1994, sixty-six boxes were placed inside buildings, while eight boxes were positioned around buildings. Most were placed within buildings in the sub-floor areas, and alongside termite-infested skirting boards and architraves within slab-on-ground constructions. Other boxes were placed in cupboards, on top of termite-infested flooring, roof areas and on floors in garages. Eighty-five percent of the boxes lured termites, while 13% failed to lure any termites. Of those boxes with termites, there was a 82% success rate using arsenic trioxide as the dust toxicant. Eradication of termite colonies was recorded when no further termite activity was found after 6-12 months. These results are discussed in relation to present and future termite control.
J R J French, T Boschma


Laboratory evaluation of chemicals as termiticides
1986 - IRG/WP 1293
Laboratory procedures are described for screening chemicals against subterranean termites. Fast-acting compounds with persistent termiticidal activity are identified in tests using a soil substrate, and slower-acting bait toxicants are evaluated in a series of tests using cellulose substrates.
S C Jones


Response of laboratory groups of Reticulitermes speratus (Kolbe) to different quantities of food
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10489
As part of a project aimed at improving understanding of the foraging biology of Japan’s most widespread wood-destroying termite, different sized groups of Reticulitermes speratus (0.5; 1 and 2 g) from two colonies were kept on 16 or 64 cm3 of sapwood of Cryptomeria japonica for 12 weeks in the laboratory. Patterns of wood consumption, wood consumption rates and survival are discussed.
M Lenz, T Yoshimura, K Tsunoda


Changes in the degree of decay of lignocellulosic substrate used in a screening test of fungicidal wood preservatives
1977 - IRG/WP 287
This report contains results of investigations aimed at: a) determination of the effect of the kind of substrate and species of test fungus on quantitative changes in used samples prepared from spruce cardboard, and b) comparison of the threshold fungicidal values of come fungicides determined with accelerated method, with values obtained by block method. During performed investigations, the method described in Document No.: IRG/WP/262 was used. Assesment of decomposition degree was based on the loss of weight and amount of NaOH consumption by the substrate.
K Lutomski


Evaluating the Exterra Termite Interception and Baiting System in Australia
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20267
The Exterraä Termite Interception and Baiting System (Ensystex Inc., Fayetteville, NC) was evaluated in a field experiment near Townsville, Australia. Cellulose-acetate powder containing either 0.05% weight/weight (w/w) or 0.25% w/w chlorfluazuron (Requiemä) was tested for its efficacy in eradicating colonies of the mound-building subterranean termite Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt). Thirteen mounds were used. There was no evidence of repellence, but there was little feeding on replenished bait. Five colonies were eradicated by 0.05% w/w chlorfluazuron and five colonies by 0.25% w/w chlorfluazuron: another colony was moribund and eradication appeared imminent. Colony decline was first suspected some 12 weeks after bait application. Colony eradication was confirmed, by destructive sampling, about five weeks later. Indicators used to monitor colony health were reliable. A suite of urban trials, demonstrating the effectiveness of Exterra Requiem Termite Bait in controlling a wide range of subterranean termite species throughout mainland Australia, is presented and discussed.
B C Peters, S Broadbent


Differences in feeding activity among colonies of Formosan subterranean termite Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki
1983 - IRG/WP 1202
Feeding activities of 7 colonies of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were examined. Wood-consumption rates among colonies differed significantly, ranging from 23.80-78.48 mg/g/day. This large intraspecific variation raised a question of whether differences in feeding activity reported for other termite species were due to interspecific differences. When rates were expressed as mg wood consumed by one g termite per day (mg/g/day), termites of larger body weight appeared to consume less wood. This negative correlation, however, was not significant when rates were expressed as mg wood consumed by an individual per day (mg/worker/day).
N-Y Su, J P La Fage


Implications for comparability of laboratory experiments revealed in studies on the variability in survival and wood consumption between colonies of Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae
1983 - IRG/WP 1196
(Summary of paper 1193) Groups of Coptotermes acinaciformis, originating from six colonies, three taken from each of two localities, 1500 km apart, in northern Australia (Townsville, Darwin) were kept at population densities of 0.005, 0.01 and 0.02 g termites/mL. Survival and wood consumption of the groups after 8 weeks followed a similar pattern in the colonies from both collection areas. Groups were least vigorous at the lowest population density; their performance reached a maximum at a population density of 0.01 g/mL. The subsequent decline in vigour was less marked as the highest population density was approached. However, the actual values for survival and wood consumption varied widely between colonies, irrespective of their origin. It is recommended that in all laboratory experiments which use survival and wood consumption as indicators of termite vigour, controls of a favourable as well as an unfavourable food type are included which would serve to monitor the vigour of the termites. Results from termite sources whose vigour falls below a certain threshold value would have to be treated with caution and could not be used in definative data, as e.g. in defining critical retentions of wood preservatives.
M Lenz


Inventaire des "déchets" ou produits connexes de la filière bois
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-33
G Marcotte


Studies on the infesting behaviour of the Formosan termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and its physical control
1983 - IRG/WP 1174
An outline of termite damage to buildings in Japanese National Railways, wood-infesting behavior, attacked traces in PVC-sheathed cables by termites, detection method of termites and the physical control method of the Formosan termite are given in the present paper.
K Yamano


Reticulitermes (Ins., Isopt.) in Central and Western Europe
1969 - IRG/WP I 5A
Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) has established itself in Hamburg and Hallein coming from the east of North America. In France, on the northern boundary of termit occurrence, Reticulitermes santonensis are distinguished from Reticulitermes lucifugus by special activity and resistance. According to comparative investigations with colonies of several Reticulitermes species of different origins regarding the influence of temperature and soil moisture on the feeding activity and the viability of termite groups, Reticulitermes flavipes from Hamburg and one originating from Wisconsin (USA) show racial differences from the Hallein species originating from South Carolina. The first shows a daily rhythm of activity and are strong gallery builders, while the two latter lack these properties. Certain morphological differences may be correlative to the two bio-ecological races of Reticulitermes flavipes. Reticulitermes santonensis shows biologically and ecologically far greater similarity with Reticulitermes flavipes from Hamburg and Wisconsin than with Reticulitermes lucifugus. The samples from La Rochelle have symbiotic flagellate species which were otherwise only found either with Reticulitermes lucifugus or with the American Reticulitermes species. Morphologically the species occupies an intermediate position. Reticulitermes santonensis is likely to be a hybrid of Reticulitermes flavipes and Reticulitermes lucifugus, with the properties of a vigorous hybrid. So far it has been impossible to explain why up to now only Reticulitermes flavipes was able to establish itself sporadically in Central and West Europe.
G Becker


Reticulitermes (Ins., Isopt.) in Mittel- und West-Europa
1969 - IRG/WP I 4
In Hamburg und Hallein hat sich Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) aus dem Osten von Nordamerika eingebürgert. An der Nordgrenze des Termitenvorkommens im Westen Frankreichs zeichnet sich Reticulitermes santonensis Fetaud gegenüber Reticulitermes lucifugus durch besondere Aktivität und Widerstandsfähigkeit aus. Nach vergleichenden Untersuchungen an Kolonien verschiedener Reticulitermes-Arten mehrerer Herkünfte über den Einfluß von Temperatur und Bodenfeuchtigkeit auf Fraßtätigkeit und Lebensfähigkeit von Termitengruppen weisen die Reticulitermes flavipes-Tiere von Hamburg und einer Herkunft aus Wisconsin (USA) gegenüber den Tieren von Hallein und einer Herkunft aus South-Carolina Rassenunterschiede auf. Die ersteren zeigen einen Tagesrhythmus der Aktivität und eine starke Galleriebautätigkeit, die den beiden letzten fehlen. Gewisse morphologische Unterschiede lassen sich den beiden ökologisch-biologischen Rassen von Reticulitermes flavipes zuordnen. Reticulitermes santonensis ähnelt biologisch und ökologisch Reticulitermes flavipes von Hamburg und Wisconsin weit mehr als Reticulitermes lucifugus. Die Tiere von La Rochelle besitzen symbiotische Flagellaten-Arten, die sonst nur entweder bei Reticulitermes lucifugus oder bei amerikanischen -Arten vorkommen. Morphologisch nimmt die Art eine Zwischenstellung ein. Reticulitermes santonensis dürfte eine Kreuzung aus Reticulitermes flavipes und Reticulitermes lucifugus mit Eigenschaften eines luxurierenden Bastards sein. Bisher läßt sich nicht erklären, warum sich bislang nur Reticulitermes flavipes vereinzelt in Mittel- und Westeuropa einbürgern konnte.
G Becker


Justification for use of mirex in termite control
1988 - IRG/WP 1346
In August 1987, organochlorines were withdrawn in North America from use in termite control. This has left the industry and the community with reduced options in long term protection of wood and wood products. A case is presented to justify the use of the slow-acting stomach termiticide, mirex, under special permit, for use only in the bait-block method of termite control. This method, while not acting like the organochlorines as a chemical barrier around newly constructed and existing buildings will, however, offer an alternative control measure in eradicating subterranean termites when buildings become infested by these insects. Health and safety aspects are discussed.
J R J French


Effects of methoprene on Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
1987 - IRG/WP 1322
Methoprene affected differentiation and survival of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki in laboratory studies. At 5, 9, 13, and 17 weeks, superfluous intercastes and presoldiers were produced when termites were allowed to feed on concentrations of 1,000 and 2,000 ppm methoprene in wood blocks. Colony numbers were significantly reduced after 13 and 17 weeks of exposure to the insect growth regulator. Termites are significantly less of the treated blocks than of the controls and sometimes physically sealed off the treated blocks, which suggests that some concentrations of methoprene may have slight antifeedant properties. Colonies varied in their responses to this chemical.
S C Jones


A method to evaluate the effeetiveness of bait application using a transferred nest of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20161
Although a survey of monitoring stations can tell us the decline of termite activity after application of baits, it seems questionable to conclude an eradication of a Whole colony of subterranean termites if the termites move out their foraging territory. Only reliable method to ensure the success of bait application is to determine the absence of living termites in their nest in accordance with a survey of monitoring stations. A nest of Coptotermes formosanus was first collected from the field and buried back into the soil with some wooden blocks in a test site. Monitoring stations were installed around the nest to examine termite activity. After termites settled down well, mark-release-recapture was applied to estimate foraging population and then bait application was initiated. When foraging activity ceased, the nest was dug out to find any live termites present. This technique allowed us to draw out a conclusion that baiting eliminated a whole colony of C. formosanus.
K Tsunoda, T Yoshimura, H Matsuoka, Y Hikawa


Susceptibility of softwood bait stakes to attack by subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20037
Sapwood stakes of Australian-grown Araucaria cunninghamii (hoop pine), Pinus elliotii (slash pine), Pinus radiata (radiata pine) and North American-grown Pinus sp. (southern yellow pine) were exposed to subterranean termite attack in an in-ground bioassay. Stakes in bait containers and bare stakes were attacked by Coptotermes acinaciformis and Schedorhinotermes intermedius. Basic susceptibility of these timbers was evaluated with regard to potential as termite monitoring devices. Variation between timbers and variation between termite species are described. The relevence of these data to suppressing foraging populations of subterranean termites, in Australia, using insect growth regulators, is discussed.
B C Peters, R T Murray, C J Fitzgerald


Laboratory bioassay on the termiticidal efficacy of two ACQ formulations
1999 - IRG/WP 99-30199
The termiticidal efficacy of two ammoniacal copper quaternary ammonium formulations (ACQ) was evaluated in a laboratory bioassay using two species of subterranean termites, Mastotermes darwiniensis Froggatt and Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt). Five retentions (1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 kg/m3 of active ingredient) of each ACQ formulation (MitrexACQ and ACQ97) were assessed in sapwood specimens of the softwood Pinus radiata D. Don and compared with the same retentions of the conventional benchmark preservative CCA (Tanalith C). All specimens (including controls) were subjected to an artificial weathering schedule prior to the bioassay. Under the conditions of the laboratory bioassay, both MitrexACQ and ACQ97 showed considerable potential as water-borne preservatives for preventing significant attack of P. radiata sapwood from two of Australia's most economically significant species of termite. At each of the retentions tested, MitrexACQ and ACQ97 performed comparably or better than equivalent retentions of CCA.
J W Creffield, A F Preston, N Chew


Preference of the Formosan subterranean termite for wood previously damaged by conspecifics
1988 - IRG/WP 1338
In a laboratory choice test, groups of termites from five colonies of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki were presented with wood blocks which had sustained previous termite damage: 1) by nestmates, 2) by conspecifics from another colony, 3) by another termite species, Reticulitermes virginicus Banks, and 4) no damage. Coptotermes formosanus preferred wood previously damaged by conspecifics over that damaged by Reticulitermes virginicus. Woodfeeding rate was slightly, though not significantly, higher for conspecific treatments than for controls.
J P La Fage, K S Delaplane


Colony elimination of Reticulitermes speratus (Kolbe) (Isoptera:Rhinotermitidae) by bait system
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10189
Following a two-year estimation of the foraging populations and territory of Reticulitermes speratus (Kolbe) by triple mark recapture program at Uji campus of Kyoto University, bait stations (commercialized products containing hexaflumuron) were set up in the foraging territory in October 1995 to eliminate the colony. Inspections demonstrated that the number of test stakes with foraging termites decreased after May 1996. No attack was finally observed in July 1996. As a later inspection in October 1996 reconfirmed no termite hits on any wooden stake in the foraging territory, the colony was considered to be eliminated by baits.
K Tsunoda, H Matsuoka, T Yoshimura, K Yamauchi


Field test results for the elimination of subterranean termite (Coptotermes formosanus) colonies by a bait system containing the IGR hexaflumuron
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10222
Field studies were conducted at Chichijima (Ogasawara Islands, Tokyo) to determine the effectiveness of a termite bait system (commercial name: Sentricon* system) containing hexaflumuron (Insect Growth Regulator: IGR) in the elimination of subterranean termite (Coptotermes formosanus) colonies. The level of subterranean termite activity on Ogasawara Islands is high resulting in extensive damage to wooden houses. In this study, 2 houses were established as monitoring/test sites. At each house 6 to 17 Sentricon stations were installed and fitted with monitoring devices made of the sap wood of southern yellow pine. When termites were found in the stations, the wooden monitoring devices were replaced with bait tubes containing a bait matrix treated with the IGR. Bait tube replacement occurred in approximately a 2-week cycle. Following the third replacement of bait tube, termites' feeding stopped and the bait tubes were replaced with wooden monitoring devices. The stations were attacked again by termites from a new colony 4 months after the elimination of the original colony. All feeding activities ceased in an additional 5 months of baiting. This termite reappearance seemed to be due to the high level of termite activity in Ogasawara Islands.
K Suzuki, Y Morita, K Yamauchi


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